MSSD Freshman Literacy Project, 1999-2000 Implementation
<ul><li>Fall Reading Level 4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Reading Level 5.4 </li></ul>Success! 1.4 Grade Level Gain
Reading Scaled Scores Limited English Proficiency (LEP)  and Non-Limited English Proficiency Students   LEP Non - LEP Fall...
<ul><li>11 th  graders made big gains in reading comp </li></ul>History of the Project Why? <ul><li>Development? </li></ul...
<ul><li>11 th  graders did a lot of outside reading (Independent Reading Project/IRP) </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction was pr...
<ul><li>Independent Reading Project (IRP) </li></ul><ul><li>SAT-9 Preparation (Practice multiple choice questions) </li></...
<ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Creative thinking skills </li></ul><ul><...
Sample Independent Reading Project <ul><li>What is the title and author of your book?  What is the genre? Why did you sele...
Sample Independent Reading Project-continued <ul><li>Pick two quotes from your reading that you like. Why did you like the...
Literary Elements <ul><li>List a literary element (metaphor) </li></ul><ul><li>Quote the example (the words from the book)...
Sample Independent Reading Project-Advanced <ul><li>Evaluate the author’s choice of title for your </li></ul><ul><li>book....
SAT-9 Practice Items <ul><li>From two sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Commercially available materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ta...
Taking the (T)Error Out of the SAT-9: Grade 1
Taking the (T)Error Out of the SAT-9: Grade 1
SAT-9 Practice Passage: Cora’s Big Wish Cora got up early She got ready for school and ate here breakfast quickly. “Today ...
SAT-9 Practice Across Genres  Genre:  Historical Fiction:  Nazi Soldiers in Copenhagen   “ Halte!” the soldier ordered in ...
Sample Comprehension Questions  <ul><li>Where does the story take place? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on a city street </li></ul>...
Sample Comprehension Questions-continued <ul><li>How do you think Annemarie felt after she was stopped by the soldiers? </...
<ul><li>Repeating our intervention with this years’ </li></ul><ul><li>9 th  graders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue the Ind...
Concerns About Measuring Reading Comprehension <ul><li>Student reads passages </li></ul><ul><li>Students answers multiple ...
Stanford Achievement Test,  9th edition <ul><li>Group Administered </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Com...
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MSSD Freshman Literacy Project

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MSSD Freshman Literacy Project

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  • Hi – I’m Eileen O’Toole. I’m the MSSD school psychologist. Presenting with me today is Reba Euline, MSSD communication teacher. Together, we developed the Freshman Literacy Project.
  • Today’s topic is diversity. And we’re excited to be here today to share test results for a special group of MSSD students. On this screen, you can see the SAT-9 results for our LEP Freshman. The average scaled score gain of these students was double the gain of non-LEP students.
  • I want to give you a little background on how this project developed. As part of my job I give a lot of tests and I review a lot of test results. Two years ago, I was looking at MSSD’s SAT-9 results and I noticed something INTERESTING. For the third consecutive year, MSSD 11 th graders had made the biggest gains in reading comprehension.. So I asked myself, “Why is this happening?”   Were the gains the result of a developmental feature -meaning that 11 th graders’ are older, they have more world knowledge, and they’ve had exposure to many kinds of literature. In other words, they’re more sophisticated readers and thinkers. OR   Were the reading comprehension gains the result of a curriculum difference? I wondered what our 11 th graders were doing in class that other MSSD students were not doing.
  • After observing 11 th grade classes and talking to 11 th grade teachers. After doing this - two facts became clear.   First, 11 th graders were doing more outside reading than other MSSD students. This was because the English teachers required them to submit monthly book reviews, called Independent Reading Projects or IRPs. Reba Euline designed the IRP model. Second, 11 th grade teachers provided some, but not a lot of instruction in test taking skills, including how to answer a multiple choice question. I wondered if the test preparation had enhanced performance.
  • Replicate what happened on the 11 th grade team 11 th Grade English Teacher joins project IRPs are developed for 9 th graders SAT practice items are developed 9 th grade teachers say “yes” So, back to the Literacy Project . . . At this point my goal was clear. I wanted to apply two techniques used with 11 th graders – the monthly IRP and the test preparation to another group of students, hoping to achieve similar results.   I shared my ideas with Reba Euline, the 11 th English teacher who designed the IRP and together we devised a plan: Reba would design IRP formats suitable for 9 th graders. I would design the SAT9 practice items. We shared our idea with two 9th grade English teachers who said they would work with us and give the plan a try. Here are the two parts of our project . . . Students would complete monthly IRPs. All reading for this assignment would be done OUTSIDE of class. Students would practice answering SAT-9 multiple choice questions approximately 2 times a month— some of the practice would be done in class, some would be done as homework.
  • Let’s look at a SAMPLE IRP. On the surface it looks like a book report – but not all book reports ask students to identify and describe literary elements. There was no doubt in my mind that answering these kinds of questions would improve students’ analytical reading and reasoning skills.   What will the story be about? Base your answer on what you’ve read so far and any synopsis on the inside cover or back cover.
  • Look at the attached list of literary elements. Find an example of at least 5 in your book. For each example, make sure you go step by step and answer each part.
  • What color is your book (psychologically, not literally)? Explain why you chose that color and how it fits with or applies to your book. Support your explanation with specific examples from the book. Image that are were a critic for the Washington Post or the New York Times. How would you rate and review your book to the general public? Evaluate the author’s choice of title for your book. How does the title tie into the story (What’s the connection)? After you finished reading the book, did the title have a clearer or different meaning for you? In your opinion, is that a good title? If so, explain why, and how it fits “perfectly”. If not, explain why and suggest a better one.
  • I want to talk a minute about genre; historical fiction, poetry, reastic fiction. Genre is important because from about the 3 rd grade and up, students are expected to identify specific genre. To be successful on any achievement test – the SAT9, CAT, ITBS, students must recognize multiple genre. So we made sure we included a variety of stories in our practice items. We started referring to our practice items as GENRE DRIVEN because selection of passages was guided more by story content and concepts than grade level.
  • Next we have a sample practice passage. Notice the terms Genre: historical fiction Genre is a literary form -- poetry, biography, fables, science fiction.
  • Here we have multiple choice questions for the prior passage. The story and the questions are written on a 3 rd grade level.
  • I like #3 because the answer is not directly stated in text – The the student must interpret story information – the tone of the soldier’s voice, the cold, staring eyes, the fact that the solider blocked her path -- to correctly answer the question. Sharon has talked about the project results . . . Overall we were very please with the outcome. At the end of the 9 month intervention, students reading levels increased by 1 year – 4 months We were especially pleased with the gains our LEP students made.
  • What’s next? We’re currently working with our 2 nd group of 9 th graders. We hope to develop Teacher Guidelines for the IRP so other teachers can replicate the activity with a diverse student population.   We’re using the new Smart Board technology to present the practice items. The SmartBoard gives you a way to combine technology with text.   Finally, we plan to re-test our 9 th graders in May to see what kinds of gains occur. END OF PRESENTATION
  • One of my concerns about using the SAT-9 was that it seemed to provide a minimal estimate of students’ reading skills. I say this because the students I work with at MSSD frequently earned higher scores on other reading measures. For example, it was not unusual for a MSSD student’s IRI score to be 2 years higher than his/her SAT reading comprehension score. Was the SAT-9 multiple choice format in part responsible for these lower scores?
  • I wanted to talk about the SAT-9 for a few minutes because this is the measure we use measure reading. The SAT-9 is a traditional, multiple choice, group administered test. One of the advantages of the SAT-9 is that it enables educators to compare the academic skills of one deaf student to another AND You can also compare the scores of deaf students with hearing students nationwide
  • MSSD Freshman Literacy Project

    1. 1. MSSD Freshman Literacy Project, 1999-2000 Implementation
    2. 2. <ul><li>Fall Reading Level 4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Reading Level 5.4 </li></ul>Success! 1.4 Grade Level Gain
    3. 3. Reading Scaled Scores Limited English Proficiency (LEP) and Non-Limited English Proficiency Students   LEP Non - LEP Fall 514 638 Spring 559 659 Gain 45 21
    4. 4. <ul><li>11 th graders made big gains in reading comp </li></ul>History of the Project Why? <ul><li>Development? </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum? </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>11 th graders did a lot of outside reading (Independent Reading Project/IRP) </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction was provided in test taking taking skills (i.e. answering multiple choice questions) </li></ul>Two Significant Factors
    6. 6. <ul><li>Independent Reading Project (IRP) </li></ul><ul><li>SAT-9 Preparation (Practice multiple choice questions) </li></ul>Parts of the Project
    7. 7. <ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Creative thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Read and answer questions independently </li></ul><ul><li>How to use time management </li></ul><ul><li>Literal language </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative language (figures of speech, etc) </li></ul>Purpose of Independent Reading Project
    8. 8. Sample Independent Reading Project <ul><li>What is the title and author of your book? What is the genre? Why did you select this book? </li></ul><ul><li>What will the story be about? (based on synopsis) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two characters you met. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the story setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a summary of the plot. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Sample Independent Reading Project-continued <ul><li>Pick two quotes from your reading that you like. Why did you like them? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify two literary elements. Give an example of each. </li></ul><ul><li>Simile </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The sun shone like bronze. </li></ul><ul><li>If you could be one of the characters, who would you be and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you like the end of the book? If not, how would you change it? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Literary Elements <ul><li>List a literary element (metaphor) </li></ul><ul><li>Quote the example (the words from the book) “…the sun is copper in the sky.” </li></ul><ul><li>Explain in detail how/why that is an example </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret what the author is trying to convey to the reader </li></ul>
    11. 11. Sample Independent Reading Project-Advanced <ul><li>Evaluate the author’s choice of title for your </li></ul><ul><li>book. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the title tie into the story? </li></ul><ul><li>Did the title have a clear or different meaning for you? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a good title? If so, explain why. If not, explain why and suggest a better one. </li></ul><ul><li>If you were a critic, how would you rate and review this book? </li></ul>
    12. 12. SAT-9 Practice Items <ul><li>From two sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Commercially available materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking the (T)Error out of the SAT-9 (AGS Publishing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Best (Psychological Corporation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examiner designed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genre driven (biography, historical fiction, realistic fiction, poetry) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Taking the (T)Error Out of the SAT-9: Grade 1
    14. 14. Taking the (T)Error Out of the SAT-9: Grade 1
    15. 15. SAT-9 Practice Passage: Cora’s Big Wish Cora got up early She got ready for school and ate here breakfast quickly. “Today we are going to have fun,” she told her mother. “I hope to see a bear!” <ul><li>Cora did not want to be-- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ready </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cora was going to the-- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>doctor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>zoo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When does this story take place? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the morning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At lunchtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At night </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. SAT-9 Practice Across Genres Genre: Historical Fiction: Nazi Soldiers in Copenhagen   “ Halte!” the soldier ordered in a stern voice. The German was as familiar as it was frightening. Annemarie had heard it often enough before, but it had never been directed at her until now.   Behind her, Ellen also slowed and stopped. Far back, little Kirsti was plodding along, her face in a pout because the older girls hadn’t waited for her.   Annemarie stared up. There were two of them. That meant two helmets, two sets of cold eyes glaring at her and four tall shiny boots planted firmly on the sidewalk, blocking her path.   From Number the Stars by Lois Lowry, 1989, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
    17. 17. Sample Comprehension Questions <ul><li>Where does the story take place? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on a city street </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inside a grocery store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on the parking lot near the school yard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on a snowy day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In paragraph two, “pout” means … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a frozen expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to laugh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to frown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>savage </li></ul></ul>Genre: Historical Fiction: Nazi Soldiers in Copenhagen
    18. 18. Sample Comprehension Questions-continued <ul><li>How do you think Annemarie felt after she was stopped by the soldiers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>surprised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suspicious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fearful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sulky </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once Annemarie met the soldiers on the sidewalk she couldn’t run away because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She was too frightened to run. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The soldiers blocked the path. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She wouldn’t leave her two friends. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She wanted to annoy the soldiers. </li></ul></ul>Genre: Historical Fiction: Nazi Soldiers in Copenhagen
    19. 19. <ul><li>Repeating our intervention with this years’ </li></ul><ul><li>9 th graders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue the Independent Reading Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAT-9 Practice will be integrated using digital projector technology (SMART Board) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post test with SAT-9 in May </li></ul></ul>What’s Next-Fine tuning the project
    20. 20. Concerns About Measuring Reading Comprehension <ul><li>Student reads passages </li></ul><ul><li>Students answers multiple choice question </li></ul><ul><li>Student scores lower (e.g. 6.2 grade equiv) </li></ul><ul><li>Student reads passages </li></ul><ul><li>Student answers signed question </li></ul><ul><li>Student scores higher (e.g. 8.0 grade equiv) </li></ul>SAT-9 Informal Reading Inventory
    21. 21. Stanford Achievement Test, 9th edition <ul><li>Group Administered </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Compares deaf students with deaf and hearing peers nationwide </li></ul>

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