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From Needed Capabilities to Project Deliverables - On Time, On Budget, On Specification

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Building processes and tools that radiate project information as the foundation for communication to increase project success

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From Needed Capabilities to Project Deliverables - On Time, On Budget, On Specification

  1. 1. + From Needed Capabilities to Project Deliverables ‒ On Time, On Budget, On Specification A step by step guide to increasing the Probability of Program success start with the WBS, developing the Integrated Master Plan and Integrated Master Schedule, risk adjusting the IMS, and measuring progress to plan in units of measure meaningful to the decision makers. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 1
  2. 2. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Research shows 70-80% of a project manager’s time is spent in communicating inside and outside the project. We need processes and tools that radiate project information as the foundation for communication to increase project success 2
  3. 3. + The Best Communication Inside and Outside the Project is a Big Visible Chart 3 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016
  4. 4. 1. What Does DONE Look Like? 2. How Do We Get to DONE? 3. Is There Enough Time, Money, and Resources, To Get to DONE? 4. What Impediments Will Be Encountered Along The Way to DONE? 5. What Are The Units Of Measures For Progress All Successful Projects Must Provide Credible Answers To These 5 Questions … 4 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
  5. 5. 5 Principles of Project Success 5 Practices of Performance‒Based Project Management® Identify Needed Capabilities Define Requirements from Capabilities Establish Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB) Execute the PMB as planned Perform Continuous Risk Management (CRM) What does Done Look like in Meaningful Units of Measures? ConOps, SOO, SOW Technical And Operational Delivery Plan Incremental Maturity Assessment (MOE, MOP, TPM, KPP) Assess Physical Percent Complete Risk Identification How are we going to get there? Integrated Master Plan (IMP) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) Iterative and Incremental Delivery Risk Analysis What Resources do we need along the way? Resource Management Plan (RMP) Future Performance Forecasting Risk Planning What Impediments will we encounter along the way? 4 Levels Of Uncertainty Planning Technical And Programmatic Risks Assigned To All WBS Deliverables Risk Adjustment To Cost And Schedule Measures Risk Adjusted Performance Measurement Baseline Risk Tracking How do we Measure Progress to plan? Measures Of Effectiveness (MOE) Measures Of Performance (MOP) Technical Performance Measures (TPM) Earned Value Management (EVM) Risk Control Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 5
  6. 6. + Increasing Probability of Program Success through Information Radiators  WBS – it shows what is being delivered and what work processes are used for this delivery (MIL-STD-881-C).  Integrated Master Plan (IMP) – shows how the deliverables increase in their maturity toward the final product.  Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) – shows the sequence of work to increases the maturity of the deliverables.  Programmatic and Technical Risk Management – shows what reducible and irreducible risks are present on the project and what mitigation activities are needed increase the probability of project success.  Performance Measurement and Reporting – shows how Physical Percent Complete to date, Estimate to Complete, and Estimate At Complete are compared to plan.  Root Cause Analysis ‒ most efforts are project corrective actions are addressing symptoms not the Cause. Without identify the Root Cause the symptoms are not removed. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 6
  7. 7. + Capabilities Based Planning  Define operational concepts as capabilities.  Define Capabilities through Scenarios or Use Cases.  Asses Needs, Cost, and Risks of the Capability simultaneously.  Define explicit, balanced, and feasible alternatives. Planning, under uncertainty, to provide capabilities suitable for a wide range of modern–day challenges and circumstances while working within an economic framework that necessitates choice.” Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 7
  8. 8. + Identify Needed Capabilities 8 What Should We Do? Where Are We Now? Abstracted from: “Capabilities‒Based Planning – How It Is Intended To Work And Challenges To Its Successful Implementation,” Col. Stephen K. Walker, United States Army, U. S. Army War College, March 2005 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016
  9. 9. + Measures of Effectiveness (MOE) 9 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Measures of Effectiveness …  Are stated in units meaningful to the buyer,  Focus on capabilities independent of any technical implementation,  Are connected to the mission success. Operational measures of success that are closely related to the achievements of the mission or operational objectives evaluated in the operational environment, under a specific set of conditions. MoE’s Belong to the End User “Technical Measurement,” INCOSE–TP–2003–020–01
  10. 10. + Measures of Performance (MOP) 10 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Measures of Performance are …  Attributes that assure the system has the capability and capacity to perform,  Assessment of the system to assure it meets design requirements to satisfy the MoE. Measures that characterize physical or functional attributes relating to the system operation, measured or estimated under specific conditions. “Technical Measurement,” INCOSE–TP–2003–020–01 MoP’s belong to the Program – Developed by the Systems Engineer, Measured By CAMs, and Analyzed by PP&C
  11. 11. + Technical Performance Measures (TPM) 11 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Technical Performance Measures …  Assess design progress,  Define compliance to performance requirements,  Identify technical risk,  Are limited to critical thresholds,  Include projected performance. Attributes that determine how well a system or system element is satisfying or expected to satisfy a technical requirement or goal “Technical Measurement,” INCOSE–TP–2003–020–01
  12. 12. + Key Performance Parameters (KPP) 12 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Key Performance Parameters …  Have a threshold or objective value,  Characterize the major drivers of performance,  Are considered Critical to Customer (CTC). Measures that Represent the capabilities and characteristics so significant that failure to meet them can be cause for reevaluation, reassessing, or termination of the program The acquirer defines the KPPs during the operational concept development – KPPs say what DONE looks like “Technical Measurement,” INCOSE–TP–2003–020–01
  13. 13. + Capabilities Map from Strategy to Project Execution 13 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Performance Goal Key Performance Indicator (KPI) Critical Success Factor (CSF) Strategic Objective Be The Preferred Supplier Of Business Applications Traceable to Increased Customer Revenue Provide on-time, on- budget, on- specification for our enterprise applications Budget Variance Schedule Variance % Requirements Variance BPI ≥ 0.95 CPI ≥ 0.97 Function Points Delivered ≥ 90% Target Provide scalable platform for acquisition and growth of our customer base Cost of Delivery Impact Performance Impact Global Operational Baseline Declining Cost per Customer SLA Compliance ≥ 0.98 24/7/365 Non-Stop Operations What How Measures Vision Positively Impact Financial Performance Why Top Down Making the effect-and-cause connection between Strategy and Key Performance Indicators is the role of an Balanced Scorecard automation system Flow Down from Strategy to KPIs Making the effect-and-cause connection between Strategy and Key Performance Indicators is the role of an Balanced Scorecard automation system
  14. 14. + WBS is Paramount  The WBS describes the product and services needed to produce the products  The Work Breakdown Structure development starts with NWS Policy Directive 70-3, from DOC Scalable Project Management Methodology, §7.2.4 in accordance with PMI® Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structure  A starting point for developing the WBS is MIL-STD-881-C.  Each Federal Agency may have their own instance of the 881-C guide. Without a WBS, we don’t know what is being delivered by the project. We don’t know what End Item Deliverables are related to other items – parents of the final deliverables. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 14
  15. 15. + The WBS …  … is a product-oriented family tree composed of hardware, software, services, data, and facilities. The family tree results from systems engineering efforts during the acquisition of a defense materiel item.  … a WBS displays and defines the product, or products, to be developed and/or produced. It relates the elements of work to be accomplished to each other and to the end product. In other words, the WBS is an organized method to breakdown a product into sub-products at lower levels of detail.  … can be expressed to any level of detail. While the top three levels are the minimum required for reporting purposes on any program or contract, effective management of complex programs requires WBS definition at considerably lower levels.  This is particularly true of items identified as high-cost, high-risk, or high technical interest.  Under these circumstances, it is critical to define the product at a lower level of WBS detail.  In this case, managers should distinguish between WBS definition and WBS reporting.  The WBS should be defined at the level necessary to identify work progress and enable effective management, regardless of the WBS level reported to program oversight. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 15
  16. 16. + Integrated Master Plan (IMP)  The IMP is a hierarchy of program events, in which each event is supported by specific accomplishments, and each accomplishment is based on satisfying specific criteria to be considered complete.  The IMP consists of three elements  Program Events  Significant Accomplishments  Accomplishment Criteria The Integrated Master Plan is a hierarchical description of what Done looks like in the form of increasing maturity of the program’s deliverables and the capabilities they provide Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 16
  17. 17. + IMP / IMS Structure 17 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 IMS IMP Describes how program capabilities will be delivered and how these capabilities will be recognized as ready for delivery Supplemental Schedules (CAM Notebook) Work Packages and Tasks Criteria Accomplishment Events or Milestones
  18. 18. + Maturity Process Flow 18 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016
  19. 19. + The Integrated Master Plan  Program planning involves developing and maintaining plans for all program processes, including those required for effective program office-contractor interaction.  Once the contract is signed and schedule, costs, and resources from the contractor are established, the program plan takes into account, at an appropriate level of detail, the contractor's estimations for the program.  The IMP should provide sufficient definition to track the step-by-step completion of the required accomplishments for each event, and to demonstrate satisfaction of the completion criteria for each accomplishment. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 19
  20. 20. + The Integrated Master Plan …  Provides flexibility in performing detailed program execution planning, organization, and scheduling within any existing Request for Proposal (RFP) constraints.  Serve as the basis for detailed Execution IMS.  Provides basis of integrated product development and systems integration approaches  Serve as the basis for ensuring mutual understanding of Government expectations and agreement on the program content, program plan, schedule, and risk.  Provide detailed integrated execution plan and supporting schedule, clearly identifying what has to be done and when it must be done. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 20
  21. 21. + The IMP enables Program Management to…  Identify and assess actual progress versus the planned progress  Monitor the program critical path and help develop workarounds to problem areas  Assess program maturity  Assess the status of risk management activities based on the inclusion of the program risk mitigation activities in the IMP and IMS  Assess the progress on selected Key Performance Parameters (KPPs) and Technical Performance Measures (TPMs)  Provide an objective, quantitative basis for the contractor’s performance assessment Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 21
  22. 22. + IMP for Cloud Deployment 22 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016
  23. 23. + Integrated Master Schedule (IMS)  Packages of Work and their Tasks, implement the deliverables from the Work Breakdown Structure.  These Work Packages should have a singular outcome matched to a deliverable or service in the WBS  The assessment of the maturity of these outcomes is done in the IMP using the Accomplishment Criteria that show the increasing maturity of the Significant Accomplishments.  Each Work Package has some measure of Performance or Technical Performance Measure for the deliverable. The IMS is an integrated, networked schedule containing all the detailed discrete work packages and planning packages (or lower level tasks of activities) necessary to support the events, accomplishments, and criteria of the IMP. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 23
  24. 24. + Vertical and Horizontal Traceability between IMP and IMS 24 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Program Events Define the maturity of a Capability at a point in time. Significant Accomplishments Represent requirements that enable Capabilities. Accomplishment Criteria Exit Criteria for the Work Packages that fulfill Requirements. Work Package Work Package Work Package Work Package Work Package Work Package Work package
  25. 25. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 25
  26. 26. + Managing Technical and Programmatic Risk  Risk Management is how adults manage projects ‒ Tim Lister  All risk comes from uncertainty  The integrated master schedule must be risk adjusted for these uncertainties  Specific work must be in the IMS for reducible uncertainties  Schedule, cost, and technical margin must be in the IMS for irreducible uncertainties All risk comes from uncertainty. Uncertainty comes in two forms Reducible uncertainty (Epistemic) Irreducible uncertainty (Aleatory) Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 26
  27. 27. + All Risk Comes from Uncertainty Uncertainty Irreducible (Aleatory) Reducible (Epistemic) Natural Variability Ambiguity Ontological Uncertainty Probabilistic Events Probabilistic Impacts Periods of Exposure Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 27
  28. 28. Technical Risk Management Track and Control Performance Deviations Deliberate and recommend a decision alternative Risk analysis of decision alternatives, performing trade studies and ranking Propose and/or identify decision alternatives Formulate objectives Hierarchy and Technical Performance Measures Stakeholder expectations, requirements definition and management Design solutions, technical planning Design solution, technical planning, and decision analysis Technical planning and decision analysis Decision analysis, lessons learned, knowledge management Identify Analyze Plan Track Control Decide and implement decision alternatives Communicate Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 28
  29. 29. + Performance Measurement and Reporting  Physical Percent Complete is defined as tangible evidence of progress to plan.  Define this Physical Percent Complete before the work starts in units of measure meaningful to the decision makers  Effectiveness  Performance  Key Performance Parameters Performance measurement is always based on tangible evidence of progress to plan. The passage of time and consumption of resources is not the basis of performance measurement. Physical Percent Complete of some predefined measure of Effectiveness, Performance, or Key Parameter is. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 30
  30. 30. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 31 You Know you're applying the 5 Principals of Project Success if you … 1 … have a defined Mission, Vision, Capabilities, and Requirements ‒ by which to create … 2 … the Plan for fulling these capabilities and connected Requirements and Schedule for producing the needed outcomes to meet this Plan ‒ and have … 3 … allocated enough Time, Money, and Resources to increase the probability of the project’s success ‒ and you can … 4 … know what Risks are in front of you and their retirement or handling plans ‒ and you can … 5 … confirm progress as Physical Percent Complete for each planned Deliverables in the Plan “on or before the planned time and “at or below” the planned cost.
  31. 31. + Monthly Business Rhythm  Each participate in the Business Rhythm, the data produced and consumed, interconnections Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 32
  32. 32. + Root Cause Analysis 1. Define the Problem. 2. Determine the Causal Relationships. 3. Provide a Graphical Representation of Cause and Effect that is not linear thinking. 4. Provide Evidence for each Cause and Effect. 5. Determine if each Cause is Sufficient and Necessary. 6. Identify Effective Solutions  Finding the cause is needed.  Preventing the effect is needed.  But installing an effective solution is the desired business outcome. 7. Implement And Track the Effective Solutions. When the project goes bad. Root Cause Analysis is the method of problem solving that identifies the root causes of failures or problems. A root cause is the source of a problem and its resulting symptom, that once removed, corrects or prevents an undesirable outcome from recurring. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 33
  33. 33. + The Notion of Root Cause Analysis Symptom: The result or outcome of the problem. An observation  We have late additions to the release that break the software  We have “core” defects that should been caught long before production release  We make changes to software, stored procedures, or the database only to discover it was a mistake.  We make promises to the customer before assessing the impact on our resources or the technical difficulty Problem:  Test coverage insufficient the detect latent bugs in software  We commit before understanding the consequences Root Cause:  No software structure to determine test coverage or change impacts on baseline.  No detailed understanding of our capacity for work and productivity of our technical staff Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2018 34
  34. 34. +  Causes are never part of a Linear Chain found in standard Fishbone diagram or narrative approach.  Look for causes to create the effect. Two causes are needed for each Effect.  Conditions – may exist prior to the Effect. Or conditions may be in motion or active during the Effect. Conditions are the causes often ignored or beyond our knowledge.  Actions – momentary causes that bring conditions together to cause an effect. Actions are causes most easily recognized.  Connect all causes (Actions and Conditions) with a Caused By phrase to either an action or a condition.  Support each Cause with evidence or an answered question. For each Primary Effect we need ask why that Effect occurred. Principles of the Cause and Effect Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 35
  35. 35. + Cause and Effect are Part of a Continuum of Causes  Causes are never linear.  Causes branch into at least two other causes, each time we ask why of an effect and if we ask why of each of those causes we find an expanding set of causes like those to the right. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 36
  36. 36. + Four Root Causes for Program Cost and Schedule Overruns 37 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2018 Unrealistic Performance Expectations, missing Measures of Effectiveness (MOE) and Measures of Performance (MOP). Unrealistic Cost and Schedule estimates based on inadequate risk adjusted growth models. Inadequate assessment of risk and unmitigated exposure to these risks without proper handling plans. Unanticipated technical issues without alternative plans and solutions to maintain effectiveness. Unanticipated Cost and Schedule Growth TheLensofPerformance Assessment “Borrowed” with permission from Mr. Gary Bliss, Director, Performance Assessment and Root Cause Analysis (PARCA), Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics.
  37. 37. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2018 38 Root Causes Have Root Causes It’s not a matter of asking 5 Whys You must keep asking until you reach the end of the chain or action and condition
  38. 38. + Resources (1)  MIL-STD-881-C defines how to build a Work Breakdown Structure ‒ http://quicksearch.dla.mil/Transient/38A8B775A4BF4CEF8871CEF7E EA34156.pdf  Guestimate ‒ a spread sheet for making estimating https://www.getguesstimate.com/  Reality Charting, using the Apollo Method, http://www.apollorootcause.com/media/32309/realitycharting_- _seven_steps_to_effective_problem-solving_and_strategie....pdf  XMIND – low cost Mind Mapping Tool ‒ www.xmind.com Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 39
  39. 39. + Resources (2)  “Guide to Capabilities Based Planning: The Technical Cooperation Program Joint Systems and Analysis Group Technical Panel 3,” www.acq.osd.mil/ttcp/reference/docs/JSA-TP-3-CBP-Paper-Final.doc  “Naval Analytical Capabilities: Improving Capabilities-Based Planning,” Committee on Naval Analytical Capabilities and Improving Capabilities-Based Planning,” Naval Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council, https://www.nap.edu/download/11455  RiskyProject ‒ Monte Carlo Simulation tool starting with a Risk Register and modeling tools for the Reducible and Irreducible risks ‒ www.riskyproject.com Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 40
  40. 40. + Resources (2)  Risk Management Toolkit, Mitre Systems Engineering Process Office, http://www2.mitre.org/work/sepo/toolkits/risk/index.html  Risk Matrix tool is free Excel tool downloaded from here ‒ http://www2.mitre.org/work/sepo/toolkits/risk/ToolsTechniques/RiskMatrix.ht ml  Risk Radar tool is a Access Database to downloaded from here ‒ http://www2.mitre.org/work/sepo/toolkits/risk/ToolsTechniques/RiskRadar.ht ml  Software Engineering Institute Continuous Risk Management, http://www.sei.cmu.edu/risk/  “What’s Wrong With Risk Matrices,” Tony Cox, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Louis_Cox/publication/5432360_ What's_Wrong_with_Risk_Matrices/links/55582a5408ae980ca60e2e8 e.pdf Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 41
  41. 41. + Resources (3)  Design Structure Matrix  http://www.dsmweb.org/  Design Structure Matrix Methods and Applications https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/design-structure-matrix-methods-and- applications  International Cost Estimating and Analysis Association, http://www.iceaaonline.com/  College of Performance Management, www.mycpm.org  “Opportunity Management: Be Careful What You Ask For,” Edmund Conrow, https://acc.dau.mil/adl/en- US/193752/attachment/32944/conr_ma08_1.pdf Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 42
  42. 42. + Resources (4)  Society for Effective Lessons Learned Sharing (SELLS), http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/lessons/sells/llsite.pdf  Software Engineering Institute, Continuous Risk Management, https://resources.sei.cmu.edu/library/asset-view.cfm?assetid=30856  Risk Informed Decision Making, NASA/SP-2010-576, https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20100021361.pd f  “An Implementation of the Lurie-Goldberg Algorithm Scheduling Risk Analysis,” http://www.slideserve.com/tahir/an-implementation-of-the- lurie-goldberg-algorithm-in-schedule-risk-analysis Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 43
  43. 43. + Resources (5)  ACQuipedia, https://dap.dau.mil/acquipedia/Pages/Default.aspx  Defense Acquisition University tools and resources, https://www.dau.mil/tools#All|All||recent  Mitre Systems Engineering Handbook, http://www.mitre.org/sites/default/files/publications/se-guide-book- interactive.pdf  Implementing the Program Management Improvement and Accountability Act of 2015, https://www.pmi.org/- /media/pmi/documents/public/pdf/business-solutions/program- management-accountability-act.pdf  Making the Impossible Possible: Leading Extraordinary Performance ‒ The Rocky Flats Story, Kim Cameron and Marc Lavine, Berrett- Koehler, 2006. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 44
  44. 44. + Resources (6)  Beyond Bullet Points, Cliff Atkinson, Microsoft Press, 2011.  Effective Risk Management: Some Keys to Success, Edmund Conrow, AIAA Press, 2003.  Integrated Master Plan and Integrated Master Schedule Preparation and Use Guide, https://www.acq.osd.mil/se/docs/IMP_IMS_Guide_v9.pdf  Defense Agile Acquisition Guide: Tailoring DoD IT Acquisition Program Structures and Processes to Rapidly Deliver Capabilities, https://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/defense-agile- acquisition-guide-tailoring-dod-it-acquisition-program Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 45
  45. 45. + Resources (7)  How to Lie with Statistics, Darrell Huff, W. W. Norton, 1993. Orginal published 1953  “Society for Effective Lessons Learned Sharing (SELLS),” http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/lessons/sells/llsite.pdf  NASA’s Management of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program, https://oig.nasa.gov/audits/reports/FY16/IG-16-029.pdf  Integrated Master and Integrated Master Schedule Preparation and Use Guide, https://www.acq.osd.mil/se/docs/IMP_IMS_Guide_v9.pdf Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 46

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