PolySim Brochure


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polysilicon deposition by Siemens process

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PolySim Brochure

  1. 1. STR Group PolySim: Modeling of Polycrystalline Silicon Deposition from Chlorosilanes by Siemens Process 2009
  2. 2. About STR About Semiconductor Technology Research Semiconductor Technology Research Group (STR) provides consulting services and offers special­ ized software for modeling of crystal growth, epitaxy, and semiconductor devices operation. STR employs highly qualified specialists capable of solving a wide range of practical problems related to semiconductor technologies. A comprehensive research underlies every consulting activity and software product which ena­ bles careful validation of physical models and approaches applied. STR’s expertise in the crystal growth science and device engineering is accumulated in variety of publications in the peer­ reviewed journals. Four product lines are developed and promoted by STR: Bulk crystal growth from the melt Bulk crystal growth from the gas phase Epitaxy and deposition CG Operation of advanced semiconductor devices Modeling of growth from the melt includes detailed 3D simulation of flow dynamics and heat transfer in the reactor. Such growth techniques as Czochralski (Cz), Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC), Vapor Pressure Controlled Czochralski (VCz), Kyropoulos, Bridgman, and Floating Zone of Si, GaAs, InP, SiGe, sapphire, etc are under study. The focus of research of growth of widebandgap semiconductors (SiC, AlN, GaN) from the gas phase is heat and mass transport in the reactor, crystal shape evolution, and stress and defects dynamics. Simulation of eptiaxy and deposition of various materials (Si, SiC, III­V and III­Nitride compounds) includes flow dynamics and heat transfer, diffusion, gas­phase and surface chemistry, particle for­ mation, parasitic deposition on reactor units. Modeling of advanced semiconductor devices concerns operation of LEDs, FETs, Schottky diodes, laser diodes, photodetectors, etc. The employed approaches allow prediction of device characteris­ tics and optimization of heterostructures and chip designs. Every STR’s product line is represented by a number of commercial software tools for industrial and research applications. 10 basic products in several editions for various semiconductor materials and growth techniques are offered today on the market. Over 50 industrial companies and academic institutions worldwide are the end­users of STR software. There are several local distribution centers of STR software: STR Group, Ltd., Saint­Petersburg, Russia (http:��www.str­soft.com) STR �S, Inc., Richmond, VA, �SA (http:��www.semitech.us) STR Gmb�, Erlangen, Germany (http:��www.strgmbh.de) SimSciD Corporation, �okohama, �apan (http:��www.simscid.co.jp) CGSim G r o u p STR
  3. 3. About PolySim About PolySim: PolySim™ is a simulation tool for design and optimization of polycrystalline silicon deposi­ tion from chlorosilanes by Siemens process. The program allows one to find almost all the reactor characteristics depending on operating conditions and main characteristics of re­ actordesign via the computation of numerous physico­chemical processes such as turbu­ lent heatand mass transfer, radiative heat transfer, gas­phase and surface chemical reac­ tions, and electrical heating of the silicon rods. Applying one­dimensional computational approach and analytical dependencies, the program can calculate the reactor productiv­ ity, energy consumption per kg of silicon, silicon conversion, conditions for a better qual­ ity, electrical current parameters, gas composition, and other characteristics. The program is aimed at revealing the optimal conditions for extremely complicated Siemens process. STR is developing its silicon deposition simulation technology for more than 10 years and has ac­ cumulated a unique knowledge in modeling CVD processes, turbulent gas flows, radiative heat transfer and other phenomena underlying Siemens process Nowadays, STR performs advanced full­scale three­dimensional computations of deposition reactors and STC­TCS converters. At the same time, 3D computations still remain fairly time­consuming and require a certain level of modeling expertise. Experience in these computations for numerous reactor design­ sallowed us to develop a tool which can be effectively used by engineers and researchers. PolySim can answer almost the same questions as 3D computations and is used to reveal complex non­linear relationships between reactor characteristics and deposition conditions. We offer both software and services to improve the designs of your reactors and to optimize the operating conditions: 3D computations of Siemens reactors and STC­TCS convertors (consulting services) PolySim (software sales) www.str­soft.com
  4. 4. Modeling Verification of Si deposition model A.S. Segal et al., “Global model of silicon Chemical Vapor Deposition in Centura reactors” , Elec­ trochem. Soc. Proc, 2000­13, 456 (2000) Model works well for a wide range of growth conditions CGSim G r o u p STR
  5. 5. Results Verification of Si deposition model T. Kunz et al., “Convection­assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (CoCVD) of silicon on Large­ Area substrates” , accepted for publication in �. Crystal Growth, (2008) b) a) ventilator, heat exchanger lamp field outlet substrate inlet retort (fused silica) lamp field ventilator, heat exchanger = 90° = 15° b) a) 1.2 1.2 Growth rate / µm/min Growth rate / µm/min 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 = 0° Simulated 0.6 0.6 Experiment Simulated, 90° Experiment, 15° 0.4 0.4 Simulated, 15° Experiment, 0° 0.2 0.2 Simulated, 0° 0.0 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 x-Position / cm TCS concentration / vol.% a) Spatial distribution of growth rates in flow direction at various tilt angles a at a TCS concentration of 2.0 vol. %. b) Growth rates at a = 0° in dependence of TCS concentration. A new CVD reactor has been developed using modeling www.str­soft.com
  6. 6. Modeling Global model of polysilicon deposition or STC­TCS conversion Phenomena being 3D computations PolySim simulated output output Turbulent non­isothermal Flow pattern Flow intensity is specified flow dynamics Temperature in the rods, �eat transfer including Temperature distribu­ bulk gas and in a local conduction, convection, tions, energy consump­ rod point; energy con­ radiation, and electrical tions due to radiation, gas sumptions due tora­ current heating heating, and convection diation, gas heating, and convection Mass transport of precur­ Cl/Si ratio distributions, Cl�Si in the gas and at the sors and reaction products. growth rate distribution, rod surface,averaged and Gas­phase chemical reac­ species concentration local growth rates, gas tions.Surface chemistry distribution composition. Overall silicon productiv­ Overall silicon productiv­ Overall process character­ ity, silicon conversion, ity, silicon conversion, istics energy consumption per energy consumption per kg of silicon kg of silicon Electrical current param­ Current and potential Total current and poten­ eters distributions tial CGSim G r o u p STR
  7. 7. PolySim application What aims the modeling can be used for ? Questions ­ Optimal design of the reactor chamber ­ Optimal rod arrangement ­ Optimal gas supply system Results of modeling ­ Optimal pressure, tempera­ ­ �nderstanding of the underly­ tures, precursor flow rates, ing physics�chemistry hydrogen flow rates ­ Easy­to understand plots ­ Optimal rod sizes ­ Quick tests of the ideas ­ Optimal silicon precursors ­ Multi­parametric computations ­ Providing silicon quality ­ Optimal silicon conversion ­ Optimal rod quantity ­ Optimal outlet location ­ Optimal variation of the operating conditions during the deposition process ­ Safety Benefits Optimal reactor design and operating conditions provide: ­ Increase of productivity ­ Reduction of energy consumptions ­ Safety ­ Reduction of adjustment runs ­ Reduction of R&D expenses www.str­soft.com
  8. 8. Examples of PolySim application 3D computations can determine all the characteristics for a given rod diameter Flow pattern Temperature distribution Gas depletion distribution Growth rate distribution CGSim G r o u p STR
  9. 9. Examples of PolySim application 3D computations Computational grid is createdfor actual reactor design Symmetry conditions are used for reduction of the computational domainof reactors with many rods Computations yield the distribu­ tions over the wholereactor www.str­soft.com
  10. 10. PolySim G�I PolySim G�I. Problem specification The PolySim™ G�I includes everything required for the problem specification, solution con­ trol, and visualization of the results. The program allows the user to find almost all the reac­ tor characteristics depending on varying operating conditions and main characteristics of reactor design. It is also possible to evaluate the effect of the conditions non­uniformity on the growth of the different rod sections. For modeling the whole growth process, a number of separate points for different rod diameters are computed, and then the instantaneous reactor characteristics are integrated over the time. CGSim G r o u p STR
  11. 11. PolySim G�I PolySim G�I. Computation control The solution residuals are visualized by the G�I, allowing easy convergence control. www.str­soft.com
  12. 12. PolySim G�I PolySim G�I. The results The computed characteristics include reactor productivity, energy consumption per kg of silicon, silicon conversion, electrical current parameters, gas flow rates, rod center tempera­ ture, gas depletion at the growth surface, the flow criteria, the energy consumption compo­ sition, process time. CGSim G r o u p STR
  13. 13. PolySim G�I PolySim G�I. Visualization Run­time and post­processing visualization is available withinthe G�I, presenting depen­ dencies of the input parameters and computed characteristics. www.str­soft.com
  14. 14. PolySim: Parametric studies PolySim is an effective tool for numerous parametric studies 200 40 1 atm 35 3 atm 6 atm 150 10 atm 30 Energy cost, kWt*h/kg Silicon output, kg/h 25 100 20 15 1 atm 3 atm 50 10 6 atm 10 atm 5 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 TCS flow rate, kmol/h TCS flow rate, kmol/h 0.25 0.25 1 atm 1 atm 3 atm 3 atm 0.2 0.2 6 atm 6 atm 10 atm 10 atm Silicon conversion Silicon conversion 0.15 0.15 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.05 0 0 1300 1400 1500 1600 0 5 10 15 20 25 Temperature, K TCS flow, kmol/h Parametric dependencies for a reactor for polysilicon deposition computed by PolySim CGSim G r o u p STR
  15. 15. PolySim www.str­soft.com
  16. 16. STR Group, Ltd. Engels av. 27, P.O. Box 89, 194156 CGSim Saint­Petersburg, Russia Tel: +7 (812) 603 2658 Fax: +7 (812) 326 6194 www.str­soft.com e­mail: polysim­support@str­soft.com