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Bonding and orbitalhybridization in carbon atom‫اﻟﺮواﺑﻂ واﻟﺘﮫﺠﯿﻦ ﻓﻲ ذرة اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن‬         http://ganimchem.com/   1
Electron configuration of              Carbon Atom2p                     2 unpaired electrons                       ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي...
sp3 Hybridization                sp3 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p          An electron is excited from 2s to 2p orbital              2p ‫2 اﻟ...
sp3 Hybridization           sp3sp3 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬               Hybridization              sp3 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p                    2p   ...
sp3 Orbital Hybridization                          2p The 2s orbital and the three 2p orbitals mixtogether to form 4 sp3‫ ...
sp3 Orbital Hybridization              sp3 Orbital Hybridization                          2p        2s4 sp3 hybrid orbital...
SP3 hybrid orbitals, tetrahedral shape‫ اﻟﻤﮫﺠﻨﺔ‬SP3 ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ اﻷوﺟﻪ ﻷﻓﻼك‬           http://ganimchem.com/
Methane Structure ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺟﺰيء اﻟﻤﯿﺜﺎن‬Tetrahedral ‫رﺑﺎﻋﻲ اﻷوﺟﻪ‬Bond angles = 109.5° ‫زواﻳﺎ اﻟﺮواﺑﻂ‬              109.       ...
Structure of Ethane C2H6 ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺐ ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﺎن‬  CH3CH3Tetrahedral shape of the bonds at each             carbon atom ‫ﺷﻜﻞ رو...
sp2 Hybridization    sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬  http://ganimchem.com/
Ethene molecule C2H4 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﯿﻦ‬   C2H4   H2C=CH2   Shape : Planar ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮي‬   bond angles: 120° ‫اﻟﺰواﻳﺎ‬      ...
sp2 Hybridization - sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p          An electron from the 2s is excited to 2p orbital                          ‫2 اﻟ...
sp2 Hybridization - sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p                        2p     2s                        2s                 http://ganimc...
sp2 Hybridization - sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬                                  2p2s orbital and two 2p orbitals hybridize to form three ...
sp22Orbital Hybridization sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬        sp Hybridization - 2s                        2p2 sp2 3 equivalent sp2 hybrid ...
sp22Orbital Hybridization sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬        sp Hybridization -                          Two sp2 orbitals form            ...
Ethene C2Hybridization ‫ﺟﺰيء اﻹﯾﺜﯿﻦ‬ sp2 Orbital H4 molecule       http://ganimchem.com/
Ethene C2H4 molecule ‫ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﯿﻦ‬                      The unhybridized p  p                   orbitals of the two carbon...
π Bond in ethene C2H4 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﯿﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺔ‬  2p2 sp2 The unhybridized 2p orbital are perpendicular to plane of the s bonds...
π Bond in ethene C2H4 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﯿﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺔ‬       p Bonding in Ethylene  p2 sp2side-by-side overlap p orbitalsside-by-give...
sp HybridizationEthyne molecule C2H2      sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬    ‫ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﺎﻳﻦ‬        C2 H 2     http://ganimchem.com/
Ethyne C2H2 molecule ‫ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﺎﻳﻦ‬            Structure of Acetylene      C2H2     HC      CHShape: Linear bond angles: 1...
Sp Hybridization - sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p          An electron from the 2s is excited to 2p orbital                          ‫2 اﻟﻰ ...
SpOrbital Hybridization sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬          sp Hybridization -2p                         2p     2s                        ...
Sp Hybridization - sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬                           2p   2s orbital and one 2p orbital mix together   to form two sp h...
Sp Hybridization - sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬               One sp orbital forms a s bond2p            with a hydrogen atom and the       ...
Sp Hybridization - sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p                                 s                               s2 sp2                    ...
π Bonds in ethyne C2H2 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﺎﯾﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺘﻲ‬                 The unhybridized p orbitals of2p               carbon form ...
π Bonds in ethyne C2H2 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﺎﯾﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺘﻲ‬2p2 sp2 p orbital of each carbon atom forms π bond    ‫ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ذرة ﻛﺮﺑﻮن ﻳﻜﻮﻧ...
π Bonds in ethyne C2H2 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﺎﯾﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺘﻲ‬2p2 spAnother p bond is formed between carbon atoms‫راﺑﻄﺔ ﺑﺎي ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﺑﯿ...
π Bonds in ethyne C2H2 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﺎﯾﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺘﻲ‬2p2 sp2               http://ganimchem.com/
Ethyne shape  ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﺎﻳﻦ‬http://ganimchem.com/
SP3 hybridization animation     hybridization.mht        http://ganimchem.com/
Hybridization animation      http://ganimchem.com/
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Hybridization التهجين

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An Eglish Arabic power point presentation about hybridization of carbon orbitals in organic compounds

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Hybridization التهجين

  1. 1. Bonding and orbitalhybridization in carbon atom‫اﻟﺮواﺑﻂ واﻟﺘﮫﺠﯿﻦ ﻓﻲ ذرة اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن‬ http://ganimchem.com/ 1
  2. 2. Electron configuration of Carbon Atom2p 2 unpaired electrons ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﯿﻦ ﻣﻔﺮدﻳﻦ‬ can form only two bonds to two hydrogen atoms with bond angle 900 ‫ﺗﻜﻮن راﺑﻄﺘﯿﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ذرﺗﻲ‬ 2s 900 ‫ھﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ واﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ ﺑﯿﻨﮫﻤﺎ‬ http://ganimchem.com/ 2
  3. 3. sp3 Hybridization sp3 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p An electron is excited from 2s to 2p orbital 2p ‫2 اﻟﻰ ﻓﻠﻚ‬s ‫ﻳﺜﺎر اﻟﻜﺘﺮون ﻣﻦ ﻓﻠﻚ‬ 2s http://ganimchem.com/ 3
  4. 4. sp3 Hybridization sp3sp3 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬ Hybridization sp3 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p 2p 2s 2s http://ganimchem.com/ 4
  5. 5. sp3 Orbital Hybridization 2p The 2s orbital and the three 2p orbitals mixtogether to form 4 sp3‫ ﻣﮫﺠﻨﺔ‬sp ‫2 وﺗﻜﻮن ارﺑﻌﺔ اﻓﻼك‬p ‫2 ﻣﻊ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ اﻓﻼك‬s ‫ﻳﻤﺘﺰج ﻓﻠﻚ‬ sp3 2s http://ganimchem.com/ 5
  6. 6. sp3 Orbital Hybridization sp3 Orbital Hybridization 2p 2s4 sp3 hybrid orbitals with tetrahedral geometry ‫ ﻣﮫﺠﻨﺔ ﻟﮫﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ رﺑﺎﻋﻲ‬sp3 ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ارﺑﻌﺔ اﻓﻼك‬ ‫اﻷوﺟﻪ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ‬ 2 sp3 http://ganimchem.com/ 6
  7. 7. SP3 hybrid orbitals, tetrahedral shape‫ اﻟﻤﮫﺠﻨﺔ‬SP3 ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ اﻷوﺟﻪ ﻷﻓﻼك‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  8. 8. Methane Structure ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺟﺰيء اﻟﻤﯿﺜﺎن‬Tetrahedral ‫رﺑﺎﻋﻲ اﻷوﺟﻪ‬Bond angles = 109.5° ‫زواﻳﺎ اﻟﺮواﺑﻂ‬ 109. http://ganimchem.com/
  9. 9. Structure of Ethane C2H6 ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺐ ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﺎن‬ CH3CH3Tetrahedral shape of the bonds at each carbon atom ‫ﺷﻜﻞ رواﺑﻂ ذرة اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن رﺑﺎﻋﻲ اﻷوﺟﻪ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  10. 10. sp2 Hybridization sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  11. 11. Ethene molecule C2H4 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﯿﻦ‬ C2H4 H2C=CH2 Shape : Planar ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮي‬ bond angles: 120° ‫اﻟﺰواﻳﺎ‬ 120° http://ganimchem.com/
  12. 12. sp2 Hybridization - sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p An electron from the 2s is excited to 2p orbital ‫2 اﻟﻰ ﻓﻠﻚ‬s ‫ﻳﺜﺎر اﻟﻜﺘﺮون ﻣﻦ ﻓﻠﻚ‬ 2s http://ganimchem.com/
  13. 13. sp2 Hybridization - sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p 2p 2s 2s http://ganimchem.com/
  14. 14. sp2 Hybridization - sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬ 2p2s orbital and two 2p orbitals hybridize to form three sp2 ‫2 وﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬p ‫2 وﻓﻠﻜﯿﻦ‬s ‫ﻳﺤﺪث ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ ﺑﯿﻦ ﻓﻠﻚ‬ .‫ ﻣﮫﺠﻨﺔ‬sp2 ‫اﻓﻼك‬ 2s http://ganimchem.com/
  15. 15. sp22Orbital Hybridization sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬ sp Hybridization - 2s 2p2 sp2 3 equivalent sp2 hybrid orbitals and 1 unhybridized p orbital. .‫2 ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﮫﺠﻦ‬p ‫ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ وﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻠﻚ‬sp2 ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن 3 اﻓﻼك‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  16. 16. sp22Orbital Hybridization sp2 ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬ sp Hybridization - Two sp2 orbitals form s bonds with 2H atoms the third forms a s bond 2p to C atom. ‫ ﺗﻜﻮن راﺑﺘﻄﯿﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮع‬sp2 ‫ﻓﻠﻜﯿﻦ‬2 sp2 ‫ﺳﯿﺠﻤﺎ ﻣﻊ ذرﺗﻲ ھﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﻠﻚ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻳﻀﺎ راﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺠﻤﺎ ﻣﻊ ذرة ﻛﺮﺑﻮن‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  17. 17. Ethene C2Hybridization ‫ﺟﺰيء اﻹﯾﺜﯿﻦ‬ sp2 Orbital H4 molecule http://ganimchem.com/
  18. 18. Ethene C2H4 molecule ‫ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﯿﻦ‬ The unhybridized p p orbitals of the two carbon atoms form p bond with2 sp2 each other . ‫ ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﮫﺠﻨﯿﻦ‬p ‫ﻓﻠﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺬرﺗﻲ اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎ راﺑﻄﺔ‬ π ‫ﺑﺎي‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  19. 19. π Bond in ethene C2H4 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﯿﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺔ‬ 2p2 sp2 The unhybridized 2p orbital are perpendicular to plane of the s bonds the π ‫2 ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﮫﺠﻨﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﻮر اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬p ‫اﻓﻼك‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  20. 20. π Bond in ethene C2H4 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﯿﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺔ‬ p Bonding in Ethylene p2 sp2side-by-side overlap p orbitalsside-by-gives a p bond. ‫اﻟﺘﺪاﺧﻞ اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻷﻓﻼك ﺗﻜﻮن راﺑﻄﺔ‬ p ‫ﺑﺎي‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  21. 21. sp HybridizationEthyne molecule C2H2 sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﺎﻳﻦ‬ C2 H 2 http://ganimchem.com/
  22. 22. Ethyne C2H2 molecule ‫ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﺎﻳﻦ‬ Structure of Acetylene C2H2 HC CHShape: Linear bond angles: 180° 180°1800 ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ: ﺧﻄﻲ - واﻟﺰواﻳﺎﺑﯿﻦ اﻟﺮواﺑﻂ‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  23. 23. Sp Hybridization - sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p An electron from the 2s is excited to 2p orbital ‫2 اﻟﻰ ﻓﻠﻚ‬s ‫ﻳﺜﺎر اﻟﻜﺘﺮون ﻣﻦ ﻓﻠﻚ‬ 2s http://ganimchem.com/
  24. 24. SpOrbital Hybridization sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬ sp Hybridization -2p 2p 2s 2s http://ganimchem.com/
  25. 25. Sp Hybridization - sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬ 2p 2s orbital and one 2p orbital mix together to form two sp hybrid orbitals‫2 ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬p ‫2 ﻣﻊ ﻓﻠﻚ واﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻓﻼك‬s ‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻂ ﻓﻠﻚ‬ ‫ ﻣﮫﺠﻨﯿﻦ‬sp ‫ﻓﻠﻜﯿﻦ‬ 2s http://ganimchem.com/
  26. 26. Sp Hybridization - sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬ One sp orbital forms a s bond2p with a hydrogen atom and the other forms a s bond with a carbon atom .2 sp2 ‫ راﺑﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ذرة‬sp ‫ﻳﻜﻮن ﻓﻠﻜﻲ‬ ‫ھﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ وراﺑﻄﺔ اﺧﺮى ﻣﻊ ذرة ﻛﺮﺑﻮن‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  27. 27. Sp Hybridization - sp ‫ﺗﮫﺠﯿﻦ‬2p s s2 sp2 s http://ganimchem.com/
  28. 28. π Bonds in ethyne C2H2 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﺎﯾﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺘﻲ‬ The unhybridized p orbitals of2p carbon form two p bonds between the 2 carbon atoms. ‫ ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﮫﺠﻨﺔ ﺗﻜﻮن راﺑﻄﺘﻲ‬p ‫ﻓﻠﻜﻲ‬2 sp ‫ﺑﺎي ﺑﯿﻦ ذرﺗﻲ اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  29. 29. π Bonds in ethyne C2H2 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﺎﯾﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺘﻲ‬2p2 sp2 p orbital of each carbon atom forms π bond ‫ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ذرة ﻛﺮﺑﻮن ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎ راﺑﻄﺔ ﺑﺎي‬p ‫ﻓﻠﻚ‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  30. 30. π Bonds in ethyne C2H2 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﺎﯾﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺘﻲ‬2p2 spAnother p bond is formed between carbon atoms‫راﺑﻄﺔ ﺑﺎي ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﺑﯿﻦ ذرﺗﻲ اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن ﻋﻤﻮدﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺧﺮى‬ http://ganimchem.com/
  31. 31. π Bonds in ethyne C2H2 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﺜﺎﯾﻦ‬π ‫راﺑﻄﺘﻲ‬2p2 sp2 http://ganimchem.com/
  32. 32. Ethyne shape ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺟﺰيء اﻹﻳﺜﺎﻳﻦ‬http://ganimchem.com/
  33. 33. SP3 hybridization animation hybridization.mht http://ganimchem.com/
  34. 34. Hybridization animation http://ganimchem.com/

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