LOG
O
UNIT 8
Character qualities,
sports, entertainment
Character qualities, sports,
entertainment
Reading: People’s profiles for a contest,
deciding on where to go
Listening: Ma...
Infinitive
The to-infinitive is used:
To express purpose.
She went to the supermarket to buy milk
and eggs.
After certain ...
After adjectives which describe feelings/ emotions
(happy, glad, sad, etc), express
willingness/unwillingness (eager, relu...
The infinitive without to (also
called bare infinitive) is used:
After modal verbs.
She can sing well.
After the verbs let...
-ing form
The – ing form is used:
As a noun.
Swimming is very good for your health.
After certain verbs: admit, appreciate...
After expressions such as: be busy, it’s no
use, it’s no good, it’s (not) worth, what’s
use of, can’t help, there is no po...
After the preposition to which and
expressions such as: look forward to,
be used to in addition to, object to,
prefer (doi...
Mustn’t - Don’t have to
We use mustn’t to express prohibition.
You mustn’t par here. (You aren’t allowed
to: it is against...
-ing/-ed participles
We use –ing participles to describe but
something/ someone was like.
The costumes were amazing. (What...
Preference
To express general preference we use:
Prefer + noun/ -ing + to + noun/-ing
I prefer meat to chicken. I prefer s...
Would prefer + noun (rather than +
noun).
Would like a cup of tea? I’d prefer
coffee, thanks.
Would rather bare infinitive...
Too/Enough
We use to + adjective/ adverb (for sb/sth) +
to-infinitive to show that something is more
than is wanted/ permi...
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Unit 8

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Unit 8

  1. 1. LOG O UNIT 8 Character qualities, sports, entertainment
  2. 2. Character qualities, sports, entertainment Reading: People’s profiles for a contest, deciding on where to go Listening: Matching people to sports Grammar: infinitive; -ing form; -ing/-ed participated Vocabulary: Hobbies personalities, sports, equipments, clothes shopping Speaking: Expressing agreement, talking about evenings out
  3. 3. Infinitive The to-infinitive is used: To express purpose. She went to the supermarket to buy milk and eggs. After certain verbs that refer to the future (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise, refuse, etc). They plan to move house. After would like, would prefer, would love, etc to express a specific preference. I would prefer to stay in tonight.
  4. 4. After adjectives which describe feelings/ emotions (happy, glad, sad, etc), express willingness/unwillingness (eager, reluctant, willing, etc) or refer to a person’s character (clever, kind, etc) and the adjectives lucky and fortunate. I was very glad to hear that he got promoted. After too/enough. It isn’t warm enough to sit in the garden. In the expressions to tell you the truth, to be honest, to sum up, to begin with, etc. To be honest, I don’t believe what he said.
  5. 5. The infinitive without to (also called bare infinitive) is used: After modal verbs. She can sing well. After the verbs let, make, see , hear and feel. They made her tell them truth. BUT: We use the to-infinitive after be made, be heard, be seen, etc (passive form). She was made to tell them the truth. After had better and would rather. We had better hurry or we’ll miss the bus. Help can be followed by either the to-infinitive other infinitive without to. She helped me (to) finish my essay.
  6. 6. -ing form The – ing form is used: As a noun. Swimming is very good for your health. After certain verbs: admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, continue, deny, fancy, go (for activities), imagine, mind, miss, quit, save, suggest, practice, prevent. Do you mind closing the window? After love, like, enjoy, prefer, dislike, hate to express general preference. She enjoys going out. BUT: for a specific preference (would like/ would prefer/ would love) we use to- infinitive. I would love to see you.
  7. 7. After expressions such as: be busy, it’s no use, it’s no good, it’s (not) worth, what’s use of, can’t help, there is no point (in), can’t stand, have difficulty (in), have trouble, etc. I can’t stand people telling lies. After spend, waste or lose (time, money etc). They spent their money buying souvenirs.
  8. 8. After the preposition to which and expressions such as: look forward to, be used to in addition to, object to, prefer (doing sth) to (sth else). She prefers walking to driving to work. After other prepositions. He was thinking of buying a new car.
  9. 9. Mustn’t - Don’t have to We use mustn’t to express prohibition. You mustn’t par here. (You aren’t allowed to: it is against the law) We use don’t have to express lack necessity. You don’t have to dust the furniture; I have already done it (it is not necessary)
  10. 10. -ing/-ed participles We use –ing participles to describe but something/ someone was like. The costumes were amazing. (What were the costumes like amazing) We use –ed participles to describe how someone feels/ felt. We were amazed at the costumes. (How did we feel? Amazed)
  11. 11. Preference To express general preference we use: Prefer + noun/ -ing + to + noun/-ing I prefer meat to chicken. I prefer swimming to jogging. Prefer + to-infinitive + rather than + bare infinitive I prefer to cook rather than eat out. To express specific preference we use: Would prefer + to- infinitive (rather than + bare infinitive). I’d prefer to watch TV (rather than go out)
  12. 12. Would prefer + noun (rather than + noun). Would like a cup of tea? I’d prefer coffee, thanks. Would rather bare infinitive (than + bare infinitive). I’d rather go shopping than stay at home.
  13. 13. Too/Enough We use to + adjective/ adverb (for sb/sth) + to-infinitive to show that something is more than is wanted/ permitted, etc. She is too young to drive. (She isn’t allowed to drive.) We use (not) + adj/adverb + enough (for sb/sth) + to- infinitive to show that something is (not) as much as is wanted/ necessary etc.she isn’t old enough to drive. (she isn’t allowed to drive) Enough follows an adj/adverb, but it is placed before a noun. They didn’t have enough money to buy all they wanted
  14. 14. LOG O

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