Freedom  in television  frequencies
<ul><li>In  France:  </li></ul><ul><li>4 public channels </li></ul><ul><li>3 private channels </li></ul><ul><li>In Great B...
<ul><li>In Germany: </li></ul><ul><li>17 public channels (3 of which are  important) </li></ul><ul><li>8 private channels ...
Public channels are influenced or conditioned  by the Government on duty.
<ul><li>In Italy:  </li></ul><ul><li>the public television broadcasting  </li></ul><ul><li>is Rai,  </li></ul><ul><li>whic...
Italy is the only European country where in the private there is a  big entrepreneur with a small competitor and the forme...
In the various countries of the world, television frequencies are normally distributed in accordance with the criteria pre...
Europe suspects that without a limit on the managed television arrays the owners of the frequencies are always the same, a...
Meritocracy isn’t applied in Italy, even if it is provided for by Italian Constitution.
With the introduction of the digital terrestrial television the televiewer without the decoder can’t watch TV any more, wh...
Al Gore hits out at Rupert Murdoch's News Corp <ul><li>Former US vice-president  Al Gore  has hit out at  Rupert Murdoch '...
<ul><li>In an interview with the Guardian, Gore said the  Current TV  news and documentary channel was told unexpectedly t...
<ul><li>He added that the decision reflected how News Corporation operated worldwide. &quot;News Corporation is an interna...
<ul><li>Current TV broadcasts around the world, including the UK, but the channel has been more successful in Italy, where...
<ul><li>Gore also said he understood there has been &quot;a rapprochement&quot; in the struggle between News Corp and Silv...
<ul><li>Programming aired by Current TV in Italy has included Citizen Berlusconi, a documentary first produced by the US P...
<ul><li>&quot;Anglo-American political theory highlights the problem. Too much power in the hands of one person is dangero...
<ul><li>News Corp insiders said that Gore's criticisms were misplaced and that Current TV had been dropped after the two s...
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Freedom in television frequencies, federico zampieri

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progetto Diritti Umani "Freedom of Speech" 2011

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Freedom in television frequencies, federico zampieri

  1. 1. Freedom in television frequencies
  2. 2. <ul><li>In France: </li></ul><ul><li>4 public channels </li></ul><ul><li>3 private channels </li></ul><ul><li>In Great Britain: </li></ul><ul><li>BBC 1, 2, 3 and another public channel </li></ul><ul><li>4 private channels </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In Germany: </li></ul><ul><li>17 public channels (3 of which are important) </li></ul><ul><li>8 private channels </li></ul><ul><li>In Spain: </li></ul><ul><li>3 public channels </li></ul><ul><li>5 private channels </li></ul>
  4. 4. Public channels are influenced or conditioned by the Government on duty.
  5. 5. <ul><li>In Italy: </li></ul><ul><li>the public television broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>is Rai, </li></ul><ul><li>which has three channels and </li></ul><ul><li>whose summit </li></ul><ul><li>is largely controlled by the </li></ul><ul><li>Government; </li></ul><ul><li>the private television </li></ul><ul><li>broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>are Mediaset (which has </li></ul><ul><li>Rete4, Canale5, Italia1) </li></ul><ul><li>and Telecom (MTV and LA7). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Italy is the only European country where in the private there is a big entrepreneur with a small competitor and the former is nearly related to the Prime Minister, whose opinion counts in the choice of the editors of the most influential dailies too.
  7. 7. In the various countries of the world, television frequencies are normally distributed in accordance with the criteria previously fixed for their assignment. In Italy a preventive assignment hasn’t been done: a spontaneous occupation has happened.
  8. 8. Europe suspects that without a limit on the managed television arrays the owners of the frequencies are always the same, and Italy risks onerous sanctions.
  9. 9. Meritocracy isn’t applied in Italy, even if it is provided for by Italian Constitution.
  10. 10. With the introduction of the digital terrestrial television the televiewer without the decoder can’t watch TV any more, whereas the entrepreneur can televise six channels in the space in which before he coud televise only one, but he has to make over the 40% of that space. The person who possessed a lot of frequencies continues to possess a lot of them and the protagonist of television transmission is still the same: the person who has understood before and better than others that televisions are the battlefields where the struggle for power is decided.
  11. 11. Al Gore hits out at Rupert Murdoch's News Corp <ul><li>Former US vice-president Al Gore has hit out at Rupert Murdoch 's News Corporation , accusing it of </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;an abuse of power&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>by forcing his liberal </li></ul><ul><li>TV station </li></ul><ul><li>off </li></ul><ul><li>air in Italy because </li></ul><ul><li>it did not fit </li></ul><ul><li>in with the media </li></ul><ul><li>giant's &quot;ideological agenda&quot;. </li></ul>Al Gore
  12. 12. <ul><li>In an interview with the Guardian, Gore said the Current TV news and documentary channel was told unexpectedly three weeks ago that it could no longer be carried by Sky Italia because of its decision to hire a US left-leaning commentator often critical of Murdoch's company. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>He added that the decision reflected how News Corporation operated worldwide. &quot;News Corporation is an international conglomerate with an ideological agenda. It seeks political power in every nation they operate. They wield that power to shut down voices that disagree with the agenda of Rupert Murdoch,&quot; Gore said. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Current TV broadcasts around the world, including the UK, but the channel has been more successful in Italy, where it claims that &quot;one in three&quot; Sky Italia viewers watch at some point during the week. However, Gore said that decision to not renew the channel's existing distribution deal also had implications in the UK – where News Corp's takeover of BSkyB is under review on the grounds of &quot;media plurality&quot;. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Gore also said he understood there has been &quot;a rapprochement&quot; in the struggle between News Corp and Silvio Berlusconi's media empire in Italy. Current TV has run several documentaries critical of the Italian premier and his government. &quot;Sky Italia is in the midst of negotiations to enter the digital terrestrial television market and the need Berlusconi's support,&quot; he said. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Programming aired by Current TV in Italy has included Citizen Berlusconi, a documentary first produced by the US PBS network, and about the consequences of handing a media mogul formal political power. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>&quot;Anglo-American political theory highlights the problem. Too much power in the hands of one person is dangerous, no matter the ideology,&quot; Gore said. &quot;The conversation of democracy, which used to happen in newspapers or in other public places now happens on the television screen. But this is a public space in which gatekeepers charge rents.“ </li></ul><ul><li>He argued that &quot;our democracy is much better when there are diverse viewpoints&quot; to inform decision-making. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>News Corp insiders said that Gore's criticisms were misplaced and that Current TV had been dropped after the two sides couldn't reach a commercial agreement. </li></ul>

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