Gadgets, inventors, technology
Reading: Advertisements, asking for help
Listening: Note taking, multiple choice
Grammar: Order of adjectives;
the passive; question tags
Vocabulary: Inventions, inventors, computers
Speaking: Describing objects, offering, accepting
Adjectives describe nouns (a big
house). They have the some from in
the singular and plural.
A small car – small cars
Adjectives go before nouns.
A beautiful village.
They can also be used alone after
the verb to be and after verbs such
as: look, smell, sound, fell taste,
Marry is young. You look tired.
There are two kinds of
adjectives: opinion adjectives
(beautiful, good, etc.) which
show what a person thinks of
somebody or something and
fact adjectives (long, strong,
young, etc.) which give us
factual information about age,
size, colour , etc.
Order of adjectives
Opinion adjectives go before fact
adjectives. A beautiful summer dress
When there are two or more fact
adjectives in a sentence, they usually go
in the following order:
size Age Shape Colour Origin Material
A small old square blue Thai silk scarf
•We do not usually have a long list of adjectives before a single noun. A noun is usually described be one, two or three adjectives at the most.
A large Chinese porcelain vase.
We do not usually have a long list of
adjectives before a single noun. A noun is
usually described be one, two or three
adjectives at the most.
A large Chinese porcelain vase.
Describe the objects using the adjectives.
1 plastic, black, ugly 5 green, nice, glass
2 French, nice, wooden 6 beige, rectangular, big
3 cute, old, brown 7 pink, horrible, long
4 metal, practical, white 8 yellow, attractive, plastic
We form the passive with the verb
to be in the appropriate tense and
the past participle of the main verb.
Only transitive verbs(verbs which
take an object) can be used in the
passive. (live does not have a
We use the passive
When the person or people who do the action are
unknow, uniportant or obvoius from the context.
Her bag was stolen. ( we don’t know who stole it)
the bike is being repaired. (it’s unimportant who is
repairing it). The robbers were arrested. (it’s
obvious that the police arrested them)
When the action itself is more important than the
person/people who do it, as in news headlines,
newspaper articles, formal notices, adverts,
insructions, processes, ets, the conference was
held on April 12th.
When we want to avoid taking responsibility for an
action or when we refer to an unpleasant event
and we do not want to say who or what is to
blame. Four people were killed in the car crash.
Changing from the actives to the passive
The object or the actives sentence
becomes the subject in the passive
The actives verb remains in the same
tense but changes into a passive form.
The subject of the actives sentence
becomes the agent, and is either
introduced with the preposition by or is
Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet.
Romeo and Juliet by Shakespearewas written
James Cameron directed Avatar.
Avatar by James Cameronwas directed
am/is/are + past participle
was/were+ past participle
Brie locate Florida
Quartz clock make Leonardo da Vinci
The sauce invent mayonnaise and
Mona Lisa paint France
Disneyland produce Jim Quartz
1 Brie is produced in France.
2 Quartz clock was made by Jim Quartz.
3 The sauce is produced with mayonnaise and
4 Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
5 Disneyland is located in Florida
A B C
Only transitive verbs(verbs that take an object) can be changed into the
passive. Actives: Jack lives in the second floor (intransitive verb). No
passive form: The second floor is lived on by Jack.
Note : Some transitive verbs (have, exist, seem fit, suit, resemble, lack,
cannot be changed into the passive. Mike has a re bicycle. NOT: A red
bicycle is had by Mike.
By + the agent is used to say who or what carries out an action. With +
instrument/ material/ingredient is used to say what the agent used.
The sauce was made by Ann.It was made with tomoatoes and garlic.
The agent can be omitted when the subject is: they, he,
someone/someody, people one, etc. Somebody has broken the window.
The window has been broken.
The agent is not omitted when it is a specific or
important person, or when it is essential to the
meaning of he sentence. This novel was written be
With verbs which can take two objects, such as
bring, tell, send, show, teach, promise, buy, sell,
read, offer, give, lend, etc, we can from to two
different passive sentence.
Bill gave the letters by Sam. (active)
Sam was given the letter by Bill(passive, more
The Letter was given to Sam by Bill.(passive, less
The verbs hear, help, see and make are followed
by the bare infinitive in the actives , but by the to-
infinitive in the passive. She made her clean her
room. She was made to clean her room.
Let becomes be allowed to in the passive. The
teacher let the children play in the playground.
The children were allowed to play in the
To ask questions in the passive we follow the
same rules as for statements, keeping in mind that
the verb is in the interrogative form.
Have they opened the new gym yet? Has the new
gym been opened(by them) yet?
When we want to find out who or what performed
an action, the passive question form is
who/what...by? who was the play directed by?
Question tags are short question at the end of
statements. We use them, mainly is speech, to invite the
listener to agree with us(when we are sure about what
we are saying) or to correct us(when we are not sure).
We form a question tag with the auxiliary verb or modal
of the main clause and the appropriate subject pronoun.
He’s kind. Isn’t he?
You’ve got a car, haven’t you?
He can speak German, can’t he?
When the auxiliary verb in the main clause is a
affirmative, the question tag is negative.
She has told everyone, hasn’t she?
When the sentence is negative, the question tag is a
He didn’t open the car, did he?
When the sentence contains a word with a
negative meaning, like never, hardly,
seldom, or rarely, the question tag is
You never watch TV, do you?
When the verb of the sentence is in the
present simple, we form the question tag
with the auxilary verbs do/does and the
subject pronoun. When the verb is in the
past simple, we form the question tag
with the auxilary verb did and the subject
Cats don’t like water, do they? They won
the trophy, didn’t they?