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OpenPOWER Workshop in Silicon Valley


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OpenPOWER Lab delivered as part of Silicon Valley workshop

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OpenPOWER Workshop in Silicon Valley

  1. 1. March 16, 2019 Catherine Diep Introduction to Running AI Workloads on PowerAI
  2. 2. Agenda • IBM PowerAI Overview • AI Workload Demos using TensorFlow • PyTorch Hands-On Lab 2
  3. 3. IBM PowerAI 3 •Download it from here: •Connect to the PowerAI Conda repository •Get the Docker container from here: An enterprise software distribution that combines popular open source deep learning frameworks, efficient AI development tools, and accelerated IBM® Power Systems™ servers to take your deep learning projects to the next level
  4. 4. More Information 4 Visit website:
  5. 5. PoweAI Docker Containers 5 docker run -ti --env LICENSE=yes --name container_name ibmcom/powerai:1.6.0-all-ubuntu18.04-py3 bash
  6. 6. Using PowerAI for your workloads 6 Activate the virtual environment for your framework to get started! Example: source /opt/DL/tensorflow/bin/tensorflow-activate source /opt/DL/pytorch/bin/pytorch-activate
  7. 7. Deep learning overview 7 Deep Learning consists of algorithms that permit software to train itself— by exposing multilayered neural networks to vast amounts of data. • Map x → y • Neural net is a graph • Data flow: left to right • Input(s) of the current cell are the output(s) from previous cells • Tweak all weights until output matches expected outcome
  8. 8. Computation at a node 8
  9. 9. Training = tweak weights to minimize error (loss) 9 Repeat over and over and over ...
  10. 10. Training Flow • Continuously feed in input data to model, comparing output predictions and actual labels in order to compute loss. • An optimization algorithm is used to minimize this loss by tweaking the weights and biases of the model. • The model is progressively improved and predictions become more accurate as more data is fed. Compute (Run input through model) Compute loss (Compare output to label) Adjust weights and biases (Minimize loss) Output data (Predictions) Input data - Gradient Descent Algorithm - Adam Optimization Algorithm - … - Cross Entropy - Mean Squared Error - … 10
  11. 11. 11 Let’s look at some TensorFlow workloads!
  12. 12. MNIST 12 The MNIST (Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology) dataset consists of 60,000 images of handwritten digits like: Each image has an associated label denoting which digit it is. The above images would have labels 5, 0, 4, and 1.
  13. 13. Problem Description: Image Classification 13 We want to be able to train a deep learning model using the MNIST dataset that will be able to look at images and predict what digits they are.
  14. 14. Computer Vision 14 How machines view images:
  15. 15. 1. Download workload => cd => git clone 2. Training => cd tf_mnist => python ./ The training result will be saved in ~/tf_mnist/saved-model 15 Running the MNIST workload
  16. 16. 3. Prediction 16 Running the MNIST workload (continued) Predict the class of an image using the models saved in the ~/tf_mnist/saved-model directory with a sample image from ~/tf_mnist/sample-images directory. => python ./ sample-images/img_1.jpg # Sample image (img_1.jpg): # This is the program output: 2 (confidence = 0.99987) 3 (confidence = 0.00010) 0 (confidence = 0.00003) 8 (confidence = 0.00000) 5 (confidence = 0.00000) The result shows that the answer with the most confidence is “2”.
  17. 17. 17 Basic Linear Regression MNIST
  18. 18. Implement Placeholders 18 • Placeholders are input • x is a 2D array for the images: • Each row is one flattened 28x28 image • First dimension is “None”, to be used to pull in a batch of images at a time (more later) • y_ is 2D array for the labels: • Second dimension 10 for the one-hot representation # Placeholder that will be fed image data. x = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, [None, 784]) # Placeholder that will be fed the correct labels. y_ = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, [None, 10])
  19. 19. Implement Weight and Bias 19 • Weight and Bias are variables: to be tweaked during training • Weight is a 2D array: 784 x 10 • Bias is a vector: 10 • Initialized with certain values: important for optimization algorithm def weight_variable(shape): """Generates a weight variable of a given shape.""" initial = tf.truncated_normal(shape, stddev=0.1) return tf.Variable(initial) def bias_variable(shape): """Generates a bias variable of a given shape.""" initial = tf.constant(0.1, shape=shape) return tf.Variable(initial) # Define weight and bias. W = weight_variable([784, 10]) b = bias_variable([10])
  20. 20. Implement Regression and Loss Optimizer 20 • Neural network: Regression + SoftMax • Loss function: how far off is the prediction from the label • Optimizer algorithm: how to tweak the variables # Here we define our model which utilizes the softmax regression. y = tf.nn.softmax(tf.matmul(x, W) + b) # Define our loss. cross_entropy = tf.reduce_mean(-tf.reduce_sum(y_ * tf.log(y), reduction_indices=[1])) # Define our optimizer. train_step = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(0.5).minimize(cross_entropy)
  21. 21. 21 Convolutional Neural Net ● Neural network with series of convolutional, downsampling, and non-linear layers ● Are deployed in many practical applications ○ Image and speech recognition, video analysis, drug discovery ● Most commonly used for image classification
  22. 22. 22 Let’s try some PyTorch!
  23. 23. PyTorch 23 PyTorch is a relatively new deep learning framework. Yet, it has begun to gain adoption especially among researchers and data scientists. ▪ Goal is to build a flexible deep learning research platform that supports ▪ Dynamic computation graphs ▪ Native Python packages ▪ Auto-differentiation (gradient computations) ▪ Open sourced January, 2017 ▪ Rapid adoption one year in … ▪ 3,983 github repo mentioned PyTorch in their name or description ▪ Taught in universities classes (Stanford, Carnegie Mellon University, ....) ▪ Fast growing community ▪ 5,400 users wrote 21k posts discussing 5,200 topics on PyTorch forums ▪ Merged with Caffe2 March 30, 2018 ▪ Currently at version 0.4.0
  24. 24. PyTorch Abstractions 24 ● Tensor ○ Multi-dimensional arrays ○ Similar to NumPy (np) ndarrays, but can also be used on a GPU ○ Can easily convert from np arrays to torch tensor and vise versa ○ Support automatic differentiation for all operations on tensors. ○ Members includes .data (tensor), .grad (gradient w.r.t corresponding .data), etc. ○ Package: “import torch” ○ Tensor tutorial ○ Autograd tutorial ● Module ○ Base class to build neural network. ○ Inputs & output for training are Tensors. ○ Store learnable weights & biases as parameters ○ May store states ○ Package: “import torch.nn.Module” ○ Module tutorial ● And many more ….
  25. 25. ● Consult handouts for credentials and access information. 25 Open Jupyter notebooks
  26. 26. Backup 26
  27. 27. 27 Softmax ▪ Cross entropy