Topic “ INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL TRENDS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AT PRIMARY LEVEL”
Introduction Many immediate and complex issues overcome educators today. With positive and negative global influences, educators must look beyond the surface of education. Students are not just products of their schools but will become shaping forces in society, determining the success and failure of their nation's future. Curricularists, educators, and everyone in leadership need to work together to develop a well-rounded curriculum, which includes the learning of different cultures. Our next generation will need to cope with cross-cultural matters and grow into sensible adults who are fair and just to the global society
International Trends The International Review of Curriculum and Assessment Frameworks ( INCA ) is an ongoing compilation of information on education structure and policy in 18 countries: Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the USA and Wales.
<ul><li>All countries have a constitutional curriculum, prescribed by national or sub-national authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Four countries that have introduced a statutory curriculum within the past 15 years – England, the Netherlands, New Zealand and Wales – have recently reduced the level of prescription in favour of frameworks, within which schools devise a curriculum to suit local circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy, which had relaxed curricular control during the same period, has recently begun to tighten control (2003). </li></ul><ul><li>In Scotland, there are non-statutory curriculum guidelines, which tend to be adopted by most schools. </li></ul>Con't
<ul><li>There is a tendency towards increasing review of curricula to reflect changing needs, and most countries have undertaken major reforms of the primary curriculum within the past 15 years.17 This has been accompanied by a trend towards the creation of specialist curriculum (or curriculum and assessment) agencies, separate from Ministries. These now exist in 11 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>In all countries, there are greater expectations in terms of skills and dispositions, which are perceived as relevant to lifelong learning, employment and social participation. As a result, curricula designed during the past fifteen years increasingly stress the role of transferable skills and, in some cases, reduce prescribed content. </li></ul>Con't
<ul><li>There is a trend towards formulating curricula in terms of learning outcomes.19 In a few cases – Australia, Canada (Ontario) and England – these are linked to achievement targets which specify the percentage of pupils who are expected to achieve a given level have been linked to these learning outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>. There is an increasing trend towards offering one or more foreign languages, and/or extending provision for younger pupils, even where it is not mandatory. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Finland, which now bases its curriculum on PBL. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore, and other countries have shifted curricula and classroom practices with overall success. </li></ul><ul><li>Costa Rica has been a leader in constructivist education for a decade. </li></ul><ul><li>larger countries such as India and China have recently undertaken reforms intended to spark development of higher-order cognition and creativity. </li></ul>
Malaysia The main aim of science at the primary level is to lay the foundation for building a society that is culturally scientific and technological, caring, dynamic and progressive. Emphasis is given on the mastery of scientific skills needed to study and understand the world. Scientific skills refer to process skills and manipulative skills. At the lower primary level, elements of science are integrated across the curriculum.
India Curriculum no longer to be bookish but was to be drawn from the social and physical environment of the child. In fact, the system offered a larger measure of freedom to teachers at a time when they were not prepared to shoulder it. Courses of study, therefore, in history, geography, economies, civics were fused together and were called social studies. Similar courses in physics, chemistry and biology were fused together and called general science. All books were rewritten and the teacher training institutions began to advocate this integrated approach
Elements of technology-based education are introduced at the upper primary level through the living skills curriculum, which covers various aspects of manipulative skills. At the primary school level, the subject focuses on three main topics, namely: Maintaining, repairing and producing things; Buying and selling things; Managing self and work. Technology-based education
<ul><li>Japan also has adapted the curriculum to reflect changing circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim is to promote </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated study, individual expression and positive engagement in the collection of </li></ul><ul><li>information and reporting discussion. There have been concerns about ‘abandoning the </li></ul><ul><li>content-led curriculum’, but the uniform transmission of knowledge is deemed </li></ul><ul><li>inappropriate for the post-industrial, merit-based society of the 21st century. </li></ul>Japan
Korea As part of the decentralization of curricular control, the Sixth and Seventh National Curricula encourage schools . It is hoped that greater autonomy will enable schools and local authorities to devise curricula which are more appropriate for individual schools and children and thus contribute to increased diversity of educational programmes.
<ul><li>Curriculum design and development </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure national cohesion, integration and preservation of the ideological foundation of the State, certain educational functions are the responsibilities of the Federation—via the Federal Ministry of Education. </li></ul><ul><li>These responsibilities include: </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum, </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus, </li></ul><ul><li>Planning, </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and </li></ul><ul><li>Educational standards. </li></ul>
The 1976 Act of Parliament authorized the Ministry of Education (MOE) to appoint competent authorities to perform the curriculum-related functions. A Central/National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks (NBCT, commonly known as the Curriculum Wing ) was appointed to supervise curriculum and textbooks development/approval and to maintain curriculum standards from the primary through to the higher secondary levels. Four counterpart provincial curriculum centers (one in each province) were established to ensure provincial collaboration and evolve consensus in all activities falling within the purview of the Federation. This initiative was followed by the establishment of four Provincial Textbook Boards (PTTB)—one in each province.
<ul><li>This initiative was followed by the establishment of four Provincial Textbook Boards (PTBB)—one in each province. </li></ul><ul><li>Within their respective jurisdictions, these PTTBs are responsible for: </li></ul><ul><li>preparing, </li></ul><ul><li>publishing, </li></ul><ul><li>stocking, </li></ul><ul><li>distributing and </li></ul><ul><li>marketing school textbooks. </li></ul>
THE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Reform The process of curriculum reform in Pakistan has been introduced as part of the successive series of national education policies.
<ul><li>The studies scheme </li></ul><ul><li>The scheme of studies is based on three key factors: </li></ul><ul><li>The national education policy, </li></ul><ul><li>Market demand, </li></ul><ul><li>Global issues that relate to new or contemporary education dimensions. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Provincial Textbook Boards (PTBB) are responsible for development of text-books according to the approved syllabi. </li></ul><ul><li>Established lists of textbook writers in various subjects </li></ul><ul><li>are kept. </li></ul><ul><li>From these lists, invitations are issued to writers to submit draft materials within the prescribed syllabus parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>Selections are made on the basis of the quality and relevance of materials submitted to local situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, the selected materials are transformed into textbooks; the final versions of which are sent to the NBCT for approval. </li></ul>Textbook development
Review and approval <ul><li>A National Review Committee, comprising five or six members includes: </li></ul><ul><li>one expert from the Syllabus Formulation Committee </li></ul><ul><li>two subject experts </li></ul><ul><li>two schoolteachers </li></ul>This committee conducts textbook reviews based on the following parameters: (a) the book truly reflects the curriculum; (b) it meets the objectives stated in the curriculum; (c) the book does not contain any material repugnant to Islamic and Pakistani ideology.
<ul><li>Textbooks often do not reflect the curriculum. Of course, it requires considerable experience and skill to: </li></ul><ul><li>Translate the curriculum in a style that covers the objectives; </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously take into consideration the children’s language proficiency and background knowledge; and </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrently arrange the content in a logical sequence in a stimulating manner. </li></ul>Textbook quality
The curriculum: who makes what choices? Scheme of work., adjustment of time-table, provision for co curricular activities, exams Introduce unique cultural/regional aspects, including mother tongue National framework: syllabus and Weight age Curriculum plan Some aims of effective domains are suggested by teachers Evaluation/study reports of curriculum centers provide change direction National aims, as reflected in the National Educational Policy Aims and objectives School level · Heads · Teachers · Communities Regional/Provincial level · Local Authorities · Inspectors · Teacher’s Choice Curriculum Wing Ministry of Education
Con’t Trained teachers set the papers and evaluate the script Board of Education holds exams Inter-Board Committee of Chairmen, co-ordinate activities of the Exams Board Evaluation and examination Representation of teachers. in the National Review Committee Provincial Textbooks Boards commission writers and select material on merit basis Provincial textbooks are reviewed/approved by Federal Ministry through National Review Committee Materials Practice different methodology Teachers’ colleges implement training programmes (pre-service) Teacher-training courses are designed, also in-service teacher training Methods and approaches to learning
Curriculum in Pakistan : In Pakistan efforts have been made to mould the curriculum in accordance with our ideological, moral and cultural values as well as our national requirements in the fields of science, technology, medicine, engineering and agriculture, etc.
Suggestions for curriculum development <ul><li>curriculum should be goal oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum should be according to the future trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Develop vocational skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Use white space. </li></ul><ul><li>Headlines should be action or benefit oriented and short </li></ul>
<ul><li>Formative assessment should be included for curriculum assessment because it provides feedback to the student during the course. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum should always be according to needs of the students and match the mental level of the students, like the knowledge, vocabulary, skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology plays an essential role in our education today and will even more so in the future. Technology should be available in every school funded by taxes and donation from private industry. </li></ul>Con’t
<ul><li>We should also take advantage of technology to form a curriculum for creating international awareness, understanding various cultures, and learning different opinions and values. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculums need to focus on melting down barriers against others who are different and to encourage mutual respect and understanding for other cultures and beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary schools must continue to give priority to literacy and numeracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools should focus on teaching only one or two languages . </li></ul>
<ul><li>The curriculum should be subject to well-managed, periodic change in response to national and global developments that influence how our culture is transmitted, conserved and renewed, for the benefit of all, through the process of education in school and beyond. </li></ul>