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Philanthropists and Fund Raisers in American Higher Education


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Philanthropists and Fund Raisers in American Higher Education

  1. 2. Setting the Stage <ul><li>At death in 1638, John Harvard bequeathed library and half his estate to new school in Cambridge, Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1715-1718, Elihu Yale sends gifts to Collegiate School of Connecticut, which changes its name in his honor </li></ul><ul><li>In 1885, Stanford University chartered (opens in 1891) with gifts of unprecedented size by Leland Stanford </li></ul>
  2. 3. Philanthropic Triangle
  3. 4. Vanderbilt University <ul><li>Central University was chartered in 1872 by Methodist Episicopal Church, South </li></ul><ul><li>Project would found a university in the South, &quot;contribut[ing] to strengthening the ties which should exist between all sections of our common country.” </li></ul>Library of Congress Image, Old Main, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn..
  4. 5. Holland N. McTyeire <ul><li>American Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, elected in 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>Graduated from Randolph-Macon College in Virginia,1844 </li></ul><ul><li>Led church movement to establish &quot;an institution of learning of the highest order” </li></ul>Methodist Bishop Holland Nimmons McTyeire, 1875. United Methodist Publishing House
  5. 6. Holland N. McTyeire <ul><li>Cousin of the Commodore's young second wife </li></ul><ul><li>Recovered after medical treatment at Vanderbilt mansion in New York </li></ul><ul><li>Selected faculty, arranged curriculum and set university policies </li></ul><ul><li>Chose site for campus, supervised construction of buildings, personally planted trees </li></ul>Methodist Bishop Holland Nimmons McTyeire, 1875. United Methodist Publishing House
  6. 7. Cornelius Vanderbilt <ul><li>Born of poor Dutch peasants in 1794 </li></ul><ul><li>Grew from ferry-boy in New York Harbor to become shipping magnate </li></ul><ul><li>Was not a church member </li></ul><ul><li>Gave $500,000 in 1875; totaled $1 million by death in 1877 </li></ul><ul><li>Was his only major philanthropy </li></ul>Cornelius Vanderbilt. Half plate daguerreotype, gold toned. between 1844 and 1860. Produced by Mathew Brady's studio. Library of Congress.
  7. 8. Vanderbilt University <ul><li>Consisted of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one Main Building (now Kirkland Hall) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an astronomical observatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>professors' housing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landon C. Garland was Vanderbilt's first chancellor (1875-1893) </li></ul><ul><li>Methodist Episcopal Church, South oversaw from founding to June 1914 </li></ul>Library of Congress Image, Old Main, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn..
  8. 9. Frederick T. Gates <ul><li>Son of Baptist minister </li></ul><ul><li>U. Rochester, 1877; Rochester Theological Seminary, 1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Pastor, Central Baptist Church in Minneapolis until 1888 </li></ul><ul><li>First secretary of American Baptist Education Society: wrote report on Baptist colleges and need </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated a center of excellence in higher education to be located in Midwest, near industry </li></ul>Frederick T. Gates in 1922, at age 69. Rockefeller Archive Center.
  9. 10. John D. Rockefeller, Sr. <ul><li>Started Standard Oil Company in 1870, with family and others </li></ul><ul><li>First American billionaire </li></ul><ul><li>Retired by 1897 </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Baptist; paid tithing </li></ul>John D. Rockefeller in 1875.
  10. 11. John D. Rockefeller, Sr. <ul><li>Had supported Baptist schools with small gifts </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in the project of a new “super-university” </li></ul><ul><li>Looked at it with business perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Assured good leadership, selecting William Rainey Harper </li></ul><ul><li>Gave $600,000 to establish U. Chicago 1889 (eventually totals $40 million) </li></ul>John D. Rockefeller in 1885. Source: The Rockefeller Archive Center
  11. 12. A Unique Relationship <ul><li>“ Your fortune is rolling up, rolling up like an avalanche! You must keep up with it! You must distribute it faster than it grows! If you do not, it will crush you and your children and your children’s children! </li></ul><ul><li>— Frederick T. Gates, to John D. Rockefeller. Gates became Rockefeller’s philanthropic advisor at age 38 in 1891 </li></ul>
  12. 13. Gates: Advice on How to Raise Money
  13. 14. University of Chicago <ul><li>Founded by American Baptist Education Society </li></ul><ul><li>Land donated by Marshall Field, owner of department store </li></ul><ul><li>First classes on October 1, 1892 with 594 students and 120 faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Rockefeller: &quot;the best investment I ever made” </li></ul>The carillon tower of the Rockefeller Chapel at the University of Chicago. Greg Dunham.
  14. 15. Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research <ul><li>Gates read about disease-curing institute in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed to Rockefeller </li></ul><ul><li>Consulted leading medical figures </li></ul><ul><li>Staffed with best and brightest; $60 million </li></ul><ul><li>Now Rockefeller University, has produced Nobel laureates and major discoveries </li></ul>Rockefeller University, 2006.
  15. 16. General Education Board <ul><li>Most ambitious of Rockefeller’s philanthropic establishments; tens of millions of dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed to improve education in the post-Civil War South, especially for blacks </li></ul><ul><li>Tackled poverty to improve tax base to schools by developing agricultural innovation and training </li></ul><ul><li>Improved American medical education </li></ul>Front row, from left: Edwin A. Alderman, Frederick T. Gates , Charles W. Eliot , Harry Pratt Judson, Wallace Buttrick. Second row, from left: Wickliffe Rose, Hollis B. Frissell, John D. Rockefeller , Jr., E. C. Sage, Albert Shaw, Abraham Flexner . Third row, from left: George E. Vincent, Anson Phelps Stokes, Starr J. Murphy, Jerome D. Greene.
  16. 17. Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>Was telegrapher and invested in railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Founded Carnegie Steel Company, later U.S. Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Publishes “Wealth” in 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>Became major philanthropist and advocate of philanthropy </li></ul><ul><li>Supported libraries, universities, science, arts, music </li></ul>Andrew Carnegie. 1913. Marceau, of New York. Library of Congress.
  17. 18. Abraham Flexner <ul><li>In 1910, commissioned by Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching to investigate quality of 130 U.S. medical schools </li></ul><ul><li>Findings: inadequate laboratories, empty libraries, negligent faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended closing 100 schools; not fully implemented </li></ul>Abraham Flexner, 1953.
  18. 19. Observations <ul><li>It is all about relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Deep personal convictions, often religious in nature, are motivating factors </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement/interference in governance and administration is mixed </li></ul><ul><li>Do your homework about the cause, the benefactor, and the advocate </li></ul><ul><li>Try to solve the complex problems with simple answers </li></ul>
  19. 20. References <ul><li>Bremner, R.H. (1960). American philanthropy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Lucas, C.J. (1994). American higher education: A history. New York: St. Martin’s Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Marsden, G. (1994). The soul of the American university: From Protestant establishment to established nonbelief . New York: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Nielsen, W. (1996). Inside American philanthropy. London and Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Thelin, J.R. (2004). A history of American higher education. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. </li></ul>