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Murales de joaquín torres garcía y su taller en el hospital saint bois

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Murales de joaquín torres garcía y su taller en el hospital saint bois

  1. 1. COLECTIVO ARTE EN LA ESCUELA 2° Encuentro de muralismo en Montevideo. 15, 16 y 17 de mayo de 2014. “Homenaje a los Murales de Joaquín Torres García y su Taller en el Hospital Saint Bios”. Gustavo Baldovino – Alejandra Gutiérrez – Claudia Ríos – Vladimir Rivoira.
  2. 2. . Único mural actualmente en el Centro Hospitalario del Norte “Gustavo Saint Bois”: “Ciudad” de Alceu Riveiro (Artigas, 1919-Palma de Mallorca, 2013). Murales del Taller Torres García en el Hospital Saint Bois Un poco de historia…
  3. 3. Hoy en día el hospital lleva el nombre de Centro Hospitalario del Norte “Gustavo Saint Bois”. Encontramos más datos del mismo en su página http://www.saintbois.com.uy
  4. 4. JOAQUÍN TORRES GARCÍA Y LOS MURALES DEL HOSPITAL SAINT BOIS En el año 1928, se inauguró en el barrio Villa Colón, zona al noroeste de la ciudad de Montevideo, una Colonia para Convalecientes, con la finalidad de descongestionar a los Hospitales Maciel, Pasteur y Pereira Rossell de enfermos crónicos e infecciosos que requerían largos tratamientos sin fármacos específicos. Esta Colonia se sumaba a la de Alienados, iniciada en 1912, nuevos emprendimientos de la Asistencia Pública Nacional (APN), el primer organismo público dedicado a la atención hospitalaria y en policlinicas, liderado por el Dr. José Scoseria (1861-1946) en su gestación e inauguración en 1911. La APN recibió un muy generoso legado del finacista y empresario urugayo Gustavo Saint Bois (18471918), radicado y fallecido en Francia, para realizar esta obra que esperemos sea imperecedera.
  5. 5. El continuador de la obra y el espíritu del Dr. Scoseria fue el médico-cirujano de niños, Dr. José Martirené (1868-1961), secundado por el Administrador Carlos María Gurmendez, quienes fueron los responsables de la erección de la “Colonia de Convalecientes”. En 1934, con la creación del Ministerio de Salud Pública que absorbió a la APN, La “Colonia” se convirtió en un “HospitalSanatorio” para albergar casi exclusivamente enfermas y enfermos de Tuberculosis, debido a su creciente contagio y a la falta de medicamentos que pudieran frenarla. El “Saint Bois” de aquella época incorporó a los mejores médicos y cirujanos uruguayos que estudiaban y asistían a estos enfermos y otros de las vías respiratorias y el tórax. El MSP construyó un nuevo pabellón moderno, planeado por el mismo Arquitecto que realizó el Hospital de Clínicas, Carlos Surraco (1896-1976).
  6. 6. En el seno del mismo, inaugurado en 1942-43 en homenaje al médico gestor de la “Colonia Saint Bois” se concibió la historia siguiente: el Dr. Pablo Purriel (1905-1975) , director del Instituto del Tórax dentro del Hospital-Sanatorio en el año 1944, entendió como pocos a la Tuberculosis; esta es su definición que prefiguró su preocupación por brindarle un apoyo especial a estos enfermos: “es una enfermedad de larga evolución, de porvenir incierto, en la que los estados de angustia y desesperación se presentan con una inusitada frecuencia. La psicología de estos enfermos es profundamente modificada por la intensa preocupación que origina la enfermedad, a la que se suma el grave problema social que generalmente ellos tienen. Es necesario desviar su atención, creando entretenimientos adecuados, que a su vez sirven de incentivo a la formación de una cultura que cree nuevos horizontes y renovadas esperanzas para el futuro. Es preciso crear nuevos refugios espirituales a estas almas atormentadas.”
  7. 7.  El Hospital Saint Bois fundado en 1928.
  8. 8. Es así como autorizado por el Ministro de Salud Pública, pide a Joaquín Torres García y su taller “Escuela del Sur” que se hiciera cargo del proyecto de decorar las paredes del pabellón Martirené de dicho hospital. Así fue como de forma desinteresada, se realizaron 35 murales constructivistas que fueron inaugurados el 29 de julio del mismo año. Siete fueron pintados por el maestro y los demás por 19 de sus discípulos. Además de seguir la escuela constructiva del artista, ellos incorporaron elementos cotidianos muy uruguayos. Hay temas como la música, la farmacia, el café, una locomotora, un tambo.
  9. 9. Es así como autorizado por el abogado y Ministro de Salud Pública Dr. Luis Mattiauda, El Dr. Purriel pide a Joaquín Torres García y su taller “Escuela del Sur” que se hiciera cargo del proyecto de decorar las paredes del nuevo Pabellón Martirené del Hospital-Sanatorio. Así fue como de forma desinteresada, se realizaron 35 murales constructivistas que fueron inaugurados el 29 de julio del mismo año 1944. Siete fueron pintados por el maestro y los demás por 19 de sus discípulos. Además de seguir la Escuela constructivista del artista y Maestro, ellos incorporaron elementos cotidianos muy uruguayos. Hay temas como la música, la farmacia, el café, una locomotora, un tambo.
  10. 10.  GONZALO FONSECA “Café”  HORACIO TORRES “El Hombre” Fotos extraídas de: www.antel.com.uy
  11. 11. MANUEL PAILÓS “Locomotora” DANIEL DE LOS SANTOS “Submarino” Fotos extraídas de: www.antel.com.uy
  12. 12.  ELISA ANDRADA “El Tambo”  GARCÍA BRUNEL “La Música” Fotos extraídas de: www.antel.com.uy
  13. 13. Pero no se conservaron como era debido. Hubo falta de recursos, ignorancia y desinterés, estaban sometidos a temperaturas inadecuadas, hongos, descascaramiento, humedad y el mal trato de la gente que los perjudicaban. Instituciones estatales que debieron ocuparse del mantenimiento y cuidado de las Obras de Arte, de la información y educación de los usuarios y funcionarios del establecimiento estuvieron ausentes, no dieron al artista y su creación el valor que merece. A partir de 1970, los murales del maestro fueron separados de las paredes y montados en bastidores de tela para se expuestos en distintos lugares, hasta que en 1978, en el Museo de Arte Moderno de Río de Janeiro, se pierden tras un incendio.
  14. 14. En 1997 el Ministerio de Salud Pública y el Ministerio de Educación y Cultura firman un acuerdo con ANTEL por un período de 50 años para que esta institución y empresa pública se hiciera cargo del retiro de los restantes murales, su restauración y exposición en la Torre de las Telecomunicaciones, dónde hoy se pueden ver sin facilidad por sus ubicaciones dispersas dentro de la famosa Torre de las Telecomunicaciones y no del todo abiertas al público.
  15. 15. Hoy en día, tras este convenio queda sólo uno de los murales como testigo de tan inmensa obra colectiva: “Ciudad” del artiguense Alceu Riveiro (1919-2013), fallecido nonagenario en Palma de Mallorca, donde residía.
  16. 16. Se generan así en una parte de la sociedad opiniones encontradas sobre cuál sería e mejor destino de los murales extraídos, teniendo presente ahora su protección pero también la intención de los artistas.
  17. 17. “Sí, lo que busqué siempre fue el arte monumental decorativo, con sentido general humano, religiosamente laico, colectivo y lindando con el artesanado; arte del pueblo y no de clase. Y yo me felicito de que haya sido aquí, en mi patria, que haya podido realizar plenamente tan profunda aspiración: son e Monumento Cósmico de Parque Rodó, y los grandes murales del Pabellón Martirené.” Joaquín Torres García Setiembre de 1944
  18. 18. Nuestro propósito es realizar el 2º Encuentro de Muralismo en Montevideo, organizado por el Colectivo Arte en la Escuela. El objetivo principal es homenajear al Maestro artista y sus discípulos en el 70 aniversario de los Murales pintados por su Escuela en el mismo lugar donde fueron creados . Las bases del mismo se encuentran www.enlaescuelaarte.blogspot.com en

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