06 Chapter 11 Weather Climate

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06 Chapter 11 Weather Climate

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11 WEATHER AND CLIMATE
  2. 2. Let’s think about Singapore
  3. 6. Weather Is All Around Us <ul><li>Meteorologists are people who study the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place over a short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Climate refers to the weather pattern of a place over a long period of time, usually 30 years or more </li></ul><ul><li>The basic elements of weather and climate: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul>
  4. 7. Temperature <ul><li>Temperature refers to the degree of hotness or coldness of the air </li></ul><ul><li>It varies throughout the day in a place </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature rises and falls as the Earth rotates from west to east (seasons) </li></ul><ul><li>Places nearer the Equator are warmer throughout the year than places farther away </li></ul>
  5. 8. Temperature <ul><li>The temperature rises during the day and falls at night </li></ul><ul><li>It also varies from place to place </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature gets cooler as we go to higher grounds </li></ul>
  6. 9. Altitude <ul><li>Refers to the height of the land </li></ul><ul><li>Warm air rises – this air cools as it rises and thus temperature decreases as we increase with height </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, temperature decreases with increasing height </li></ul>
  7. 11. Latitude <ul><li>Places near the earth’s Equator (e.g.: Singapore, Malaysia) receive a higher concentration of Sun’s rays and thus more sunshine </li></ul><ul><li>Places further away from the Equator (North pole, South pole) receive a lower concentration of sunshine as the sun’s rays are spread over a larger area. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus that is why places further away from the equator are cooler. </li></ul>
  8. 13. Measuring Temperature <ul><li>Air temperature is measured with a thermometer </li></ul><ul><li>The scale is in degree Celsius ( º C) </li></ul><ul><li>Daily maximum temperature refers to the highest temperature reading for the day </li></ul><ul><li>Daily minimum temperature refers to the lowest temperature reading for the day </li></ul>Glass tube Mercury or alcohol
  9. 14. Calculating Temperatures <ul><li>The mean daily temperature is the average temperature of a place on any one day </li></ul>Formula Mean daily temperature = Daily maximum Daily minimum temperature + temperature 2
  10. 15. Calculating Temperatures <ul><li>The daily temperature range is the difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures recorded in a day </li></ul>Formula Daily temperature range = Daily maximum Daily minimum temperature - temperature
  11. 16. Calculating Temperatures <ul><li>The mean monthly temperature is the average temperature of a place in a month </li></ul>Formula Mean monthly temperature = Sum of mean daily temperatures for the month Number of days in the month
  12. 17. Calculating Temperatures <ul><li>The mean annual temperature is the average temperature in a place within a year </li></ul>Formula Mean annual temperature = Sum of mean monthly temperatures in the year 12
  13. 18. Calculating Temperatures <ul><li>The annual temperature range is the difference between the maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures recorded in a year </li></ul>Formula Annual temperature range = Maximum Minimum mean monthly - mean monthly temperature temperature

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