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Structured problem solving methodology,Tools and Techniques

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In a business environment ,one of the essential competency for effective executive or manager is problem solving skill.In this basic version, we attempted to give holistic way of solving the problems step by step methodologies and application of of relevant tools & techniques in each step .It is surely useful for beginners.

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Structured problem solving methodology,Tools and Techniques

  1. 1. Structured Problem Solving Methodology, Tools and Techniques (Basic version)
  2. 2. www.winningmindssolutions.com • Need for Structured Problem solving Culture in organization • Steps in structured problem solving methodology • Tools and Techniques in problems solving methodology • Challenges in implementing problem solving culture in SME organization • Case study examples(on request) Learning Objectives…
  3. 3. www.winningmindssolutions.com Typical scenario in SME organization
  4. 4. www.winningmindssolutions.com Typical behaviors on problem solving in SME organizations  Not realizing the problem or trend No structured, authentic data from shop floor or workplace  Once problem is realized, jump to quick solutions  Same issue is cropping up frequently  Busy in firefighting. “somehow” resolving issues Hesitate to conclude the options  No facilitation on arriving solutions
  5. 5. www.winningmindssolutions.com Defining “Problem”
  6. 6. www.winningmindssolutions.com Desired Status Current Status Gap =Problem
  7. 7. www.winningmindssolutions.com Hence , Problem need not be only quality issues, it can be anything like poor sales performance , delivery shortage, manpower absenteeism etc
  8. 8. www.winningmindssolutions.com PROBLEMSPROBLEMS Hidden root causes! People make mistakes Part Failures / wrong specification Poor Equipment reliability Inconsistent in process Communication Issues a problem is just tip of the iceberg!
  9. 9. www.winningmindssolutions.com Types of causes for a problem
  10. 10. www.winningmindssolutions.com Which cause must to be addressed ?
  11. 11. www.winningmindssolutions.com • accepted as a way of doing business • spending most of the time addressing the problem • happens so often we know exactly what to do in order to quickly correct the problem • little effect over a short term period, large effect over a long term period Common Cause Problems
  12. 12. www.winningmindssolutions.com • not accepted as a part of doing business • must be addressed immediately • happens on rare occasions • requires a great deal of time, effort, and resources to correct • has a high short term effect and a low long term effect. Special Cause Problems
  13. 13. www.winningmindssolutions.com Hours Special cause
  14. 14. www.winningmindssolutions.com Essence of problem solving approach More you do PDCA ,Less Problems
  15. 15. www.winningmindssolutions.com Steps in problem solving
  16. 16. www.winningmindssolutions.com Identify Data collection and Prioritization Root cause Analysis Action Plan Trial Check against target Standardize Steps in problem solving methodology
  17. 17. 17 Step 1. Identification of problem
  18. 18. www.winningmindssolutions.com Identification of problem  Select the problem based on Severity Cost Customer Service  Form a cross functional team Define problem statement and set improvement Goal
  19. 19. www.winningmindssolutions.com Step 2. Data Collection & Prioritize
  20. 20. www.winningmindssolutions.com It requires Time  Detailing Unbiased Data collection
  21. 21. www.winningmindssolutions.com Tools for data collection Check sheet
  22. 22. www.winningmindssolutions.com A check sheet is a paper form on which item to be checked have been printed already so that data can be collected easily and concisely. Purpose of check sheet 1) To make data-gathering easy ; 2) To arrange data automatically so that they can be used easily later on To collect data in a systematic and simple manner method Check sheet
  23. 23. www.winningmindssolutions.com Check sheet Example Utilization factors Shift 1 (Time in Min) Shift 2 (Time in Min) Machine breakdown 70 90 Tool setting 68 56 Material not available 87 57 Operator not available 42 90
  24. 24. www.winningmindssolutions.com AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM C B 1 2 C C C B C B C C 1 2 A B Fri Sat Equipment Operator Mon Tue Wed Thu B-Blow holes C –Crack Check sheet Example
  25. 25. www.winningmindssolutions.com Tools for Prioritization Stratification Pareto diagram
  26. 26. www.winningmindssolutions.com Stratification consolidation of data into family or group so that we know the macro view of the situation
  27. 27. www.winningmindssolutions.com Stratification example 0 10 20 30 40 50 A B C D E PowerConsumption% Process Area Power Consumption Process Area Wise 12% 32% 25% 5% 26%
  28. 28. www.winningmindssolutions.com Prioritizing based on data pattern
  29. 29. www.winningmindssolutions.com Strain 104 104 52 52 Scratch 42 146 21 73 Pinhole 20 166 10 83 Crack 10 176 5 88 Stain 6 182 3 91 Gap 4 186 2 93 Others 14 200 7 100 Total 200 - 100 - Cumulative Percentage Type of Defect Number of Defect Cumulative Total Percentage of Overall Total Data sheet for pareto
  30. 30. www.winningmindssolutions.com A : Crack, B : Scratch, C : Stain, D : Strain, E : Gap, F : Pinhole. No of defectives Examples of Pareto Diagram 42 20 10 6 4 14 104 52 100 939188 83 73 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 D B F A C E Others 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage defectives
  31. 31. www.winningmindssolutions.com Step 3. Root cause analysis
  32. 32. www.winningmindssolutions.com Process: List out all Possible Causes Find out the Probable Causes Brain Storming Find out the Root Causes Verify the Possible Causes Verify the Probable Causes
  33. 33. www.winningmindssolutions.com  Gather all relevant people together  Get opinion / ideas for the problem from each person Do not criticize or neglect anyone‘s opinion / idea List down all the opinion / ideas Brain storming process :
  34. 34. www.winningmindssolutions.com Example of Cause and Effect Diagram MAN Motor not Working MATERIAL Improper Fixing of Bracket Brake strap Assembling With out Spring Wrong setting of Torque in Drivers Driver used for Fixing Tub and under base METHOD MACHINE Driver used for Tightening Motor Driver used for Tightening Brake Drum Driver used for fixing brake fix plate Tightening of Brake Drum Tightening of Motor Assembly Brake strap Length variation Brake Drum OD Actuator length variation Bracket Brake thickness Variation Lid Bracket ID variation Spring Stiffness Variation Spring length Variation Spring Stiffness Variation Brake Sleeve Length VariationAssembling of wrong motor Tightening of Brake fix Plate Tightening of Lid Switch in Timer Bracket Assembling of Bracket Brake strap in Wrong Hook Position Assembling of wrong spin timer Brake Drum OD Brake Drum ID
  35. 35. www.winningmindssolutions.com Validation of each POSSIBLE causes by checking against STANDARDS or in ACTUAL WORKPLACE
  36. 36. www.winningmindssolutions.com S S S S S Possible causes Probable causes
  37. 37. www.winningmindssolutions.com Why–Why Analysis
  38. 38. www.winningmindssolutions.com Ask Why? To get ROOT CAUSE of the problem  Who?  What?  When?  Where?  Why?  How?
  39. 39. www.winningmindssolutions.com Ask Why? Answer Replace worn chain ( 7) Drive chain failures Root Cause & Solution Why chains failing? Drive chain wears & breaks. Why do drive chains wear & break? Sprockets are worn Replace sprocket Why are sprockets worn? Bearings are worn Replace bearings Why are bearings worn? Broken grease line Replace line Why was the line broken? Broken during cleaning Reroute the line so it cannot be damaged. Example “Why Why Analysis”
  40. 40. www.winningmindssolutions.com Step 4. Action Plan
  41. 41. www.winningmindssolutions.com  prepare action plan with •Clear actions ( short term and long term) •People responsible for deliverables •Timeline specific Preparing Action Plan
  42. 42. www.winningmindssolutions.com S.No Category Causes / issues Action Description Completion Target Resp 1 Utilization Setting time > 3 hrs Implement SMED in press to reduce to 2 hrs 3rd jun’16 Vinoth 2 B/d : Avg 5 hrs Ensure availability of critical spare 16th Jul’16 Vivek 3 Efficiency Low manpower output Train on loading / and Multi comp loading 17th May’16 Vasu 4 Quality 2% Rejection in Grinding Change wheel once in 1000 no’s immediate suresh Example of Action Plan Can you identify the RIGHT & WRONG practices in above examples ?
  43. 43. www.winningmindssolutions.com Making RIGHT ACTION PLAN is Management SKILL
  44. 44. www.winningmindssolutions.com Challenges in preparing action plan : Uncertainty Risk Taking Business sense Decision making One of the essential management skill to be learnt
  45. 45. www.winningmindssolutions.com Step 5. Conducting Trial
  46. 46. www.winningmindssolutions.com • Implement in small batch or in Pilot area •Validate the assumptions •Look for any other side effects Process of Conducting Trial
  47. 47. www.winningmindssolutions.com Step 6. Check Result against Target
  48. 48. www.winningmindssolutions.com 709 662 330 273 376 275 250 400 550 700 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Month QtyProduced Production Trend Example of checking using line graphExample of checking using line graph
  49. 49. www.winningmindssolutions.com 3.4 3 4 6.3 4 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun HrsExample of Checking using Bar Chart :Example of Checking using Bar Chart : Month Equipment break down hrs Trend
  50. 50. www.winningmindssolutions.com Step 7. Standardization
  51. 51. www.winningmindssolutions.com  Revise / Update design documents Horizontal applications SOP’s Standardization process
  52. 52. www.winningmindssolutions.com Essence of problem solving approach More you do PDCA ,Less Problems
  53. 53. www.winningmindssolutions.com Thank you for your Interest For complete download , pl mail us to ganesh@winningmindssolutions.com mobile : +91 90259 33666 For Business / Life Excellence articles and case studies pl visit website : www.winningmindssolutions.com

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