Unit 9


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Unit 9

  1. 1. LOGO UNIT 9 Gadgets, inventors, technology
  2. 2. www.themegallery.com Gadgets, inventors, technology Reading: Advertisements, asking for help Listening: Note taking, multiple choice Grammar: Order of adjectives; the passive; question tags Vocabulary: Inventions, inventors, computers Speaking: Describing objects, offering, accepting
  3. 3. www.themegallery.com Adjectives Adjectives describe nouns (a big house). They have the some from in the singular and plural. A small car – small cars Adjectives go before nouns. A beautiful village. They can also be used alone after the verb to be and after verbs such as: look, smell, sound, fell taste, etc. Marry is young. You look tired.
  4. 4. www.themegallery.com There are two kinds of adjectives: opinion adjectives (beautiful, good, etc.) which show what a person thinks of somebody or something and fact adjectives (long, strong, young, etc.) which give us factual information about age, size, colour , etc.
  5. 5. www.themegallery.com Order of adjectives Opinion adjectives go before fact adjectives. A beautiful summer dress When there are two or more fact adjectives in a sentence, they usually go in the following order: size Age Shape Colour Origin Material A small old square blue Thai silk scarf •We do not usually have a long list of adjectives before a single noun. A noun is usually described be one, two or three adjectives at the most. A large Chinese porcelain vase. We do not usually have a long list of adjectives before a single noun. A noun is usually described be one, two or three adjectives at the most. A large Chinese porcelain vase.
  6. 6. www.themegallery.com Describe the objects using the adjectives. 1 plastic, black, ugly 5 green, nice, glass 2 French, nice, wooden 6 beige, rectangular, big 3 cute, old, brown 7 pink, horrible, long 4 metal, practical, white 8 yellow, attractive, plastic
  7. 7. www.themegallery.com The Passive We form the passive with the verb to be in the appropriate tense and the past participle of the main verb. Only transitive verbs(verbs which take an object) can be used in the passive. (live does not have a passive form)
  8. 8. www.themegallery.com  We use the passive  When the person or people who do the action are unknow, uniportant or obvoius from the context. Her bag was stolen. ( we don’t know who stole it) the bike is being repaired. (it’s unimportant who is repairing it). The robbers were arrested. (it’s obvious that the police arrested them)  When the action itself is more important than the person/people who do it, as in news headlines, newspaper articles, formal notices, adverts, insructions, processes, ets, the conference was held on April 12th.  When we want to avoid taking responsibility for an action or when we refer to an unpleasant event and we do not want to say who or what is to blame. Four people were killed in the car crash.
  9. 9. www.themegallery.com  Changing from the actives to the passive  The object or the actives sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence.  The actives verb remains in the same tense but changes into a passive form.  The subject of the actives sentence becomes the agent, and is either introduced with the preposition by or is omitted.
  10. 10. www.themegallery.com Passive voice Subject Object Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. Subject Agent Romeo and Juliet by Shakespearewas written
  11. 11. www.themegallery.com Passive voice Subject Object James Cameron directed Avatar. Subject Agent Avatar by James Cameronwas directed Active Present simple Past simple Subject Object Passive am/is/are + past participle was/were+ past participle agent subject
  12. 12. www.themegallery.com Brie locate Florida Quartz clock make Leonardo da Vinci The sauce invent mayonnaise and mustard Mona Lisa paint France Disneyland produce Jim Quartz 1 Brie is produced in France. 2 Quartz clock was made by Jim Quartz. 3 The sauce is produced with mayonnaise and mustard 4 Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci. 5 Disneyland is located in Florida A B C
  13. 13. www.themegallery.com  Only transitive verbs(verbs that take an object) can be changed into the passive. Actives: Jack lives in the second floor (intransitive verb). No passive form: The second floor is lived on by Jack.  Note : Some transitive verbs (have, exist, seem fit, suit, resemble, lack, etc)  cannot be changed into the passive. Mike has a re bicycle. NOT: A red bicycle is had by Mike.  By + the agent is used to say who or what carries out an action. With + instrument/ material/ingredient is used to say what the agent used.  The sauce was made by Ann.It was made with tomoatoes and garlic.  The agent can be omitted when the subject is: they, he, someone/someody, people one, etc. Somebody has broken the window. The window has been broken.
  14. 14. www.themegallery.com  The agent is not omitted when it is a specific or important person, or when it is essential to the meaning of he sentence. This novel was written be Oscar Wilde.  With verbs which can take two objects, such as bring, tell, send, show, teach, promise, buy, sell, read, offer, give, lend, etc, we can from to two different passive sentence.  Bill gave the letters by Sam. (active)  Sam was given the letter by Bill(passive, more common)  The Letter was given to Sam by Bill.(passive, less common)
  15. 15. www.themegallery.com  The verbs hear, help, see and make are followed by the bare infinitive in the actives , but by the to- infinitive in the passive. She made her clean her room. She was made to clean her room.  Let becomes be allowed to in the passive. The teacher let the children play in the playground. The children were allowed to play in the playground.  To ask questions in the passive we follow the same rules as for statements, keeping in mind that the verb is in the interrogative form.  Have they opened the new gym yet? Has the new gym been opened(by them) yet?  When we want to find out who or what performed an action, the passive question form is who/what...by? who was the play directed by?
  16. 16. www.themegallery.com  Question tags  Use  Question tags are short question at the end of statements. We use them, mainly is speech, to invite the listener to agree with us(when we are sure about what we are saying) or to correct us(when we are not sure).
  17. 17. www.themegallery.com  Form  We form a question tag with the auxiliary verb or modal of the main clause and the appropriate subject pronoun.  He’s kind. Isn’t he?  You’ve got a car, haven’t you?  He can speak German, can’t he?  When the auxiliary verb in the main clause is a affirmative, the question tag is negative.  She has told everyone, hasn’t she?  When the sentence is negative, the question tag is a affirmative.  He didn’t open the car, did he?
  18. 18. www.themegallery.com  When the sentence contains a word with a negative meaning, like never, hardly, seldom, or rarely, the question tag is affirmative.  You never watch TV, do you?  When the verb of the sentence is in the present simple, we form the question tag with the auxilary verbs do/does and the subject pronoun. When the verb is in the past simple, we form the question tag with the auxilary verb did and the subject pronoun.  Cats don’t like water, do they? They won the trophy, didn’t they?
  19. 19. LOGO