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Flight Safety Part3


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Flight Safety Part3

  1. 1. The IFATCA viewOreski ZeljkoIFATCA EVP Europe
  2. 2. Regional SeminarContingency and Emergency Plans in Aviation:
  3. 3. The IFATCA ViewIs there a need for common plans and coordination at industry level
  4. 4. IFATCA is the worldwideFederation of air trafficcontrollers with more than members representing13 countries. Among its goalsare the promotion of safety,efficiency and regularity inInternational air navigation, andthe protection and safeguardingof the interests of the air trafficcontrol profession. The IFATCA View
  5. 5. The IFATCA View
  6. 6. emergency [ɪˈm ʒənsɪ] ɜˈdn pl -cies1. a. an unforeseen or sudden occurrence, esp of a danger demanding immediate remedy or action b. (as modifier) an emergency exit2. (Medicine) a. a patient requiring urgent treatment b. (as modifier) an emergency ward state of emergency a condition, declared by a government, in which martial law applies, usually because of civil unrest or natural disaster . NZ a player selected to stand by to replace an injured member of a team; reserveCollins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003emergency - Comes from Latin emergere (e-, "from," and mergere, "to dip, plunge") and first meant "unforeseen occurrence." The IFATCA View
  7. 7. The IFATCA View
  8. 8. con·tin·gen·cy (kn-tnjn-s)n. pl. con·tin·gen·cies1. a. An event that may occur but that is not likely or intended; a possibility. b. A possibility that must be prepared for; a future emergency.2. The condition of being dependent on chance; uncertainty.3. Something incidental to something else.The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton MifflinCompany. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. The IFATCA View
  9. 9. The IFATCA View
  10. 10. How to act during anemergency/incident/accident?Guidelines for Controller Training in theHandling of Unusual/Emergency Situations byEUROCONTROL The IFATCA View
  11. 11. Controllers should be given initial and recurrent training in the degraded mode operations of their equipment.The IFATCA View
  12. 12. The IFATCA View
  13. 13. Difference between crisis vs. emergency, catastrophes and conflictsOne of the main differences is the way of management of a crisisvs. catastrophe, emergencies and conflicts.In emergencies, catastrophes etc., SKILLS, EDUCATION,KNOWLEDGE, TRAINING and CHECKLIST are importantIn crisis visions, moral and ethical principles, quality andcompetence and emotional intelligence are important. The IFATCA View
  14. 14. A crisis is any event or situation that could hinder the ability of an air trafficcontrol unit to operate effectively, or damage the reputation of an air trafficcontrol unit (or Service Provider) with stakeholders, users and the public, allof whose support is essential for successful operations.The IFATCA View
  15. 15. 7 reasons why it is important to have an understanding of a crisis: 1. We can better cope with the challenges a crisis will provoke 2. We are motivated to determine the chances of a crisis occurring 3. We are able to increase the crisis watch, improve our crisis prevention and better prepare for an eventual crisis. 4. We are able to learn and make informed conclusions in the future 5. We are acquiring a solid basis for leadership during, after and before the crisis 6. We develop leadership profile 7. We start to understand leadership processesThe IFATCA View
  16. 16. The IFATCA View
  17. 17. Can you prepare for a crises?YES!1. First step: Higher values and considerations, general interest and main tasks. The aim is to define a solid basis and a framework to establish a port-folio.2. Second step: identify the risk and situation which could lead to a crisis. The aim is to identify potential crisis situations.3. Third step: formal risk assessment with the aim to gather crisis situation or different crisis types into a grouping .The IFATCA View
  18. 18. Can you prepare for a crises?YES!4. Forth step: the grouping will now be associated to real potential damaging risks which could lead to crisis assessed and grouped in a crisis portfolio.5. Fifth step: how do you prepare yourself to cope with the chosen crisis portfolio? How far is your crisis preparedness?The IFATCA View
  19. 19. Can you prepare for a crises?YES!6. Step six: where are we compared with where we should be with the readiness of our preparedness.7. Step seven: develop crisis scenarios and add new and future potential ideas into this thinking.The IFATCA View
  20. 20. The IFATCA View
  21. 21. Reference :1. Leadership in Crisis (published in German and written by Laurent F.Carrel) Guidelines for Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual/Emergency Situations; EUROCONTROL, 2003 Emerging Risks for the 21st Century a publication of the Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD).4. IFATCA Crisis Guide, Arusha . ICAO Doc 9897 – AN/470, Manual on In-flight Emergency ResponseThe IFATCA View
  22. 22. The IFATCA ViewIs there a need for common plansand coordination at industry level
  23. 23. Thank you!The IFATCA View
  24. 24. Human factors in Contingency and emergency plans Dr.Ioannis MarcouSecretary General of the Greek Society of Aviation Doctors
  25. 25. Human Factors in Contingency and Emergency Plans Dr Ioannis Markou, MD Neurologist-Aviation Medicine Specialist Head of Hellenic Air Force General Staff Medical Directorate Emergency Planning Department Secretary Gen. Of Hellenic Aerospace Medicine SocietyFlight Safety Foundation, South East Regional SeminarEurope–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
  26. 26. Definitions• Emergency • Human Factors – an unforeseen or sudden occurrence, esp – is about people in their living and working of a danger demanding immediate remedy situations; about their relationship with or action machines, with procedures and with the environment about them; and also about their relationships with other people. • Human Factors Principles – principles which apply to aeronautical design, certification, training, operations and maintenance and which seek safe interface between the human and other• Emergency plan system components by proper consideration to human performance. – is the process of preparing the aerodrome to cope with an emergency occurring at • Stress the aerodrome or in its vicinity. The object – Stress is your mind and body’s response of the emergency planning is to minimize or reaction to a real or imagined threat, the effect of an emergency particularly in event or change respect of saving lives and maintaining aircraft operation.
  27. 27. SHELL MODEL • Software: documentation, procedures, symbols, etc. • Hardware: machinery, equipment, etc. • Environment: both internal and external to the workplace • Liveware: the human element.
  28. 28. SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING• Liveware-Environment (L-E) – Adaptation – Observation – Situational awareness – Stress management – Risk management – Prioritization and attention management – Coping/emotional control – Decision-making
  29. 29. SITUATIONAL AWARENESS • personal factors• the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time • weather and space, the comprehension of • airport infrastructure their meaning, and the projection of • individual differences their status in the near future. • traffic• the most important Human Factors • operators and pilots issue in regards to human-technology • environment interface is the ability of the human • navigational aids operator to maintain situational/system awareness • aircraft performance • equipment • adjacent units.
  30. 30. STRESS AND PERFORMANCE• Definition – Stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.• Manifestations – Poor decision making – Loss of situational awareness – Make errors of judgement – Become confused – Unable to cope with increase in workload – Absenteeism from work
  31. 31. SOURCES OF STRESS OF ATM• Peaks of traffic load• Time deficit• Operational procedures (often limited and need to be adapted)• Limitation and reliability of equipment• Abnormal/Emergency situations
  32. 32. SOURCES OF STRESS OF ATM• Shift schedules (night • Personal work in particular) • Family• Management • Health• Role conflicts• Unfavourable working conditions
  33. 33. STRESS MANAGEMENT• Recognize the potential signs and symptoms of stress• Be proactive in removing the cause of stress (e.g. assign more priority to the short term conflict first before controlling other aircraft etc.)• Removing yourself from the stressful situation by knowing ones own capabilities (e.g. calling out for help from colleagues if in a very complex ATC scenario)• Prioritise actions• Do not be over focused in finishing the mission at any cost and regardless of the situation• Be current with all existing procedures at the workplace
  34. 34. STRESS MANAGEMENT• Physical Factors • Psychological Factors – Maintain good physical – Sound preparation with fitness regard to knowledge, skills and procedures – Have regular meals – Building confidence in own – Have sufficient sleep training and ability – Sound time management – Leading balanced social and – Control the physical family life (so that financial environment and domestic worries are not a problem) – Share and discuss problems so as not to bottle them up – Solve problems as soon as possible to prevent “the domino” effect
  35. 35. CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS• Critical Incident Stress • Minimize the emotional and physical MANAGEMENT affects nearly 90% of all emergency personnel • impact of an event Prevent burn-out• The effects of critical incident • Educate participants regarding normal stress can be intensified, influenced, or stress reactions mitigated by our personal, family, and • Mitigate stress responses developmental issues• Critical incident stress may occur hours, • Help to keep careers, relationships, and days, or even months after a critical event physical/mental health intact with little residual damage• Symptoms usually subside within a few • Was designed to assist in the prevention, weeks management, and recovery from a• No one is immune from responding to the significant stress stress of a critical incident • Include pre-incident education, defusing,• Suffering the stress effects following a debriefings, support services, follow-up critical incident stress is NORMAL services, individual consults, peer counseling, and disaster management • CISM interventions are provided be especially trained individuals
  36. 36. CISM increases the rate of normal recovery, in normal people, who are having normal reactions to abnormal events
  37. 37. TERRORISM • "Nothing is easier than to denounce the evil doer; Nothing more difficult than understanding him."• Fyodor Dostoevsky
  38. 38. TERRORISM• Physical profile • Social profile – Healthy – Leaders – Strong • Higher education – Medium sized • Doctors, Lawyers, Professors etc – Absence of specific characteristics – Members – Well dressed • Basic or higher education – Normal behavior – Single – Motivated
  39. 39. ASPECTS OF DEALING WITH• TERRORIST The first hour of hostage taking is usually the most dangerous for hostages, as the terrorists are • Communication delivery must be both nervous and aggressive deliberate, methodical, and, most• Most persons in crisis have a desire to be heard importantly, nonjudgmental. and understood – best described as accepting; – the subject perceives that his or her• Active Listening feelings, values, thoughts, and opinions are – Mirroring refers to repeating the last few words or viewed as important. gist of the person in crisis. • ATC should not inject his or her values into the – Paraphrasing involves restating the content of situation; what the subject said in the ATC’s own words. – Summarizing offers a restating of both the content – this does not mean that he agrees with the values and emotion expressed by the subject. of the subject. – In contact with the terrorists may develop some – “From what you’re saying, I can imagine how empathy toward them, and may therefore be your wife could have made you angry enough to influenced by them kill her. That would have made me angry too, but I don’t think I could have done what you did.• ATC must not be decision maker.• Follows strictly the emergency plan• The voice tone and intonation are at least as important as the content of the communication. – Stable – Specific vocabulary – Speech and breathing patterns
  40. 40. SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING (L-H) • Liveware-Hardware – Scanning – Detection – Decision-making – Cockpit adjustment – Instrument interpretation/situational awareness – Manual dexterity – Selection of alternative procedures – Reaction to breakdowns/failures/defects – Emergency warnings – Workload; physical, allocation of tasks – Vigilance
  41. 41. SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING• Liveware-Software (L-S) – Computer literacy – Self-discipline and procedural behaviour – Interpretation – Time management – Self-motivation – Task allocation
  42. 42. SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING • Liveware-Liveware (L-L) – Communication skills – Listening skills – Observation skills – Operational management skills; leadership and followership – Problem solving – Decision-making – Error management
  43. 43. FATIGUE• Fatigue is the general term • Increased reaction time used to describe physical • Reduced attentiveness and/or mental weariness • Impaired memory which extends beyond normal tiredness. • Withdrawn mood.• Mental • Poor desicion making• Physical • Slow reaction to changing situation • Failure to notice an impending confliction; • Loss of situational awareness • Forgetfulness.
  45. 45. KEY AREAS FOR A HUMAN FACTORS-ORIENTED• EMERGENCY PLAN An effective organisational • Selection structure for implementing – “Best” or “Right” the emergency plan • Training• Clear and well rehearsed – ATC procedures procedures – Emergency plan• Planned and rehearsed interfaces – CISM• Efficient means of – Crisis management information handling • Assessment of the involved personnel
  47. 47. Flight Safety Foundation South East Europe Conference Is there a need for coordinatedcontingency and emergency plans by airports, airlines and ANSPs Bucharest, 18 November 2011 Tony Licu Head of Safety CLOSURE REMARKS Directorate Network manager EUROCONTROL
  48. 48. All ATM disruptions are not crisis ATM/ATFCM/Aviation is made of daily disruptions – Handled with existing procedures – Manageable in a known OPS framework – Coordination and mitigation at network level is needed Critical major crisis (major network and global impact) – Out of existing contingency plans – Out of known OPS framework – Major political and media implications – Key role of network management – Need for a network crisis cell 50
  49. 49. « Eyjafjallajokul » volcano eruptionA major ATM European crisis (14-22/04/2010) 51 51
  50. 50. Two different months• April Daily Traffic per Volcano Activity Week 35000 30000 – 104,000 cancelled flights 25000 20000 – 10 Million disrupted 1 5000 5335 5204 1 0000 passenger journeys 28578 24965 28087 20842 28597 11659 22653 28126 27508 13101 21911 9330 5000 – 5,000 additional flights 0 THU FRI SAT SUN M ON TUE WED – Limited delays W201015 W201016• May – “Only” 7,000 cancelled flights – Heavy delays: 43% of flights delayed on
  51. 51. Differences between market segments Before AfterFull report at:
  52. 52. ATM ASH CRISIS MANAGEMENT - Initial Lessons Learnt  Before • Existing model and contingency plans not adapted and totally uncoordinated  During • To be innovative / challenge the existing model • To propose to EU ministers “safe” options to unlock • To manage the communication  Afterwards • Creation European crisis cell EACCC • Operated by SES “Network Manager” • What if another eruption ? 54 54
  53. 53. cont’d Lessons learnt from ash crisisMay 2010:European Aviation Crisis Coordination Cell E A S A Network Political management leadership expertise
  54. 54. European Aviation Crisis Coordination Cell (EACCC) Coordinate management of response to the network crisis affecting aviation in Europe Activated when circumstances beyondEACCC normal environment of ops are evident Airlines Members Airports ANSP… Military
  55. 55. Established through SES IR of the “Network Manager”• Focal point for crises• Alert on the crisis EACCC role• To call the right experts• To propose measures / options to unlock / manage the crisis• Communicate updated information to aviation community 57
  56. 56. Are we ready for the next major crisis ?Most of disruptions even some major crisis are foreseeableProcedures and contingency plans must be Are we better prepared if another similar event happens ? well prepared / tested European crisis cell (EACCC) is in place SES “ Network Manager “ is entrusted to manage it OPS Coordination with other adjacent regions must be consolidated 58
  57. 57. EACCC recommends the adoption ofa harmonised safety risk assessment methodology based on the ongoing ICAO work AOs responsible for assessing the risk before operating by using a safety risk assessment methodology approved by their NSA ******* NSAs responsible to accept safety risk assessment methodology used by AO  European NSA could use a harmonised European methodology with their registered carriers 59  ANSPs and CFMU could manage airspace & flow more efficiently
  58. 58. Visible Volcanic Ash Cloud vs. Volcanic Dust ContaminationVolcanic DustContaminationThin layers of dust only visible from selected viewing angles or from a far distance e.g. satelliteVolcanic Ash CloudCloud clearly visible to naked eye from all angles, clear boundary 60
  59. 59. Why 500 NM for Pinatubo = 250 NM for Eyjafjalla?(Kilauea, Hawaii28 years continuous eruption) 62
  60. 60. What will make the next eruption different ?1) Good preparation – Procedures / contingency – Crisis cell in place – Knowledge to handle the risk – Rehearse2) OPS oriented based on Safety Risk Assessment – Network management3) Political implications – Ability to address unforeseen situation – To react quickly but safely to unlock/manage4) Communication 63
  61. 61. What if an eruption starts tomorrow? Contingency or crisis ?
  62. 62. Summary and conclusions -• ICAO defines provisions for ERP mainly in Annex 6 , 11, 14 and in the SMS Manual and the Airport Services Manual;• Similarly for Contingency planning in Annex 2, 11, 17 and PANS-ATM• Planning must be coordinated between all stakeholders• EASA tools available (regulations, SIBs, Emergency Airworthiness Directives)• EACCC
  63. 63. Summary and conclusions – cont’d• EUROCONTROL Guidelines complete framework (Policy to Promotion and); Covers the entire contingency life-cycle from emergency response , business continuity and return to normal OPS• Risk Assessment approach – is needed to ensure that we fail safe but we also ensure the business continuity• New threats (scenarios, cyber-attacks, Pandemics- CAPSCA); any other that we did not think about ?• Approval and maintenance as part of on-going certification of operators and service providers
  64. 64. Summary and conclusions – cont’d• Local, Regional and Cross Border Contingencies , Network and Pan-world• Proportionality of the response• Planning for contingency should be a daily operation issue (learn from Military resilience)• Local airline ERP to Alliance ERP – any lessons for FABs?• FAB Contingency …• Communication (call centers, web sites – your phone and servers need to cope, SW for emergency response data management – how to contact the families of your passengers)• Have good Plan Bs• Rehearsing/testing, Rehearsing/testing, Rehearsing/testing• Coordination, coordination, coordination…