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Heart attack


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Heart Attack

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Heart attack

  1. 1. 5th April 2014 Heart Attack
  2. 2. What is a Heart Attack? • Heart disease develops over time as fatty build-up, or plaques, narrowing coronary arteries, restricting blood flow to the heart. • Plaque ruptures, releasing a blood clot. • Blood flow through the coronary arteries is blocked by the clot, causing a heart attack. • If blockage continues, heart muscle
  3. 3. 3D Medical Animation - What is a Heart Attack?
  4. 4. Warning Signs of Heart Attack • Chest pain or discomfort. • Pain or discomfort in the jaw, neck or back. • Feeling weak, lightheaded or faint. • Pain or discomfort in the arms or shoulders. • Shortness of breath.
  5. 5. Delay Can be Deadly • Patient delay is the biggest cause of not getting care fast. • Do not wait more than a few minutes— 5 at the most—to call Emergency Number.
  6. 6. Why do we delay? • Think symptoms are due to something else. • Afraid or unwilling to admit symptoms are serious. • Embarrassed about: –―Causing a scene‖ –Having a false alarm/bothering the EMT • Do not understand need for getting to hospital fast.
  7. 7. What People Expect a Heart Attack to be Like • Crushing chest pain. • Sudden, intense, falls to the floor—like in the movies. • Heart attacks often begin with vague symptoms that slowly intensify. • Pain or discomfort can be relatively mild. • Symptoms may come and go.
  8. 8. Uncontrollable Risk Factors • Age. • Race/Ethnicity. • Gender. • Family history of early heart disease. • Previous heart attack, stroke or other signs of heart disease.
  9. 9. Controllable Risk Factors • Smoking. • Diabetes. • High blood cholesterol. • High blood pressure. • Overweight/obesity. • Physical inactivity.
  10. 10. Lifestyle Changes • Reduce intake of fatty foods and eat more fruits and vegetables. • Walk 30 minutes a day. • Exercise prevents stroke, heart disease and other conditions. Check out:
  11. 11. Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease • Reversible Irreversible • Increased LDL Advanced age • Decreased HDL Male sex • Cigarette Smoking Positive family Hx • Hypertension Diabetes • Estrogen, OCA Type A (?) • Physical Inactivity Stress (???) • Abdominal obesity
  12. 12. Cholesterol: LDL vs HDL LDL Cholesterol Increased LDL levels Lead to Increased atherosclerotic plaque HDL Cholesterol Increased HDL levels are associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease
  13. 13. LDL Cholesterol Lowering Drugs • Decrease production of cholesterol by the liver, and increase removal of LDL • Serious side effects: –Liver damage: rare –Muscle damage: very rare
  14. 14. Hypertension Treatment Guidelines • Normal BP <120/80 • Pre-Hypertension 120-139/80-89 • Hypertension >140/90