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Ambienti di virtualizzazione

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I principali ambienti di virtualizzazione allo stato attuale. Creata in occasione del LinuxDay 2009.

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di: Bresich Matteo, Mora Luca, Curreri Edoardo

Published in: Technology
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Ambienti di virtualizzazione

  1. 1. Virtualizzazione Matteo Bresich, Luca Mora, Edoardo Curreri
  2. 2. Virtualizzazione <ul><li>Per virtualizzazione si intende la creazione di una versione virtuale di una risorsa normalmente fornita fisicamente. Qualunque risorsa hardware o software può essere virtualizzata: </li><ul><ul><li>sistemi operativi
  3. 3. server
  4. 4. memoria
  5. 5. spazio del disco </li></ul></ul><li>Un tipico esempio di virtualizzazione è la divisione di un disco fisso in partizioni logiche. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Macchina virtuale In informatica il termine virtual machine indica un software che crea un ambiente virtuale in cui l'utente può eseguire alcune applicazioni.
  7. 7. Perché virtualizzare? <ul><li>La virtualizzazione è diventata la linea guida per lo sviluppo di nuovi processori nell’ottica del risparmio energetico e nella necessità di aumentare le misure della sicurezza es. VMware Workstation e VirtualBox. La macchina virtuale o virtual machine nasce proprio dalla necessità di avere elevati standard di sicurezza su macchine che contengono dati sensibili. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Diversi metodi di virtualizzazione: <ul><li>Emulazione : la macchina virtuale simula completamente l'hardware, utilizzando un sistema operativo reale che poi funzionerà utilizzando la CPU virtuale;
  9. 9. Paravirtualizzazione : la macchina virtuale non simula un hardware ma offre speciali API che richiedono modifiche nel sistema operativo;
  10. 10. Virtualizzazione nativa (o totale): la macchina virtuale simula solo parte dell'hardware e quindi il sistema operativo richiede modifiche ad hoc; </li></ul>
  11. 11. Diversi metodi di virtualizzazione: <ul><li>Virtualizzazione nativa : </li><ul><ul><li>Vmware player
  12. 12. Vmware Workstation
  13. 13. VirtualBox </li></ul></ul><li>Paravirtualizzazione : </li><ul><ul><li>Xen
  14. 14. VMware ESX Server </li></ul></ul><li>Emulazione : </li><ul><ul><li>Qemu
  15. 15. Bochs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Virtualizzazione nativa
  17. 17. VMware Player VMware Player è un software freeware prodotto da VMware Inc. e rilasciato nel dicembre del 2005. Esso consente di eseguire qualunque immagine di macchina virtuale precedentemente creata con le versioni commerciali di VMware. <ul><li>Pro </li><ul><ul><li>Il programma è disponibile per i sistemi operativi Windows e Linux.
  18. 18. È gratis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contro </li><ul><ul><li>Non è possibile creare una nuova immagine per una macchina virtuale </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. VMware Player
  20. 20. VMware Workstation VMware Workstation si differisce principalmente da Wmware Player per le più funzionalità. <ul><li>Pro </li><ul><ul><li>Il programma è disponibile per i sistemi operativi Windows e Linux.
  21. 21. Ha piu funzionalità ed è possibile creare nuove immagini dei dischi per le macchine virtuali </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contro </li><ul><ul><li>Rilasciato con licenza proprietaria
  22. 22. Ha un costo </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. VMware Workstation
  24. 24. VirtualBox VirtualBox è un software di virtualizzazione commerciale proprietario della Sun Microsystems (con una versione distribuita secondo i termini della GNU) , ed è in grado di eseguire Windows, GNU/Linux, OS/2 Warp, OpenBSD e FreeBSD come sistemi operativi guest. <ul><li>Pro </li><ul><ul><li>Il programma è disponibile per i sistemi operativi Windows e Linux.
  25. 25. Facilità di utilizzo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contro </li><ul><ul><li>Progetto immaturo </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. VirtualBox
  27. 27. VMDK VMDK (Virtual Machine Disk) è un formato di file utilizzato da prodotti VMware. Con questo formato viene descritto e documentato l'ambiente operativo della macchina virtuale e le modalità con le quali è memorizzato.
  28. 28. VDI <ul><li>In VirtualBox gli hard disk vengono emulati con uno speciale formato contenitore chiamato &quot;Virtual Disk Images&quot; (file VDI), che è, al momento, incompatibile con i formati utilizzati dalle altre soluzioni di virtualizzazione. Sono comunque supportati i file VMDK (VMware ed altri). </li></ul>
  29. 29. Paravirtualizzazione
  30. 30. Xen <ul><li>Xen è un monitor di macchine virtuali Open Source rilasciato sotto licenza GPL per piattaforma x86 e compatibili, sviluppato presso il Computer Laboratory dell'Università di Cambridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro </li><ul><ul><li>Xen non mira a creare un'emulazione dell'hardware così facendo riduce al minimo il consumo di risorse del sistema ottenendo buone prestazioni </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contro </li><ul><ul><li>Complesso dal punto di vista gestionale </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Xen
  32. 32. VMware ESX Server Il server ESX viene eseguito allo &quot;stato grezzo&quot;. Contrariamente agli altri prodotti VMware, non viene eseguito su un sistema operativo, ma lo include all'interno del suo kernel. Nella versioni ESX 3 e precedenti, viene avviato prima un kernel Linux e viene utilizzato per caricare un certo numero di componenti per la virtualizzazione, incluso i componenti 'vmkernel' di Vmware. <ul><li>Pro </li><ul><ul><li>Affidabile sicuro e ottimizzato </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contro </li><ul><ul><li>È un software con licenza proprietaria
  33. 33. Utilizzo non intuitivo </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. VMware ESX Server
  35. 35. Emulazione
  36. 36. Qemu <ul><li>Qemu è un software con un particolare sistema di emulazione che permette di ottenere un'architettura in un'altra che si occuperà di ospitarla. È stato ideato ed è coordinato da Fabrice Bellard.
  37. 37. Qemu è formato da due parti: la prima si occupa dell'emulazione vera e propria (convertire, ad esempio, le istruzioni da 32 bit a 64); la seconda parte è l'emulatore di sistema: esso è capace di creare un nuovo sistema completamente separato da quello ospitante. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro </li><ul><ul><li>È opensource </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contro </li><ul><ul><li>Non è permessa la tecnica delle directory condivise.
  38. 38. Nessun supporto per le applicazioni multimediali </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Qemu
  40. 40. Bochs Scritto da Kevin Lawton in C++, supporta l'emulazione di processori, memorie, dischi, display, ethernet, BIOS e le più comuni periferiche hardware degli IBM compatibili. Bochs è comunemente usato per lo sviluppo e il debug di sistemi operativi oppure per l'installazione di uno nuovo su uno già esistente. <ul><li>Pro </li><ul><ul><li>È opensource </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contro </li><ul><ul><li>Lentezza </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Bochs
  42. 42. Bochs per Sony PSP <ul><li>Matan Gillon ha convertito l'emulatore Bochs da PC a PSP. L'emulatore viene chiamato Bochs X86 o Bochs PSP ed è un homebrew. Per via delle scarse performance è consigliabile effettuare l'overclocking della PSP per far funzionare meglio l'emulatore. Allo stato attuale Windows 98 impiega dai 5 ai 10 minuti per avviarsi.
  43. 43. Sistemi operativi supportati dall'emulatore: </li><ul><ul><li>Windows 3.x
  44. 44. Windows 95
  45. 45. Windows 98
  46. 46. Linux </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Bochs per Sony PSP
  48. 48. GRAZIE PER L'ATTENZIONE GalLUG – Gruppo Utenti Linux Galliate www.gallug.it - [email_address] - 0321 806832 Luca Mora [email_address] Matteo Bresich [email_address]

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