Character qualities, sports,
Reading: People’s profiles for a contest,
deciding on where to go
Listening: Matching people to sports
Grammar: infinitive; -ing form;
Vocabulary: Hobbies personalities, sports,
equipments, clothes shopping
Speaking: Expressing agreement,
talking about evenings out
The to-infinitive is used:
To express purpose.
She went to the supermarket to buy milk
After certain verbs that refer to the future
(agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan,
promise, refuse, etc).
They plan to move house.
After would like, would prefer, would love, etc
to express a specific preference.
I would prefer to stay in tonight.
After adjectives which describe feelings/ emotions
(happy, glad, sad, etc), express
willingness/unwillingness (eager, reluctant,
willing, etc) or refer to a person’s character
(clever, kind, etc) and the adjectives lucky and
I was very glad to hear that he got promoted.
It isn’t warm enough to sit in the garden.
In the expressions to tell you the truth, to be
honest, to sum up, to begin with, etc.
To be honest, I don’t believe what he said.
The infinitive without to (also
called bare infinitive) is used:
After modal verbs.
She can sing well.
After the verbs let, make, see , hear and feel.
They made her tell them truth.
BUT: We use the to-infinitive after be made, be
heard, be seen, etc (passive form).
She was made to tell them the truth.
After had better and would rather.
We had better hurry or we’ll miss the bus.
Help can be followed by either the to-infinitive
other infinitive without to.
She helped me (to) finish my essay.
The – ing form is used:
As a noun.
Swimming is very good for your health.
After certain verbs: admit, appreciate, avoid,
consider, continue, deny, fancy, go (for
activities), imagine, mind, miss, quit, save,
suggest, practice, prevent.
Do you mind closing the window?
After love, like, enjoy, prefer, dislike, hate to
express general preference.
She enjoys going out.
BUT: for a specific preference (would like/
would prefer/ would love) we use to-
infinitive. I would love to see you.
After expressions such as: be busy, it’s no
use, it’s no good, it’s (not) worth, what’s
use of, can’t help, there is no point (in),
can’t stand, have difficulty (in), have
I can’t stand people telling lies.
After spend, waste or lose (time, money
They spent their money buying
After the preposition to which and
expressions such as: look forward to,
be used to in addition to, object to,
prefer (doing sth) to (sth else).
She prefers walking to driving
After other prepositions.
He was thinking of buying a
Mustn’t - Don’t have to
We use mustn’t to express prohibition.
You mustn’t par here. (You aren’t allowed
to: it is against the law)
We use don’t have to express lack necessity.
You don’t have to dust the furniture; I have
already done it (it is not necessary)
We use –ing participles to describe but
something/ someone was like.
The costumes were amazing. (What were
the costumes like amazing)
We use –ed participles to describe how
someone feels/ felt.
We were amazed at the costumes. (How did
we feel? Amazed)
To express general preference we use:
Prefer + noun/ -ing + to + noun/-ing
I prefer meat to chicken. I prefer swimming
Prefer + to-infinitive + rather than + bare
I prefer to cook rather than eat out.
To express specific preference we use:
Would prefer + to- infinitive (rather than +
I’d prefer to watch TV (rather than go out)
Would prefer + noun (rather than +
Would like a cup of tea? I’d prefer
Would rather bare infinitive (than +
I’d rather go shopping than stay at
We use to + adjective/ adverb (for sb/sth) +
to-infinitive to show that something is more
than is wanted/ permitted, etc.
She is too young to drive. (She isn’t
allowed to drive.)
We use (not) + adj/adverb + enough (for
sb/sth) + to- infinitive to show that
something is (not) as much as is wanted/
necessary etc.she isn’t old enough to drive.
(she isn’t allowed to drive)
Enough follows an adj/adverb, but it is placed
before a noun.
They didn’t have enough money to buy all