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+16.0 ‒ Failure Modes of Agile
and Earned Value Management
Transformation
The root causes of Failure to Transform to an Ag...
There is nothing more
difficult to plan,more
doubtful of success,nor
more dangerous to
manage than the
creation of a new
s...
+ Transformation Failure Mode
Propositions (1)†
Proposition
Organizations are
potentially chaotic.
§ The greater the numbe...
+ Transformation Failure Mode
Propositions (2)†
Proposition
Forecasting is
impossible,
especially at a global
scale and in...
+ Transformation Failure Mode
Propositions (3)†
Proposition
When in a chaotic
state,organizations,
generally,have a
fracta...
+
16.1 ‒ High Level
Failure Modes†
n Expecting transformation to be Easy
n Doing Practices without Principles
n Complicati...
+ Expecting transformation to Agile
and Scrum to be Easy
n Starting the Agile journey after reading a book or airline maga...
+ Doing the Practices without the
Principles
n Practices are easy
n Scrum meetings
n Scrum roles
n Scrum artifacts
n Agile...
+ Complicating Agile Startup
n KISS
n Agile can be deployed without the latest tools
n Stickies' on the wall work just fin...
+ Leading Like a Project Manager
n Agile development is not the same as project management
n It’s a Team Based development...
+ Managing The Backlogs (1)†
n Failure to produce a well-groomed prioritized product backlog is
the root of nearly every p...
+ Managing The Backlogs (2)†
n Failure to plan the work during the Sprint
n Ineffective daily standup meetings
n Inability...
+ Managing The Backlogs (3)†
n If everyone is working on their own stories, they aren’t finishing
early in the sprint.
n I...
+ Managing The Backlogs (4)†
n The Backlog is NOT
n A list of technical tasks,created by the Team
n Ambiguous Stories, not...
+ Manage the Release Plan
n The Release Plan stats how the Product Roadmap will be delivered
n Without the Release Plan, t...
+ Product Owner not Involved or
Available
n The Product Owner role is a full time job
n Many new to the role are unprepare...
+ Lax Dailey Standups
n Face-to-Face conversations every day for 15 minutes, force
communications and collaboration
n Stan...
+ Not Conducting Retrospective
Meetings every Sprint
n Agile manifesto says
n At regular intervals,the team reflects on ho...
+ Failures in Managing the Team
n People matrixed across multiple teams
n Low coupling between teams for the shared outcom...
+
n If agile isn’t a silver bullet, blame agile.
n If agile isn’t a silver bullet, blame agile.
n Equate self-managing wit...
+ Two Primary Failure Modes of
Agile + Earned Value Management
Failure to Transformation
the Organization
Failure to Adopt...
+
16.2 ‒ Failure
Modes of Agile
Project
Transformation
Transformation Failure means failure of …
Leadership
1. Lack of Exe...
+
n Not all failure modes are applicable in the Earned Value Management
paradigm
n Consider each one and assess if any gov...
+ Lack of Executive Sponsorship1
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Buzz Word Buy in of Management
Executable action plan show...
+ Failure to Transform Leaders
Behavior
2
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Failure to embrace behaviors that are a
service t...
+
n Systematic neglect: knows the limits of how much focus can be allocated
to issues;learns what to focus on and what to ...
+
n Tolerance of imperfection:modulates his or her own sense of perfection
and offers to each team member an understanding...
+ No change to the Organizational
Infrastructure
3
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Inability to change existing
organizatio...
+ No business View of the Value
Stream
4
Failure Mode Corrective Action
No view across the Value stream of the
Program or ...
+ Failure to Decentralization
Control
5
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Set up system based on the economics
of resource ut...
+
n Hire a coach steeped in
distributed team success
n Ensure all team members receive
same Agile training
n Invest in HD ...
+ Unwillingness to Address
Illusions of Distributed Teams
6
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Set up a complex geographic maz...
+ Lack of Transformation Product
Manager
7
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Processes alone will not move Agile
transformati...
+
n How the transformation impacts behaviors as well as processes and
structures.
n Clarity of transformation goals in tea...
+ Failure to Create Rapid
Feedback to Team Members
8
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Clinging to sense of predictability wh...
+ Short-Changing Collaboration
and Facilitation
9
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Team divided along specialist lines of
wo...
+ Ineffective Plan for
Transforming Beyond SW Dev
10
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Speeding up value delivery by
concentr...
+ Transforming in an Enduring
Manner Against Enterprise
n Declaring the transformation from the executive level is insuffi...
+ Viewing Transformation Only as
Process and Structure
11
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Process and structure are necessa...
+ Ignoring Path of Individual, Team,
and Organization Transitions
12
Failure Mode Corrective Action
In large transformatio...
+
16.3 ‒ Failure
Modes of Agile
Process Adoption†
Adoption Failure means failure of …
1. Check Book Commitments
2. Culture...
+ Check Book Commitments1
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Unengaged management –
Just Do It
Do not start the transformation...
+ Culture Doesn't Support Change2
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Simply Follow the Plan
Transformation is an Agile project...
+ Ineffective use of Retrospectives3
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Ignored – there is nothing wrong here
No actions from ...
+ Needed Infrastructure Ignored4
Failure Mode Corrective Action
No stable environment
Single,integrated development, test,...
+ Lack of Planning Participation5
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Who can commit?
Single point of integrative
responsibilit...
+ Unavailable Product Owner6
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Unavailable Product Owner
PO dedicated to team as part of the
...
+ Weak Scrum Masters7
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Command and Control
Serve and facilitate the needs of the
those impac...
+ No Onsite Evangelist8
Failure Mode Corrective Action
No one cares All change initiatives require
champions to move the i...
+ Team Lacking Authority9
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Red tape decisions Empower teams to amplify learning
No forming, ...
+ Testing Not Pulled Forward10
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Push to deliver
Agile is a cadence based paradigm.
Forces ch...
+ Traditional Performance
Appraisals
10
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Manager’s yearly evaluation Frequent evaluations
In...
+ Reverting to Form10
Failure Mode Corrective Action
Giving up when Agile becomes hard
Provide sufficient time to adopt Ag...
+
16.4 ‒ Corrective
Actions for Failure
Modes starts with a
Strategic Planning
Process
n Vision ‒ where are we going?
n Co...
All
Change is
Always A
Political
Process
16. Failure Modes
Performance–Based Project Management®
, Copyright© Glen B. Alle...
+
n ChangeIs Painful
n Organizational change is
unexpectedly difficult because it
provokes sensations of
physiological dis...
+
All five components plus an Action Plan needed for
successful transformation and adaptation
Five Components Needed
for S...
+ Vision
n Vision shapes of the future that an individual or group desires,a set of ambitions.
n Vision is an expression o...
+ Consensus
n Co-operation – agreement on ideas, values, purposes, shared
understanding.
n Collaboration – working togethe...
+ Skills
n Identify of whatever knowledge or expertise is required to move
forward.
n The capabilities to implement new pl...
+ Incentives
n Intrinsic or extrinsic.
n What is in it for me, additional payments, self-esteem, sense of
achievement.
n R...
+ Resources
n Physical resources.
n Any items which people feel are necessary to enable them to make the
required changes....
+ Corrective Action Plan
n Steps worked out to direct actions towards future goals.
n Process shared by participants, unde...
+ Three Phase Model of Change†
n Initiation Phase
n Implementation Phase
n Institutionalization Phase
† Fullan’s ChangeMod...
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Failure Modes of Integrating Agile with Earned Value Management

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The root causes of Failure to Transform to an Agile Organization and Failure to Adopt Agile methods are two Critical Success factors the require correct actions for any Agile at Scale initiative to be successful.

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Failure Modes of Integrating Agile with Earned Value Management

  1. 1. +16.0 ‒ Failure Modes of Agile and Earned Value Management Transformation The root causes of Failure to Transform to an Agile Organization and Failure to Adopt Agile methods are two Critical Success factors the require correct actions for any Agile at Scale initiative to be successful. How Do I Fail Thee? Let Me Count theWays... Robert H. Bradfield,Intervention in School and Clinic August 1973 Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 611
  2. 2. There is nothing more difficult to plan,more doubtful of success,nor more dangerous to manage than the creation of a new system. For the initiator has then enmity of all who would profit by the preservation of the old system and merely lukewarm defendersin those that would gain by the new one 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 612
  3. 3. + Transformation Failure Mode Propositions (1)† Proposition Organizations are potentially chaotic. § The greater the number of counteracting forces in an organization,the higher the likelihood of encountering chaos. § The larger the number of forces with different periodic patterns,the higher the likelihood of encountering chaos. Organizations move from one dynamic state to the other through a discrete bifurcation process. § An organization will always be in one of the following states:stable equilibrium,periodic equilibrium or chaos. § A progressive and continuous change of the relationships between two or more organizational variables leads an organization, in a discrete manner, from a stable to a chaotic state via an intermediary periodic behavior. † Chaos and Organizational Emergence: Towards Short Term Predictive Modeling to Navigate a Way Out of Chaos Sami A. Houry Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 613 16. Failure Modes
  4. 4. + Transformation Failure Mode Propositions (2)† Proposition Forecasting is impossible, especially at a global scale and in the long term. § When in a chaotic state,ceteris paribus, the impact of a change has an unpredictable long term effect. § When in a chaotic state,ceteris paribus, the impact of an incremental change can be predicted in the very short term. When in a chaotic state,organizations are attracted to an identifiable configuration. § When in a chaotic state,organizations are more likely to adopt a specific configuration than a deterministically random pattern. § The greater the openness of an organization to its environment, the more likely is the attraction by the organization to a given configuration. † Chaos and Organizational Emergence: Towards Short Term Predictive Modeling to Navigate a Way Out of Chaos Sami A. Houry Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 614 16. Failure Modes
  5. 5. + Transformation Failure Mode Propositions (3)† Proposition When in a chaotic state,organizations, generally,have a fractal form. § When in a chaotic state,similar structure patterns are found at the organizational, unit,group and individual levels. § When in a chaotic state,similar process patterns are found at the organizational, unit,group and individual levels. Similar actions taken by organizations in a chaotic state will never lead to the same result. § When in a chaotic state,two identical actions taken by a same organization always lead to two different results. § When in a chaotic state,the same action taken by two organizations never leads to the same results. † Chaos and Organizational Emergence: Towards Short Term Predictive Modeling to Navigate a Way Out of Chaos Sami A. Houry Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 615 16. Failure Modes
  6. 6. + 16.1 ‒ High Level Failure Modes† n Expecting transformation to be Easy n Doing Practices without Principles n Complicating the Agile Startup n Leading the team like a Project Manager n Manage the Backlogs n Communicating Through the Scrum Master n Manage the Team n Manage the Product Road Map n Manage the Release Plan n Product Owner not Involved or Available n Lax Daily Standups n Not Conducting Retrospective Meetings Every Sprint n Failure to manage the Team Let’s start with the Big Failure Modes for the Scrum, the Team,and the Processes they use at the software development implementation level. These failures are focused on the actual deployment of Agile development process. The larger organizational failure modes are in the next section. † Failure Modes of Team Based Scrum, Mike Cottmeyer, 29January 2014 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 616
  7. 7. + Expecting transformation to Agile and Scrum to be Easy n Starting the Agile journey after reading a book or airline magazine article. n Start with 2 to 3 week Sprints and call it done ‒ we’re doing Agile software development. n Teams struggle to keep pace with the planned Sprint cadence n No Plan for the deployment of Agile processes n No Plan for the transformation of the Culture needed to support the Agile processes n Real transformation exposes existing corporate and cultural problems that must be dealt with n Communications n Accountability n Distrust Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 617 16. Failure Modes
  8. 8. + Doing the Practices without the Principles n Practices are easy n Scrum meetings n Scrum roles n Scrum artifacts n Agile principles are what make the practices work and sustainable n Principles are much harder to incorporate into practices n This is the primary failure mode of an Agile deployment n Agile is about the People, their interactions, and the culture ‒ not the processes, practices, and tools. Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 618 16. Failure Modes
  9. 9. + Complicating Agile Startup n KISS n Agile can be deployed without the latest tools n Stickies' on the wall work just fine n Manually generated burn down charts n Spending time of tools instead of getting people working together in an agile manner is focusing on the wrong thing n The Agile Manifesto says n Higher value on individuals and interactions than on processes and tools Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 619 16. Failure Modes
  10. 10. + Leading Like a Project Manager n Agile development is not the same as project management n It’s a Team Based development process n Product Owner n Scrum Master – a facilitator not a Project Manager n The TEAM ‒ self-organizing and empowered to make decisions in conjunction with the Product Owner about the direction of the work that matches the Product Roadmap and Release Plan n SAFe 4.0 provides other roles and higher level governance processes for Agile at Scale. Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 620 Caution the notion of making mistakes and learning from them is a small team approach. Not one that works well on Agile At Scale
  11. 11. + Managing The Backlogs (1)† n Failure to produce a well-groomed prioritized product backlog is the root of nearly every problem in successfully deploying agile software development n This backlog Grooming failure mode leads to n Failure to deliver the planned Stories at the end of the sprint n Poor sprint reviews to determine corrective actions n Poor retrospectives for corrective actions of the team n If the team doesn’t understand what they are supposed to build, they typically don’t get anything finished, and nothing at the end of the sprint works. 16. Failure Modes † Failure Modes of Team Based Scrum, Mike Cottmeyer, 29January 2014Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 621
  12. 12. + Managing The Backlogs (2)† n Failure to plan the work during the Sprint n Ineffective daily standup meetings n Inability to swarm n Inability to burn down linearly during the Sprint n Poor planning result from a poorly formed Product Backlog n If the backlog isn’t clear coming into the sprint planning meeting, the team spends too much time inventing the what and not nearly enough time on the how. n Without understanding the how, it is very difficult to get to a commitment. n Without a commitment, it’s difficult to figure out how we can work together or collaborate. n If there isn’t collaboration, everyone is working on their own stories. 16. Failure Modes † Failure Modes of Team Based Scrum, Mike Cottmeyer, 29January 2014Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 622
  13. 13. + Managing The Backlogs (3)† n If everyone is working on their own stories, they aren’t finishing early in the sprint. n If we don’t finish early, they’re deferring work to the end of the Sprint. n Deferring work to the end of the Sprint, makes it hard to do testing, get feedback from the Product Owner, and the Sprint ends up with missing Stories. n Missing stories causes the team’s performance to be unpredictable. n Missed stories make for missed commitments, bad demos, and even worse retrospectives. 16. Failure Modes † Failure Modes of Team Based Scrum, Mike Cottmeyer, 29January 2014Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 623
  14. 14. + Managing The Backlogs (4)† n The Backlog is NOT n A list of technical tasks,created by the Team n Ambiguous Stories, not well defined using the three part format as a short, simple descriptions of a feature told from the perspective of the person who desires the new capability,usually a user or customer of the system. As a «type of user», I want «some goal» so that «some reason». n Full of Stories that don’t meet the INVEST criteria n Independent ‒ of all others n Negotiable ‒ not a specific contract for Features n Valuable ‒ to those paying for the outcome n Estimable ‒ to an acceptable approximation n Small ‒ so it fits inside a Sprint n Testable ‒ in principle,even if there is not a test for it yet 16. Failure Modes † Failure Modes of Team Based Scrum, Mike Cottmeyer, 29January 2014Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 624
  15. 15. + Manage the Release Plan n The Release Plan stats how the Product Roadmap will be delivered n Without the Release Plan, the basis of Earned Value Management has no Performance Measurement Baseline n No BCWS spreads from the Sprint staffing plan n No time phase BCWP from the deliverables compared to the BAC Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 625 16. Failure Modes
  16. 16. + Product Owner not Involved or Available n The Product Owner role is a full time job n Many new to the role are unprepared for the commitment n The Product Owner role is a mandatory position and a Critical Success Factor for Agile to work n The best PO is involved on a daily basis, so Sprint Review is a mere formality Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 626 16. Failure Modes
  17. 17. + Lax Dailey Standups n Face-to-Face conversations every day for 15 minutes, force communications and collaboration n Standups provide visibility and transparency to the project’s performance and impediments n Start on time and stop on time n Three questions n What was accomplished yesterday n What will be worked on today n What obstacles are blocking progress Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 627 16. Failure Modes
  18. 18. + Not Conducting Retrospective Meetings every Sprint n Agile manifesto says n At regular intervals,the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly n Sprint retrospective is not optional if the team is going to Be agile. n This is the basis of the fine tuning and responding to change required to Be Agile. n Adjustments can’t be made unless feedback for corrective actions are available inside the business rhythm of the agile Sprint cycle Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 628 16. Failure Modes
  19. 19. + Failures in Managing the Team n People matrixed across multiple teams n Low coupling between teams for the shared outcome n Teams with many of external dependencies n Without visibility to those dependencies, low cohesion results for the shared outcome n Teams with missing subject matter expertise n The notion of a generalist is useful but difficult to scale on software intensive system of systems n Software Development is a systems engineering paradigm. Specialties are a natural part of that paradigm 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 629
  20. 20. + n If agile isn’t a silver bullet, blame agile. n If agile isn’t a silver bullet, blame agile. n Equate self-managing with self-leading and provide no direction to the team whatsoever. n Ignore the agile practices. n Undermine the team’s belief in agile. n Continually fail to deliver what you committed to deliver during iteration planning. n Don’t communicate a vision for the product to the agile team or to the other stakeholders. n Don’t pay attention to the progress of each iteration and objectively evaluatethe value of that progress. n Start customizing an agile process before you’ve done it by the book. n Slavishly follow agilepractices without understanding their underlying principles. n Ratherthan alignpay,incentives,job titles,promotions,and recognitionwithagile,createincentives forindividuals to undermine teamwork and shared responsibility. n Don’t continually improve. n Cavalierlymove work forward from one iteration to the next. It’s good to keep the product owner guessing about what will be delivered. n Do not create cross-functional teams. Put all the testers on one team, all the programmers on another, and so on. n Large projects need large teams. Ignore studies that show productivity decreases with large teams due to increased communication overhead. Since everyone needs to know everything, invite all fifty people to the dailystandup. n Replace a plan document with a plan“in your head” that only you know. n Have one person share the roles of Scrum Master (agile coach) and product owner. In fact,have this person also be an individual contributor on the team. n Drop and customize important agile practices before fully understanding them. n Don’t change the technical practices. n Convince yourself that you’ll be able to do all requested work, so the order of your work doesn’t matter. A Quick Failure Mode Summary† Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright© Glen B. Alleman,2002 ― 2016 630 † How to Fail with Agile, Mike Cohn 16. Failure Modes
  21. 21. + Two Primary Failure Modes of Agile + Earned Value Management Failure to Transformation the Organization Failure to Adopt Processes Top Down Failure Bottom Up Failure 16. Failure Modes Failure to Transformation the Organization Failure to Adopt Processes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 631
  22. 22. + 16.2 ‒ Failure Modes of Agile Project Transformation Transformation Failure means failure of … Leadership 1. Lack of Executive Sponsorship 2. Failure to Transform Leaders Behavior 3. No Change to the Organizational Infrastructure Workflow 4. No business view of the Value Stream 5. Failure to Decentralization Control 6. Unwillingness to Address Illusions Around Distributed Teams Congruency 7. Lack of Transformation Product Manager 8. Failure to Create Fast Feedback 9. Short-Changing collaboration and Facilitation Transition 10. Ineffective Plan for Transforming Beyond SW Development 11. Viewing Transformation only as Process and Structure 12. Ignoring Path of Individual, Team, and Organizational Transitions Transforming from a Current State to an Agile State has 12 Failure Modes. Each may or may not be present on the current Program or Organization using Earned Value Management. If the failure mode is present,a corrective action to remove the failure mode,or an action to avoid the consequences of the mode must be taken 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 632
  23. 23. + n Not all failure modes are applicable in the Earned Value Management paradigm n Consider each one and assess if any governance model requires it remain n If so, the corrective action can simply be to minimize the impact of the Failure Mode Each Failure Mode must be assessed for the specific transformation process with corrective actions 12 Failure Modes of Agile Transformation† The essence of a agile transformation is having a vision that goes far beyond how engineering teams align their practices in delivery cadences. A real transformation takes in the whole system † 12 Failure Mode in Agile Transformation: Transition, Jean Tabaka, https://www.rallydev.com/blog/agile-coaching/12-failure-modes-agile- transformation-transition 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 633
  24. 24. + Lack of Executive Sponsorship1 Failure Mode Corrective Action Buzz Word Buy in of Management Executable action plan showing value stream produced by Transformation work Agile is performing as a Skunk Works hiding from management Develop plan to syndicate to enterprise from pilot project Executive decrees switch to Agile across the organization,but no follow through ‒ a check book commitment Agile Transformation is like all other projects, it needs a Risk Adjusted Integrated Master Plan and Schedule. Executive demands immediate results,but doesn’t change metrics used to measure organization Value Stream Map of Transformation outcomes required to show increase value produced as planned. Organization blames Agile for poor performance Plan the Work,Work the Plan Risk Manage all work and outcomes with visible, measures Effectiveness and Performance 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 634
  25. 25. + Failure to Transform Leaders Behavior 2 Failure Mode Corrective Action Failure to embrace behaviors that are a service to the team Become a Servant Leader of the TeamPower Through difficult situations, leaving wisdom and morale of team behind 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 635
  26. 26. + n Systematic neglect: knows the limits of how much focus can be allocated to issues;learns what to focus on and what to let go of in order to support the team and achieve goals effectively n Acceptance: knows when to let go and trust the instincts of the team; accepts the wisdom of the team and is prepared to support it n Listening: facilitates useful and necessary communication, pays attention to what remains unspoken, and is motivated to actively hear what others are saying n Language: speaks effectively and non-destructively;clearly and consistently articulates the vision and goals for the team n Values: is responsible for building a personal sense of values that are clearly exhibited through consistent actions; supports team behaviors that build their sense of values Become a Servant Leader (1)† Lack of Executive Sponsorship2 † Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness (25th anniversary ed.). Robert Greenleaf, 2002, Paulist Press 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 636
  27. 27. + n Tolerance of imperfection:modulates his or her own sense of perfection and offers to each team member an understanding of their strengths and challenges;cares more about “How can I help the team grow?” n Goal setting: owns the vision;doesn’t advocate for a personal belief in what is right but rather maintains the goal for a higher purpose, inviting others to align with the vision for the overall good n Personal growth: recognizes the value of continually finding diverse disciplines that invite new ways of acting in service to the team, and models this growth behavior to inspire others n Withdrawal: knows when to step back and allow the team to figure out its course,versus inflicting a personal sense of what is right for the team; carefully decides what to bring forward and when Become a Servant Leader (2)† Lack of Executive Sponsorship2 † Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness (25th anniversary ed.). Robert Greenleaf, 2002, Paulist Press 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 637
  28. 28. + No change to the Organizational Infrastructure 3 Failure Mode Corrective Action Inability to change existing organizational structure Measures of success by department goals,rather than production of value Know the true value,know who is involved to produce that value,have line of sight visibility to current state of the value stream, and remove blocks to progress Accidental adversaries created through the organization hierarchy that limits organizations effectiveness Focus teams effectiveness at the expense of the organization Focus on efficiency based resource planning 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 638
  29. 29. + No business View of the Value Stream 4 Failure Mode Corrective Action No view across the Value stream of the Program or across the Portfolio of Programs Map system to the needed level of detail that reveals handoffs and bottlenecks Start with current position in the Value Stream and work both directions as processes mature Find the one primary constraint and remove it Silos encourage the maintenance of the sense of control Expand the boundaries of the value stream ‒ upstream and downstream Incuse everyone in identifying the value stream Broaden commitment up and down the value stream ‒ not localized silos 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 639
  30. 30. + Failure to Decentralization Control 5 Failure Mode Corrective Action Set up system based on the economics of resource utilization Resources and burn rate are critical. But so is Value Production against that cost. Define both in meaningful units for all work performed Rely on documents and emails for communication Face to Face commination is critical to being agile. For distributed teams this can be virtual Face to Face Don’t invest in bringing people together to collaborate or train Collaboration is constant, daily connections, agreement of daily outcomes ‒ Plan of the Week and Plan of the Day are vehicles for staying connected 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 640
  31. 31. + n Hire a coach steeped in distributed team success n Ensure all team members receive same Agile training n Invest in HD video technology n Have facilitator in each location n Use facilitation techniques to ensure all insights are welcome n Small group brainstorming, n Round robin check ins n Frequent breaks n Invest in technologies to support transparent workflow communication n Maintain regular cadence of visits across geographies and roles n Build working agreements to support core hours of availability n Trade or share burden of dealing with time zone differences n Engage the executive sponsor in regular visits to all locations Failure to Decentralization Control 5 Changes needed to deal with issues of the Distributed Model 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 641
  32. 32. + Unwillingness to Address Illusions of Distributed Teams 6 Failure Mode Corrective Action Set up a complex geographic maze based on the economics of resource utilization;ensure a time zone difference between 7-11 hours § Invest in communication and collaboration infrastructure for audio, video, live document and code sharing. § Distributed control of work flow § Automated testing,build,release processes § Low labor foot print for work machines can do AUTOMATE EVERYTHING Rely heavily on emails and large documents (especially detailed test plans) for your communication Don’t invest in bringing people together to collaborate or train 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 642
  33. 33. + Lack of Transformation Product Manager 7 Failure Mode Corrective Action Processes alone will not move Agile transformation into a healthy, sustainable state by themselves. Transformation Product Manager ensures the vision and empathy is available to recognize and correct destructive and incongruent team behaviors. Transformation Product Manager ensures a non-negotiable value of trust — not just within a team, but across teams and all support organizations. Ensure Transformation Product Manager has the vision and empathy to recognize the destructive,incongruent behaviors. Congruent teams act as integrated systems in which the whole matters. The transformation product owner enables the Transformation Teams be attentive to the incongruent behaviors that create us versus them conditions. 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 643
  34. 34. + n How the transformation impacts behaviors as well as processes and structures. n Clarity of transformation goals in teams and across teams. n The health of teams where behaviors such as blaming and placating, or a focus primarily on process and hierarchy are recognized as detrimental to the transformation. n Intentional decisions about consistency of behavior not just standards and practices around process and metrics. n Supporting the benefits of congruency over enforced enforced behaviors. Congruent Transformation Opens a CriticalDialogue Lack of Transformation Product Manager 7 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 644
  35. 35. + Failure to Create Rapid Feedback to Team Members 8 Failure Mode Corrective Action Clinging to sense of predictability when future work will be completed Monte Carlo simulation of project work Centralized organization setting standards for team at the start of the transformation Frameworks tailored to project need Large-batch delivery of feature sets 2 to 4 week Sprints Holding onto the belief that precision in analysis resolves all risks in product delivery All project work is probabilities. Probabilistic risk and performance management installed Lack of experiments to test cause-and- effect about time,effort, and value 2 to 4 week Sprint, with exploratory Spikes Blame between business and development about delivery predictions and actual dates to support projected value Integrated planning and management teams Blame between development and testing about defects long after the features have been built Integrated development and test teams - DevOps 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 645
  36. 36. + Short-Changing Collaboration and Facilitation 9 Failure Mode Corrective Action Team divided along specialist lines of work, failing to see the whole because of the parts. Define interfaces with verbs and nouns that cross the interface boundary. Build Interface specifications defining data and processes for all system components and subsystems Build map between all components and subsystems showing all interdependencies between data and processes 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 646
  37. 37. + Ineffective Plan for Transforming Beyond SW Dev 10 Failure Mode Corrective Action Speeding up value delivery by concentrating transformation on product development alone is sub-optimal. The essence of a great agile transformation is having a vision that goes far beyond how engineering teams align their practices in delivery cadences. A real transformation takes in the whole system. § Declaring the transformation from the executive level is insufficient. § Rolling out all teams at once is insufficient. § Starting up teams randomly is insufficient. § Training everyone at once is insufficient § Led with visionary to transform the way the entire company does business § Guide by lean principles of value flow § Encourage to reduce organizational friction in processes and interactions § Inform by recurring value stream mapping § Coordinate across the value stream in a synchronized cadence 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 647
  38. 38. + Transforming in an Enduring Manner Against Enterprise n Declaring the transformation from the executive level is insufficient. n Practices across the project teams and vertically from bottom to top. n Rolling out all teams at once is insufficient. n Rolling out to a single team is a good pilot approach n Rolling out to all teams needed to sustain the benefits of an Agile Transformation n Starting up teams randomly is insufficient. n A planned rollout for each team in a strategically planned order n Training everyone at once is insufficient. n Train up and down the management chain n Train across all teams 10 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 648
  39. 39. + Viewing Transformation Only as Process and Structure 11 Failure Mode Corrective Action Process and structure are necessary, but not sufficient. Processes and structure tailored to meet the needs for both governance on for the corporation and the needs of efficiency of the program. Process and structure lead to a false sense of success in the information ‒ checked off the boxes but not checked with the people. Using processes frameworks, people must localize the processes appropriate for the needs of the program. Publish process handbook and organizational chart and expect transformation to be effective The training varies, with executives getting one-day sessions;product managers, a week;and new designers, three-month programs. 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 649
  40. 40. + Ignoring Path of Individual, Team, and Organization Transitions 12 Failure Mode Corrective Action In large transformation efforts, when it’s good and for the right reasons, there’s always someone who has something to lose — whether true or imagined. Showing, explicitly,the Value Stream Map of how transformation impacts the programs and enterprise. This transparency is the basis of decision making. Creating a better ways of working generates the unintended consequence including Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt. Constant, broad, and detailed benefit communication needed for all change initiatives 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 650
  41. 41. + 16.3 ‒ Failure Modes of Agile Process Adoption† Adoption Failure means failure of … 1. Check Book Commitments 2. Culture doesn't support change 3. Ineffective use of Retrospectives 4. Needed infrastructure ignored 5. Lack of planning participation 6. Unavailable Product Owner 7. Weak Scrum Masters 8. No onsite Evangelist 9. Team Lacking Authority 10. Testing Not Pulled Forward 11. Traditional performance appraisals 12. Reverting to Form Agile may be simple, but it isn't easy. Many organizations fail to adopt Agile for many of the same reasons, and many of these reasons are cultural. † https://www.rallydev.com/resource/12-modes-failed-agile-adoption 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 651
  42. 42. + Check Book Commitments1 Failure Mode Corrective Action Unengaged management – Just Do It Do not start the transformation effort without a Master Plan showing actions,outcomes, and benefits Quest for Immediate Results Use the Master Plan to show when benefits will be delivered,dependences on these deliveries, and the cost to produce these benefits No Organizational Change Change must occur for all transformation projects. Use the Master Plan to show, when, where,and who will be impacted by the change Use Same Metrics as Traditional Management Agile Transformation should be executed as an Agile Project.Focus on beneficial outcomes 16. Failure Modes Plans are strategies.Strategies are hypotheses. Hypotheses must be tested to confirm the strategy is correct. Check Book Commitments cannot be allowed to stand in the presence of a Master Planning approach. Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 652
  43. 43. + Culture Doesn't Support Change2 Failure Mode Corrective Action Simply Follow the Plan Transformation is an Agile project. Have a Product Roadmap, but the Features, Stories, and Tasks must emerge as more insight is gained during the transformation processes are applied. Standard of Work Enforced ‒ Governance equals Conformance Governance is fine ‒ we work in high risk, high value domains. But in the transformation process emerge processes and practices must be encourage. Yes, But … Any excuse must be tested against the principles of Agile Transformations before it can be accepted as a reason for not doing the work 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 653
  44. 44. + Ineffective use of Retrospectives3 Failure Mode Corrective Action Ignored – there is nothing wrong here No actions from Retrospectives Retrospectives mean § What are we doing well? § What’s not serving us as a Team? § What would we change to improve? 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 654
  45. 45. + Needed Infrastructure Ignored4 Failure Mode Corrective Action No stable environment Single,integrated development, test, and release environment. This environment must also integrate Agile management processes with the Earned Value Management processes and tools TANSTAAFL – There ain’t no such thing as a free lunch To successfully integrate Agile with EVM, but processes must change to meet the mutual need of the integrated system. This costs time and money, but it also costs emotional energy on behalf of the Teams and the management of those Teams. 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 655
  46. 46. + Lack of Planning Participation5 Failure Mode Corrective Action Who can commit? Single point of integrative responsibility Waiting for decisions = waste Expose time cost of money for any delayed decision. This is called cost of delay in construction projects. Same impacts on software development 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 656
  47. 47. + Unavailable Product Owner6 Failure Mode Corrective Action Unavailable Product Owner PO dedicated to team as part of the principals of Agile.Violate the principles expect less than acceptable outcomes Too Many Product Owners A single point of integrative responsibility is the role of the PO Agile asks a lot of the Product Owner Yes, that’s why being a PO is a hard job that requires training,skill,and dedication Too busy for all that communicating Failure to agree on priorities Failure with Team commitment 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 657
  48. 48. + Weak Scrum Masters7 Failure Mode Corrective Action Command and Control Serve and facilitate the needs of the those impacted by change Low morale Engage all participants in a win-win approach to change Low IQ’s All change is emotional, establish the basis to reduce emotions and replace that with business benefit discussion 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 658
  49. 49. + No Onsite Evangelist8 Failure Mode Corrective Action No one cares All change initiatives require champions to move the initiative forward, remove the roadblocks, encourage all participants to continue with their efforts and be he leader of the successful outcomes. This requires a Roadmap, just like agile software development requires a Product Roadmap by which to guide the project toward the goal No one listens Remote road kill No benefits reaped 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 659
  50. 50. + Team Lacking Authority9 Failure Mode Corrective Action Red tape decisions Empower teams to amplify learning No forming, storming, norming, or performing processes Inspect and adapt, then deliver 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 660
  51. 51. + Testing Not Pulled Forward10 Failure Mode Corrective Action Push to deliver Agile is a cadence based paradigm. Forces changes in this cadence for the needs of external interests breaks the principles of Agile. Increased defects With this forces cadence, defects appear where they would not have,if the cadence were maintained Pilled up technical debt With these increased defects, the cadence is disrupted.These defect must be fixed and that cost time and money 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 661
  52. 52. + Traditional Performance Appraisals 10 Failure Mode Corrective Action Manager’s yearly evaluation Frequent evaluations Individual heroics rewarded Team contribution rewarded 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 662
  53. 53. + Reverting to Form10 Failure Mode Corrective Action Giving up when Agile becomes hard Provide sufficient time to adopt Agile processes and principles Revert to past habits when things start going wrong Stick to the 12 principles of agile 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 663
  54. 54. + 16.4 ‒ Corrective Actions for Failure Modes starts with a Strategic Planning Process n Vision ‒ where are we going? n Consensus ‒ do we all agree that where we want to go? n Skills – do we have the skills needed to get there? n Incentives – are we headed in the right direction for the right reason? n Resources – do we have all the resources needed to reach our goal? n Action Plan ‒ do we have a strategy to reach our goal at the planned time,for the planned cost,with the needed outcomes? All Change is Always A Political Process. Failing to start with the political process,doe not make it go away.It just make the political resistance become stronger. A Strategic Plan for the transformation of the organization is the only way to address political resistance 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 664
  55. 55. All Change is Always A Political Process 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 665
  56. 56. + n ChangeIs Painful n Organizational change is unexpectedly difficult because it provokes sensations of physiological discomfort n Behaviorism doesn’t work. Change efforts based on incentive and threat (the carrot and the stick) rarely succeed in the long run n Humanism is overrated.Inpractice, the conventional empathic approach of connection and persuasion doesn’t sufficiently engage people n Focus Is Power n The act of paying attention creates chemical and physical changes in the brain n Expectation shapes reality – People’s preconceptions havea significant impact on what they perceive n Attention density shapes identity – Repeated, purposeful, and focused attention can lead to long-lasting personal evolution Why Change is Hard In many studies of patients who have undergone coronary bypass surgery, only one in nine people, on average,adopts healthier day-to-day habits […] [even if] they clearly see the value of changing their behavior. “The Neuroscience of Leadership,” David Rock and Jeffery Schwartz, strategy+business, Summer 2006 Instituting change is at the heart of Transformation and Adoption 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 666
  57. 57. + All five components plus an Action Plan needed for successful transformation and adaptation Five Components Needed for Successful Change† Vision + Consensus + Skills + Incentives + Resources + Action Plan = Success Vision Consensus + Skills + Incentives + Resources + Action Plan = Confusion ++ Vision + Consensus Skills + Incentives + Resources + Action Plan = Sabotage + Vision + Consensus + Skills Incentives + Resources + Action Plan = Anxiety + Vision + Consensus + Skills + Incentives Resources + Action Plan = Resistance + Vision + Consensus + Skills + Incentives + Resources Action Plan = Frustration + Vision + Consensus + Skills + Incentives + Resources Action Plan = Tread Mill Failure† Knoster. T. (1991) Presentation in TASH Conference, Washington DC Adapted byKnoster fromEnterprise Group Ltd 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 667
  58. 58. + Vision n Vision shapes of the future that an individual or group desires,a set of ambitions. n Vision is an expression of a desirable direction and future challenging state for the school. n Vision constitutes partly the sensing by an individual of what the organization should look like,how it should work,how it should be taken into the future – based on a set of beliefs,supported and mediated by each individual’s values and beliefs. n Vision is of little value if it is merely straplines and catchphrases which have no foundation n Vision must generate action,must involve change n An effective vision provides a perspective,an ambition of how the people in the organization will operate,in philosophical terms,in terms of decision making,in terms of serving others,in adding value to society. n Building a shared vision is a critical factor in managing change. n The vision process,creating the vision,can be more important that the vision itself allowing stakeholders to join in, feel strong ownership in order to buy into it and promote it as their own. n Vision creates the big picture – needed by everyone if they are to have a sense of where change is leading them. Absence of Vision creates confusion – through lack of vision and resulting in lack of direction. 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 668
  59. 59. + Consensus n Co-operation – agreement on ideas, values, purposes, shared understanding. n Collaboration – working together in an atmosphere of support and encouragement toward a shared outcome n Collegiality – development of a learning community gaining skills and expertise together. Absence of consensus results in sabotage – where the unwilling or unconvinced can actively work against the willing – negativity of counter arguments drags everyone down and prevents action. 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 669
  60. 60. + Skills n Identify of whatever knowledge or expertise is required to move forward. n The capabilities to implement new plans. n The means to act in new ways, explore different ways of working, negotiating, collaborating. n The abilities to try out different strategies, developing skills as teachers and within pupils. Absence of Skills creates anxiety – in those who feel they do not have the necessary knowledge or expertise to cope with or to implement new situations;– have little faith in training to provide them with knowledge / skills. 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 670
  61. 61. + Incentives n Intrinsic or extrinsic. n What is in it for me, additional payments, self-esteem, sense of achievement. n Reasons to change, intellectual excitement, opportunities for collaboration in planning and delivery, to try new things. Absence of Incentive creates resistance – from those who see nothing in the changes for them, no moral meaning, no personal meaning, no benefit; – conviction that things are all right as they are,no need to change. 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 671
  62. 62. + Resources n Physical resources. n Any items which people feel are necessary to enable them to make the required changes. n Use of existing knowledge or expertise within the organization or outside it. n Existing staff used as a resource including management team members, collegiality. n Emotional or social support / collegiality. n Development of knowledge, expertise,skills through effective training programs. n Extra staffing. n New equipment. n Time given to development, planning, reflection Absence of Resources creates frustration – if resources are not supplied to adequately implement the changes – to ensure success. 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 672
  63. 63. + Corrective Action Plan n Steps worked out to direct actions towards future goals. n Process shared by participants, understanding what needs to be done and how. n Identified leadership, timescale, resources, monitoring processes. • Committed leadership Absence of a Corrective Action Plan create a treadmill – doing what we have always done in the way we have always done it and therefore not succeeding in working in new ways,not achieving new goals. 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 673
  64. 64. + Three Phase Model of Change† n Initiation Phase n Implementation Phase n Institutionalization Phase † Fullan’s ChangeModel 16. Failure Modes Performance–Based Project Management® , Copyright© Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 674

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