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Digital media participation:
Blogging and podcasting
Prof. Dr. Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise, m.a.
Wintersemester 2016/2017 | JKW-M1: Medien & Gesellschaft | 13.12.2016
2| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise
I – Introduction: Participatory culture, produsage and digital
media participation (N. Heise)
II – Prof. Dr. Dag Elgesem: Bloggers' response to the Snowden
affair – blogging as a participatory culture
III – Nele Heise, M.A.: New Ways to be Heard? A case study of
women hosted podcasts in Germany
13.12.2016
Introduction
3| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
 „Participatory Culture“: New forms and avenues of
communication, collaboration, circulation of ideas, and creation of
content [cf. Jenkins et al. 2009]
 Web 2.0 or Social Web (technologies): Ease of use; barriers and
resources (time, costs) less significant
 Increasing participation in and through media [Carpentier et al.
2013], e.g. in (online) journalism
4
Participatory Turn
| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
v
5| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise
 Shift from industrial value chain to participative web
 blurring boundaries between passive consumption and
active production
13.12.2016
 User-created content, commons-based peer-production (across
large communities of users, interests and practices)
 Collaborative, continuous creation and extension of (existing)
information and knowledge [Bruns 2008]
 „Professional Amateurism“ (Pro-Am): (near-)professional
knowledge, skills, e. g. coding pro-am journalism [e.g. Leadbeater
& Miller 2004]
6
‚Produsage‘
| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
 Affiliations (communities)
 Expressions
 Collaborative problem-
solving
 Circulations
7
Participatory practices & ‚Products‘
 Citizen journalism
 Fan fiction
 Internet Memes
 Remix Culture
 Open Source Software
| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
Participatory
Media
HTTP://ECOLOGYOFEDUCATION.NET/WSITE/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2009/05/PARTICIPATORY-MEDIA-21.PNG
November 2016
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/DE-Wikipedia-2-Millionen-Artikel.svg/892px-DE-Wikipedia-2-Millionen-Artikel.svg.png
HTTP://XKCD.COM/802/
HTTP://IMG1.IZISMILE.COM/IMG/IMG6/20130531/640/A_COLLECTION_OF_HILARIOUS_INTERNET_MEMES_640_42.JPG
HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/USER/GRONKH
HTTP://WWW.TROLINO.COM/IMAGE?ID=118314
https://twitter.com/blklivesmatter?lang=de
blacklivesmatter.com
HTTPS://WWW.REDDIT.COM/R/HARRYPOTTER/
Quelle: Koch & Frees [2016: 429]
Quelle: DIVSI [2016]
Prof dr. Dag Elgesem
[University of Bergen]
21| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
Nele Heise, M.A.
[University of Hamburg]
22| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
New ways to be heard?
A case study on women hosted podcasts in Germany
»Once it was your radio station,
broadcasting on your frequency. Now
that brilliant invention, podcasting,
gives radio to us. And we have found
more uses for it than you did.«
ROSEN [2006]
 something between mass and
»personal media« [Lüders et al. 2010]
 ‘independent DIY radio’ [Madsen 2009]
 web-based distribution mechanism of
audio and/or video files via so called
RSS feeds (subscription)
Podcasting as …
HTTP://WWW.APPLE.COM/DE/ITUNES/PODCASTS/DISCOVER/
FORMFUNK-PODCAST.DE
FESTUNDFLAUSCHIG.DE
HTTPS://SOUNDCLOUD.COM/ICETFINALLEVEL/RE-AIR-DISCO-FEVER-CONCIERGE-OF-THE-BRONX-AND-BIRTHPLACE-OF-HIP-HOP
n = 101,098
4,784
4,255
4,024
2,101
2,038
6,835
SOURCE: ITUNES CRAWL (FEBRUARY, 28 2016) BY DIRK PRIMBS
HTTP://WWW.JOURNALISM.ORG/2016/06/15/PODCASTING-FACT-SHEET/
QUELLE: SCHRÖTER [2016: 443]
SENDEGATE.DE
HTTPS://YOUTU.BE/-KGVLMNDEL0
»Podcasting can be a powerful tool
to reclaim representation of realities
and issues […] it matters in our effort
to create a more democratic and
inclusive media space.«
MARTINI [2015]
HOWEVER …
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BroxSistersRadioTeddyBear.jpg
»podcasting […] quickly copied the
same gender stereotypes and
realities that traditional broadcasting
environments have demonstrated
throughout history.«
SHAPIRO [2013]
Podcasting and Gender
 Production: 82-88% of podcasters are male*
 Consumption: 56% male listeners in the U.S.
[Edison Research 2016] and 87.8% in
Germany [Knickmeier 2014]
 consistent with findings on diffusion of new
(media) technologies [Chada et al. 2012]
* [cf. Mocigemba/Riechmann 2007, Martens/Amann 2007, Markman 2012, Markman/Sawyer 2014, Knickmeier 2014]
»highly educated, economically stable,
heavily male, and surrounded by
technology on a daily basis. […] race,
gender, and income are strong
demographic predictors of podcast use.«
CHADHA ET AL. [2012: 390/397]
HTTPS://TWITTER.COM/GGLNX/STATUS/536127336836775936
»Podcasting is upper class sports for the middle age male.«
Women hosted
German-language podcasts
 Focus: social and technological
conditions of podcasting
 (Media) Ethnographic
Approach: participatory field
research (interviews,
observation), Grounded Theory
 Focus on the independent
podcasting community (since
2013)
 Case Study: female podcasters
in German speaking countries
(Germany, Austria, Switzerland)
My Research
 (crowdsourced) online list of women hosted
German-language podcasts (est. August 2014)
 246 entries co-/hosted by 233 women  ca. 2.600
[fyyd.de] to 4.024 [Apple iTunes/July 2016] German
language podcasts
55%
29%
9%
7%
Female only [135]
Gender parity [70]
Imbalance [22]
less women [18]
more women [1]
105 „solo-casts“ (42.7%)
[N=246]
Hosts
3
7
4
7
3
9
17
34
56
47
37
21
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Timeline 1/5 not active
[i.e.no episodes in 2016 or offline]
[N=245]
Topic n
Everyday life 35
Knitting 18
TV series 17
Literature
15
„Babble Podcasts“
Movies 13
Science 12
Politics
11
Technology
Spinning
10
Mixed topics
Games/Gaming 9
Culture 9
Society 9
DIY 8
Current affairs 8 258 Topics,168 only once
Geekism: Pop Culture &
(Digital) Media
DIY – Needlework
Culture – Literature – Arts
Science – Technology
Dominant Clusters
Everyday Life – Diary
 DIY/crafting/needlework podcasts: audio
added to existing blogging networks 
emerging »personal media genres«
[Lüders et al. 2010]
 Socio-technological affordances enable:
 community building, e.g. via blogrolls
or platforms like Ravelry,
 exchange (comments, forums, SNS)
 sharing (material, tips, experience etc.)
Knitting as Networking
STADTLANDWOLLE.BLOGSPOT.DE
FIBERTHERMOMETER.DE
FIBERTHERMOMETER.DE
Monika Andrae [2016]. »Das parallele Podcastuniversum« [Subscribe 7, May 2016, Berlin]
HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=3G5YVE4IFN0
6,704,460 registered users
 (global) DIY and crafting movement against
commercialization, fashion industry etc.
 Political Movement: Guerilla Knitting
 Feminist approach: presentation of
»female« labeled practices topics as
emancipatory act
Radical, Critical, Non-Commercial?
HTTP://IMG.TIMEINC.NET/TIME/PHOTOESSAYS/2011/YARN_BOMB/YARN_BOMB_01.JPG
 Yes! Podcasting provides potentials for
representation and empowerment, e.g. of
minority groups [Chada et al. 2012;
Stavrositu & Sundar 2012]
 Women hosted podcasts: heterogeneity of
topics, actors and practices
New ways to be heard?
 »digital production gaps« [Schradie 2011]
 Why? Issue attribution, economics/resources,
entitlement, voice tones [cf. Schapiro 2013]
 ›Long Tail Fail‹: attention (economy) and
reach vs. niche content/communities
 Lacking ›visibility‹ of female podcasters (in
media coverage, iTunes Charts, curated lists)
Same same but different
Nele Heise, M.A.
University of Hamburg | Journalism and Mass
Communication Studies
Graduate School Media & Communication Hamburg
@neleheise
www.neleheise.de
THANK YOU.
REFERENCES [1/2]
Andrae, M. (2016). “Das parallele Podcastuniversum”. Presentation at Subscibe 7, May 2016, Berlin.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g5YvE4ifn0 (accessed December 12, 2016).
Berry, R. (2015). Serial and Ten years of Podcasting: Has The Medium Finally Grown Up. In Radio, sound and Internet. Proceedings of Net
Station International Conference LASICS, eds. Oliveira, M. & Ribeiro, 299-309.
Chadha, M., A. Avila, & H. Gil de Zúñiga (2012). Listening In: Building a Profile of Podcast Users and Analyzing Their Political Participation.
Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 9(4), 388–401.
Edison Research (2016). The Podcast Consumer 2016. http://www.edisonresearch.com/the-podcast-consumer-2016/ (accessed December 12,
2016).
„Frauenstimmen im Netz – die Podcasterinnen-Liste“.
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1GZSUxqcLiACs94UqeDDB6t07VtvodwGqt9rMaoKsB10/edit?usp=sharing (accessed December 12,
2016).
Heise, N. (2014). On the shoulders of giants? How audio podcasters adopt, transform and re-invent radio storytelling. In MOOC Transnational
Radio Stories (Onlineradio Master, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg).
https://hamburgergarnele.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/podcasts_heise_public.pdf (accessed December 12, 2016).
Heise, N. (2015). „Der/die Hörer(in), das unbekannte Wesen? Was wir über Podcastnutzung wissen“. Presentation at the 6th Podlove Podcaster
Workshop, November 2015, Berlin. https://youtu.be/-kGvLMnDel0 (accessed December 12, 2016).
Madison, A. (2015). In the male-dominated world of podcasts, more women are claiming the mic. In BitchMedia, published February 23,
2015. https://bitchmedia.org/post/women-are-making-headway-in-the-male-dominated-world-of-podcasts (accessed December 12, 2016).
Madsen, V. (2009). Voices-Cast: A report on the new audiosphere of podcasting with specific insights for public broadcasting. ANZCA09
Conference Proceedings. pp. 1191–1210. http://www.anzca.net/documents/anzca-09-1/refereed-proceedings-2009-1/52-voices-cast-a-
report-on-the-new-audiosphere-of-podcasting-with-specific-insights-for-public-broadca-1/file.html (accessed December 12, 2016).
Markman, K. (2012). Doing Radio, making friends, and having fun: Exploring the motivations of independent audio podcasters. New Media &
Society 14(4), 547–565.
Markman, K., & C. E. Sawyer (2014). Why Pod? Further Explorations of the Motivations for Independent Podcasting. Journal of Radio & Audio
Media 21(1), 20–35. Martens, D., & R. Amann (2007). Podcast: Wear-out oder Habitualisierung? Paneluntersuchung zur Podcastnutzung.
Media Perspektiven 11, 538–551.
Martini, B. (2015). Easier, cheaper, louder: the growing power of podcasting. Published on April 8. http://beatricemartini.it/blog/podcasting/
(accessed November 9, 2016).
REFERENCES [2/2]
Knickmeier, A. (2014). „Podcasting in Deutschland – Bürgerfunk 2.0?“. Presentation at the 4th Podlove Podcaster Workshop, November 2014.
http://podcasting2014.de/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/140929-Vortrag-Podcast-Berlin-final.pdf (accessed December 12, 2016).
Mocimgeba, D., & Riechmann, G. (2007). International Podcastersurvey. Podcasters – who they are. How and why they do it. Presentation (July
29, 2007). http://files.feedplace.de/musikstunde/ipcs07.pdf (accessed October 26, 2015).
Lüders, M., L. Prøitz & T. Rasmussen (2010). Emerging personal media genres. New Media & Society, 10(5), 947–963.
Rosen, J. (2006). The People Formerly Known as the Audience. In PressThink, published June 27, 2006.
http://archive.pressthink.org/2006/06/27/ppl_frmr.html (accessed December 12, 2016).
Schradie, J. (2011). The digital production gap: The digital divide and Web 2.0 collide. Poetics 39(2), 145–168.
Schröter, C. (2016). Audionutzung im Kontext ausdifferenzierter Onlineangebote. Ergebnisse der ARD/ZDF-Onlinestudie 2016. Media
Perspektiven, 9/2016, 438–447. http://www.ard-zdf-onlinestudie.de/files/2016/0916_Schroeter.pdf (accessed December 12, 2016).
Shapiro, J. (2013). Why are 70 percent of the most popular podcasts hosted by men? In BitchMedia, published February 28, 2013.
http://bitchmagazine.org/post/why-are-70-percent-of-the-most-popular-podcasts-hosted-by-men (accessed December 12, 2016).
Stavrositu, C., & S. S. Sundar (2012). Does Blogging Empower Women? Exploring the Role of Agency and Community. Journal of Computer-
Mediated Communication 17, 369–386.
Tugendfurie (2015). “DIY als emanzipatorische Praxis”, published June 4, 2015. https://www.derkeineunterschied.de/diy-als-
emanzipatorische-praxis/ (accessed December 12, 2016).
Vogt, N. (2016). Podcasting: Fact Sheet. „State of the News Media 2016“ report/PEW Research, published June 15, 2016.
http://www.journalism.org/2016/06/15/podcasting-fact-sheet/ (accessed December 12, 2016).
Slide 43:
Photo 1 “Frauen Selbsthilfegruppe” by Michaela Werner (4th Podlove Podcaster Workshop, November 2014, Berlin). https://flic.kr/p/qcbVH8
(accessed December 12, 2016).
Photo 2 by Alexandra Oswald (re:publica15, May 2015, Berlin). https://twitter.com/blauschrift/status/595686148158152705 (accessed
December 12, 2016).
Photo 3 by Podstock (re:publica15, May 2015, Berlin). https://twitter.com/PodstockDE/status/595578036864552960 (accessed December 12,
2016).
6113.12.2016 | Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise
References Part I – Introduction (N. Heise)
 Bruns, Axel (2006). Produsers and Produsage. Blog posting and additional material. Available at http://snurb.info/produsage [12.12.2016].
 Bruns, Axel (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang.
 Carpentier, Nico, Dahlgren, Peter, & Pasquali, Francesca (2013.) Waves of Media Democratization. A Brief History of Contemporary Participatory
Practices in the Media Sphere. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 19(3), 287–294.
 DIVSI (2016). DIVSI Internet-Milieus 2016: Die digitalisierte Gesellschaft in Bewegung. Research report, published June 20, 2016. Available at
https://www.divsi.de/publikationen/studien/divsi-internet-milieus-2016-die-digitalisierte-gesellschaft-bewegung/ [12.12.2016].
 Jenkins, Henry, Puroshotma, Ravi, Clinton, Katherine, Weigel, Margaret, & Robison, Alice J. (2005). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture:
Media Education for the 21st Century. Chicago: The MacArthur Foundation. Available at http://www.newmedialiteracies.org/wp-
content/uploads/pdfs/NMLWhitePaper.pdf [12.12.2016].
 Koch, Wolfgang, & Frees, Beate (2016). Dynamische Entwicklung bei mobiler Internetnutzung sowie Audios und Videos. Ergebnisse der ARD/ZDF-
Onlinestudie 2016. Media Perspektiven, 9/2016, 418–437. http://www.ard-zdf-onlinestudie.de/fileadmin/Onlinestudie_2016/0916_Koch_Frees.pdf
[12.12.2016].
 Leadbeater, Charles, & Miller, Paul (2004). The Pro-Am Revolution: How Enthusiasts are Changing our Economy and Society. London: Demos. Available at
https://www.demos.co.uk/files/proamrevolutionfinal.pdf [12.12.2016].
 Lüders, Marika (2008). Conceptualizing Personal Media. New Media & Society, 10(5), 683–702.
 Schäfer, Mirko T. (2011). Bastard Culture! How User Participation Transforms Cultural Production. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Available at
http://mtschaefer.net/media/uploads/docs/Schaefer_Bastard-Culture_2011.pdf [12.12.2016].
 Wikipedia (2016). Keyword „Amateur professionalism“. Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amateur_professionalism [12.12.2016].
 Wikipedia (2016). Keyword „Participatory culture“. Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Participatory_culture [12.12.2016].
 Slide 5: Figure „Produsage“ by A. Bruns. http://produsage.org/files/produsage/produser.png [12.12.2016].
 Slide 19: Figure „Relevanz von Online-Aktivitäten im Zeitvergleich“ (DIVSI 2016). https://www.divsi.de/wp-
content/uploads/2016/06/divsi_internetmilieus2016_17_wachsende_bedeutung_von_sozialem_netzwerken_und_instant_messaging_1.png
[12.12.2016].
 Slide 20: Image 1 http://www.tagesspiegel.de/images/computertaste-mit-der-aufschrift-hass-hass-kommentare-in-sozialen-netzwerken/12733434/2-
format43.jpg [12.12.2016] // Image 2 http://cdn1.spiegel.de/images/image-570520-breitwandaufmacher-ioan-570520.jpg [12.12.2016].

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Digital Media Participation: Blogging and Podcasting

  • 1. Digital media participation: Blogging and podcasting Prof. Dr. Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise, m.a. Wintersemester 2016/2017 | JKW-M1: Medien & Gesellschaft | 13.12.2016
  • 2. 2| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise I – Introduction: Participatory culture, produsage and digital media participation (N. Heise) II – Prof. Dr. Dag Elgesem: Bloggers' response to the Snowden affair – blogging as a participatory culture III – Nele Heise, M.A.: New Ways to be Heard? A case study of women hosted podcasts in Germany 13.12.2016
  • 3. Introduction 3| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
  • 4.  „Participatory Culture“: New forms and avenues of communication, collaboration, circulation of ideas, and creation of content [cf. Jenkins et al. 2009]  Web 2.0 or Social Web (technologies): Ease of use; barriers and resources (time, costs) less significant  Increasing participation in and through media [Carpentier et al. 2013], e.g. in (online) journalism 4 Participatory Turn | Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
  • 5. v 5| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise  Shift from industrial value chain to participative web  blurring boundaries between passive consumption and active production 13.12.2016
  • 6.  User-created content, commons-based peer-production (across large communities of users, interests and practices)  Collaborative, continuous creation and extension of (existing) information and knowledge [Bruns 2008]  „Professional Amateurism“ (Pro-Am): (near-)professional knowledge, skills, e. g. coding pro-am journalism [e.g. Leadbeater & Miller 2004] 6 ‚Produsage‘ | Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
  • 7.  Affiliations (communities)  Expressions  Collaborative problem- solving  Circulations 7 Participatory practices & ‚Products‘  Citizen journalism  Fan fiction  Internet Memes  Remix Culture  Open Source Software | Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
  • 13.
  • 18. Quelle: Koch & Frees [2016: 429]
  • 20.
  • 21. Prof dr. Dag Elgesem [University of Bergen] 21| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
  • 22. Nele Heise, M.A. [University of Hamburg] 22| Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise13.12.2016
  • 23. New ways to be heard? A case study on women hosted podcasts in Germany
  • 24. »Once it was your radio station, broadcasting on your frequency. Now that brilliant invention, podcasting, gives radio to us. And we have found more uses for it than you did.« ROSEN [2006]
  • 25.
  • 26.  something between mass and »personal media« [Lüders et al. 2010]  ‘independent DIY radio’ [Madsen 2009]  web-based distribution mechanism of audio and/or video files via so called RSS feeds (subscription) Podcasting as …
  • 31. n = 101,098 4,784 4,255 4,024 2,101 2,038 6,835 SOURCE: ITUNES CRAWL (FEBRUARY, 28 2016) BY DIRK PRIMBS
  • 36. »Podcasting can be a powerful tool to reclaim representation of realities and issues […] it matters in our effort to create a more democratic and inclusive media space.« MARTINI [2015]
  • 38. »podcasting […] quickly copied the same gender stereotypes and realities that traditional broadcasting environments have demonstrated throughout history.« SHAPIRO [2013]
  • 39. Podcasting and Gender  Production: 82-88% of podcasters are male*  Consumption: 56% male listeners in the U.S. [Edison Research 2016] and 87.8% in Germany [Knickmeier 2014]  consistent with findings on diffusion of new (media) technologies [Chada et al. 2012] * [cf. Mocigemba/Riechmann 2007, Martens/Amann 2007, Markman 2012, Markman/Sawyer 2014, Knickmeier 2014]
  • 40. »highly educated, economically stable, heavily male, and surrounded by technology on a daily basis. […] race, gender, and income are strong demographic predictors of podcast use.« CHADHA ET AL. [2012: 390/397]
  • 43.  Focus: social and technological conditions of podcasting  (Media) Ethnographic Approach: participatory field research (interviews, observation), Grounded Theory  Focus on the independent podcasting community (since 2013)  Case Study: female podcasters in German speaking countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) My Research
  • 44.  (crowdsourced) online list of women hosted German-language podcasts (est. August 2014)  246 entries co-/hosted by 233 women  ca. 2.600 [fyyd.de] to 4.024 [Apple iTunes/July 2016] German language podcasts
  • 45. 55% 29% 9% 7% Female only [135] Gender parity [70] Imbalance [22] less women [18] more women [1] 105 „solo-casts“ (42.7%) [N=246] Hosts
  • 46. 3 7 4 7 3 9 17 34 56 47 37 21 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Timeline 1/5 not active [i.e.no episodes in 2016 or offline] [N=245]
  • 47. Topic n Everyday life 35 Knitting 18 TV series 17 Literature 15 „Babble Podcasts“ Movies 13 Science 12 Politics 11 Technology Spinning 10 Mixed topics Games/Gaming 9 Culture 9 Society 9 DIY 8 Current affairs 8 258 Topics,168 only once Geekism: Pop Culture & (Digital) Media DIY – Needlework Culture – Literature – Arts Science – Technology Dominant Clusters Everyday Life – Diary
  • 48.  DIY/crafting/needlework podcasts: audio added to existing blogging networks  emerging »personal media genres« [Lüders et al. 2010]  Socio-technological affordances enable:  community building, e.g. via blogrolls or platforms like Ravelry,  exchange (comments, forums, SNS)  sharing (material, tips, experience etc.) Knitting as Networking
  • 52. Monika Andrae [2016]. »Das parallele Podcastuniversum« [Subscribe 7, May 2016, Berlin] HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=3G5YVE4IFN0
  • 54.  (global) DIY and crafting movement against commercialization, fashion industry etc.  Political Movement: Guerilla Knitting  Feminist approach: presentation of »female« labeled practices topics as emancipatory act Radical, Critical, Non-Commercial?
  • 56.  Yes! Podcasting provides potentials for representation and empowerment, e.g. of minority groups [Chada et al. 2012; Stavrositu & Sundar 2012]  Women hosted podcasts: heterogeneity of topics, actors and practices New ways to be heard?
  • 57.  »digital production gaps« [Schradie 2011]  Why? Issue attribution, economics/resources, entitlement, voice tones [cf. Schapiro 2013]  ›Long Tail Fail‹: attention (economy) and reach vs. niche content/communities  Lacking ›visibility‹ of female podcasters (in media coverage, iTunes Charts, curated lists) Same same but different
  • 58. Nele Heise, M.A. University of Hamburg | Journalism and Mass Communication Studies Graduate School Media & Communication Hamburg @neleheise www.neleheise.de THANK YOU.
  • 59. REFERENCES [1/2] Andrae, M. (2016). “Das parallele Podcastuniversum”. Presentation at Subscibe 7, May 2016, Berlin. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g5YvE4ifn0 (accessed December 12, 2016). Berry, R. (2015). Serial and Ten years of Podcasting: Has The Medium Finally Grown Up. In Radio, sound and Internet. Proceedings of Net Station International Conference LASICS, eds. Oliveira, M. & Ribeiro, 299-309. Chadha, M., A. Avila, & H. Gil de Zúñiga (2012). Listening In: Building a Profile of Podcast Users and Analyzing Their Political Participation. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 9(4), 388–401. Edison Research (2016). The Podcast Consumer 2016. http://www.edisonresearch.com/the-podcast-consumer-2016/ (accessed December 12, 2016). „Frauenstimmen im Netz – die Podcasterinnen-Liste“. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1GZSUxqcLiACs94UqeDDB6t07VtvodwGqt9rMaoKsB10/edit?usp=sharing (accessed December 12, 2016). Heise, N. (2014). On the shoulders of giants? How audio podcasters adopt, transform and re-invent radio storytelling. In MOOC Transnational Radio Stories (Onlineradio Master, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg). https://hamburgergarnele.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/podcasts_heise_public.pdf (accessed December 12, 2016). Heise, N. (2015). „Der/die Hörer(in), das unbekannte Wesen? Was wir über Podcastnutzung wissen“. Presentation at the 6th Podlove Podcaster Workshop, November 2015, Berlin. https://youtu.be/-kGvLMnDel0 (accessed December 12, 2016). Madison, A. (2015). In the male-dominated world of podcasts, more women are claiming the mic. In BitchMedia, published February 23, 2015. https://bitchmedia.org/post/women-are-making-headway-in-the-male-dominated-world-of-podcasts (accessed December 12, 2016). Madsen, V. (2009). Voices-Cast: A report on the new audiosphere of podcasting with specific insights for public broadcasting. ANZCA09 Conference Proceedings. pp. 1191–1210. http://www.anzca.net/documents/anzca-09-1/refereed-proceedings-2009-1/52-voices-cast-a- report-on-the-new-audiosphere-of-podcasting-with-specific-insights-for-public-broadca-1/file.html (accessed December 12, 2016). Markman, K. (2012). Doing Radio, making friends, and having fun: Exploring the motivations of independent audio podcasters. New Media & Society 14(4), 547–565. Markman, K., & C. E. Sawyer (2014). Why Pod? Further Explorations of the Motivations for Independent Podcasting. Journal of Radio & Audio Media 21(1), 20–35. Martens, D., & R. Amann (2007). Podcast: Wear-out oder Habitualisierung? Paneluntersuchung zur Podcastnutzung. Media Perspektiven 11, 538–551. Martini, B. (2015). Easier, cheaper, louder: the growing power of podcasting. Published on April 8. http://beatricemartini.it/blog/podcasting/ (accessed November 9, 2016).
  • 60. REFERENCES [2/2] Knickmeier, A. (2014). „Podcasting in Deutschland – Bürgerfunk 2.0?“. Presentation at the 4th Podlove Podcaster Workshop, November 2014. http://podcasting2014.de/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/140929-Vortrag-Podcast-Berlin-final.pdf (accessed December 12, 2016). Mocimgeba, D., & Riechmann, G. (2007). International Podcastersurvey. Podcasters – who they are. How and why they do it. Presentation (July 29, 2007). http://files.feedplace.de/musikstunde/ipcs07.pdf (accessed October 26, 2015). Lüders, M., L. Prøitz & T. Rasmussen (2010). Emerging personal media genres. New Media & Society, 10(5), 947–963. Rosen, J. (2006). The People Formerly Known as the Audience. In PressThink, published June 27, 2006. http://archive.pressthink.org/2006/06/27/ppl_frmr.html (accessed December 12, 2016). Schradie, J. (2011). The digital production gap: The digital divide and Web 2.0 collide. Poetics 39(2), 145–168. Schröter, C. (2016). Audionutzung im Kontext ausdifferenzierter Onlineangebote. Ergebnisse der ARD/ZDF-Onlinestudie 2016. Media Perspektiven, 9/2016, 438–447. http://www.ard-zdf-onlinestudie.de/files/2016/0916_Schroeter.pdf (accessed December 12, 2016). Shapiro, J. (2013). Why are 70 percent of the most popular podcasts hosted by men? In BitchMedia, published February 28, 2013. http://bitchmagazine.org/post/why-are-70-percent-of-the-most-popular-podcasts-hosted-by-men (accessed December 12, 2016). Stavrositu, C., & S. S. Sundar (2012). Does Blogging Empower Women? Exploring the Role of Agency and Community. Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication 17, 369–386. Tugendfurie (2015). “DIY als emanzipatorische Praxis”, published June 4, 2015. https://www.derkeineunterschied.de/diy-als- emanzipatorische-praxis/ (accessed December 12, 2016). Vogt, N. (2016). Podcasting: Fact Sheet. „State of the News Media 2016“ report/PEW Research, published June 15, 2016. http://www.journalism.org/2016/06/15/podcasting-fact-sheet/ (accessed December 12, 2016). Slide 43: Photo 1 “Frauen Selbsthilfegruppe” by Michaela Werner (4th Podlove Podcaster Workshop, November 2014, Berlin). https://flic.kr/p/qcbVH8 (accessed December 12, 2016). Photo 2 by Alexandra Oswald (re:publica15, May 2015, Berlin). https://twitter.com/blauschrift/status/595686148158152705 (accessed December 12, 2016). Photo 3 by Podstock (re:publica15, May 2015, Berlin). https://twitter.com/PodstockDE/status/595578036864552960 (accessed December 12, 2016).
  • 61. 6113.12.2016 | Digital Media Participation – Dag Elgesem & Nele Heise References Part I – Introduction (N. Heise)  Bruns, Axel (2006). Produsers and Produsage. Blog posting and additional material. Available at http://snurb.info/produsage [12.12.2016].  Bruns, Axel (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang.  Carpentier, Nico, Dahlgren, Peter, & Pasquali, Francesca (2013.) Waves of Media Democratization. A Brief History of Contemporary Participatory Practices in the Media Sphere. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 19(3), 287–294.  DIVSI (2016). DIVSI Internet-Milieus 2016: Die digitalisierte Gesellschaft in Bewegung. Research report, published June 20, 2016. Available at https://www.divsi.de/publikationen/studien/divsi-internet-milieus-2016-die-digitalisierte-gesellschaft-bewegung/ [12.12.2016].  Jenkins, Henry, Puroshotma, Ravi, Clinton, Katherine, Weigel, Margaret, & Robison, Alice J. (2005). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Chicago: The MacArthur Foundation. Available at http://www.newmedialiteracies.org/wp- content/uploads/pdfs/NMLWhitePaper.pdf [12.12.2016].  Koch, Wolfgang, & Frees, Beate (2016). Dynamische Entwicklung bei mobiler Internetnutzung sowie Audios und Videos. Ergebnisse der ARD/ZDF- Onlinestudie 2016. Media Perspektiven, 9/2016, 418–437. http://www.ard-zdf-onlinestudie.de/fileadmin/Onlinestudie_2016/0916_Koch_Frees.pdf [12.12.2016].  Leadbeater, Charles, & Miller, Paul (2004). The Pro-Am Revolution: How Enthusiasts are Changing our Economy and Society. London: Demos. Available at https://www.demos.co.uk/files/proamrevolutionfinal.pdf [12.12.2016].  Lüders, Marika (2008). Conceptualizing Personal Media. New Media & Society, 10(5), 683–702.  Schäfer, Mirko T. (2011). Bastard Culture! How User Participation Transforms Cultural Production. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Available at http://mtschaefer.net/media/uploads/docs/Schaefer_Bastard-Culture_2011.pdf [12.12.2016].  Wikipedia (2016). Keyword „Amateur professionalism“. Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amateur_professionalism [12.12.2016].  Wikipedia (2016). Keyword „Participatory culture“. Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Participatory_culture [12.12.2016].  Slide 5: Figure „Produsage“ by A. Bruns. http://produsage.org/files/produsage/produser.png [12.12.2016].  Slide 19: Figure „Relevanz von Online-Aktivitäten im Zeitvergleich“ (DIVSI 2016). https://www.divsi.de/wp- content/uploads/2016/06/divsi_internetmilieus2016_17_wachsende_bedeutung_von_sozialem_netzwerken_und_instant_messaging_1.png [12.12.2016].  Slide 20: Image 1 http://www.tagesspiegel.de/images/computertaste-mit-der-aufschrift-hass-hass-kommentare-in-sozialen-netzwerken/12733434/2- format43.jpg [12.12.2016] // Image 2 http://cdn1.spiegel.de/images/image-570520-breitwandaufmacher-ioan-570520.jpg [12.12.2016].