Ede renewable energy3


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Ede renewable energy3

  1. 4. Renewable Energy for Ecovillages Integrating Energy Design in Ecovillage Design EDE Course Training – Earth Element – Mallorca, Spain 2011
  2. 5. Energy Uses – Eliminate need through Passive/Smart Design & Conservation <ul><li>Design is Divine! Integrative Design </li></ul><ul><li>Goal – All aspects of structural & aesthetic elements and all relationships (physical) enable and facilitate all elements of flow (People, Sound, Water, Wind, Energy, Information, Excrement, Music, Spirit) in a multiplicity of functional, beautiful, energetic wholism that transforms science into art and art into science. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivo – Todos los aspectos de los elementos estéticos y estructurales y todas las relaciones (lo físico) soportan y facilítan todos los elementos de flujo (las personas, el sonido, el agua, el viento, la información, los excrementos, la música, el espíritu) en una multiplicidad de holísmos energéticos, funcionales y bellos que transforman la ciencia en arte y el arte en ciencia. </li></ul>
  3. 6. Energy Uses – Eliminate need through Passive/Smart Design & Conservation <ul><li>Design is Divine! Integrative Design </li></ul><ul><li>Essence of Integrative Transcendent Design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuited, calculated, forgotten, remembered, rejected, ressurrected, envisioned and made visceral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upholds culture creation as ultimate goal – all elements serves the expression of human Spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginner’s Mind identified Opportunities & Constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of Functions & Components across Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Component serves Multiple Functions (several!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Function covered by multiple Components (several!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term Planning & Whole-Cycle Costing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple & Low-Cost Solutions Prioritized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate Scale - Human Scale - Expandable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional, Spatial, Material, & “Flows” (information, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people, energy, water & waste) Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Waste” of one system is Source for another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart, Flexible Control, High Info, Low Entropy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherent Wisdom is Embodied in Design </li></ul></ul>
  4. 7. Energy Uses – Eliminate need through Passive/Smart Design & Conservation <ul><li>El Diseño es Divino! El Diseño Integrativo </li></ul><ul><li>La Esencia del Diseño Integrativo y Trascendente </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuido, calculado, olvidado, recordado, rechazado, resuscitado, visionado y hecho visceral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hace que la creación de la cultura sea el objetivo último – todos los elementos sirven la expresión del espíritu humano </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oportunidades y Restricciones identificadas por la mente del principiante </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integración de Funciones y Componentes a través de Sistemas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cada Componente cumple Multiples Funciones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cada Función está Cubierta por Múltiples Componentes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planificación a Largo Plazo y Cálculo del Coste del Ciclo Completo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priorización de Soluciones Sencillas y de Bajo Coste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escala Apropiada – Escala Humana – Expandible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integración Funcional, Espacial, Material y Flujos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(información, personas, energía, agua y residuos) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ El Residuo” de un sistema es un Aporte para otro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inteligente, Control Flexible, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevada Cantidad de Información, Entropía baja </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>El Diseño Incorpora una Sabiduria Intrinseca </li></ul></ul>
  5. 8. Energy Uses – Eliminate need through Passive/Smart Design & Conservation <ul><li>Design is Divine! </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Design to Supply Energy Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate use of Earth, Sun, Water, Wind into buildings & landscape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: earth coupling for space heating and cooling · passive solar · gravity water source dehumidifier · root cellar · solar chimney cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enable elegant flow design (energy, water, waste) through integrated spatial design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: passive siting to sun, wind, earth microclimate · ensure gravity flow for source water and constructed wetlands · circular building with central water & electric · locate house so creek passes near (or through!) for power and cooling & water supply · </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meet need with existing element providing multiple functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: walls as solar collector · floor as thermal storage · wall or roof as solar chimney </li></ul></ul>
  6. 9. Energy & Power <ul><li>But before we can design – we must GROK! </li></ul><ul><li>Energy & Power – </li></ul><ul><li>Super Important to understand the difference! </li></ul><ul><li>Power is energy per unit time - instantaneous measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instantaneous rate of energy use (like flow rate in liters/second in water analogy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in Watts (W) and KiloWatts (KW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 Watt Light Bulb, 30 KW generator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy is power integrated over time – total used – not rate of use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in Watt-Hours (WH) or Kilowatt-Hours KWH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In water analogy: liters/second x seconds = liters; KW x Hours = Kilowatt-hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 watt light bulb for 2 hours = 30 watt-hours (wh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 KW generator for 24 hours = 720 Kilowatt-Hours (KWH) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Energy & Power <ul><li>Es muy importante entender la diferencia! </li></ul><ul><li>Potencia (Power) es energia por unidad de tiempo- medida instantanea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasa/Ratio de energia en uso, instantanea (como por ejemplo con el agua: flujo proporcional en litro /segundo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medido en Vatios (W) y Kilovatios (KW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 Vatios de Luz en los Lamparas, 30 KW en el generador </li></ul></ul><ul><li>La energia es potencia (power) integrada en el tiempo - total usado – y ratio no usado </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Por ejemplo con el agua: litros/segundo x segundos= litros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KW * horas= kilowats-horas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 watt lamparas por 2 horas = 30 vatios-horas (WH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 KW generator for 24 hours = 720 Kilowatt-Hours (KWH) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. Energy & Power <ul><li>Understanding Comparative Levels of Power </li></ul>Understanding Relative Power Levels Power (Watts)   Ave or Typical Household Uses   Light Bulb 15 Computer 50 Cooking Rice 1000 Cooling a Bedroom 1200 Heating a Bedroom 1500 Well Pump 1,000 Cooling a House 4,000 Heating a House 8,000 Transportation Use   Walking 30 Bicycle 250 Running 460 Electric Car 12,000 Gas Motorcycle 22,000 Hybrid Electric Car 28,000 Gas Car 52,000 Generation   Walking 30 Solar PV Panel (1 m2) 150 Bicycle 250 Running 460 Solar Thermal Panel (1 m2) 750 Small Home Wind Generator (1.5m) 1000 Nano-Hydro Electric (10 cm) 1000 Large Home Wind Generator (4 m) 10,000 Typical Home Size Solar PV System 24,000
  9. 12. Energy & Power <ul><li>Understanding Comparative Levels of ENERGY – Load Chart </li></ul>Understanding Relative Energy Levels Power (Watts) Average   Ave or Typical KWHr/Month Household Uses     Light Bulb – Bombilla (compacto F) 15 0.06 Computer - Ordenador 50 5,2 Cooking Rice - Cocinando Arroz 400 20,8 Cooling a Bedroom – Refrigerar una habiración 600 78 Heating a Bedroom – Calentar una habitación 900 117 Well Pump – Bomba para Pozo 1.000 15 Cooling a House – Refrigerar una casa 4.000 520 Heating a House – Calentar una casa 8.000 1039 Average Middle Class House - No heat or AC – Casa de Clase Media   600 Transportation Use     Walking - Caminar 30   Bicycle- Ir en Bici 250   Running - Correr 460   Electric Car – Coche eléctrico 12.000 360 Gas Motorcycle – Motocicleta de gasolina 22.000 660 Hybrid Electric Car – Coche Híbrido Eléctrico 28.000 840 Gas Car – Coche de gasolina 52.000 1560 Generation     Walking - Caminar 30   Solar PV Panel (1 m2) – Panel Solar Fotovoltaico 150 20,8 Bicycle - Bicicleta 250   Running - Correr 460   Solar Thermal Panel (1 m2) – Panel Solar Eléctrico 750 93 Small Home Wind Generator (1,5m) – Pequeño Generador Eólico Domestico 1000 150 Nano-Hydro Electric (10 cm) – Nano generadores Hidroeléctricos 1000 720 Large Home Wind Generator (4 m) - Generador Eólico Domestico de Grandes dimensiones 10.000 1500 Typical Home Size Solar PV System – Tamaño Típico de un Sistema Fotovoltaico Doméstico 2.400 317
  10. 13. Energy Uses – Eliminate need through Conservation <ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History and present tendency is to waste energy and then throw cheap energy at the “need”. Oil has been so cheap that it has discouraged innovation in conservation and trained us all to be wasteful and disconnected. Amory Lovins says we can do all we do now with 1/10 the energy. Refrigerators a good example. Already 4 fold increase in efficienc over 20 years. Vaccum panels and thermionics will bring to 8 times. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Energy Uses – Eliminate need through Conservation <ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All new buildings should use the latest most efficient options – do it right the first time – NEED TO INTEGRATE ENERGY FROM INITIAL CONCEPT DESIGN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With technology applied to retrofitting our homes and businesses Payback Periods on the Order of 0-8 yrs (Supply Side = 6-30+ yrs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediately Deployable, Immediate Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Investment - High Savings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Repeated Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multigenerational - Longest Life - Creates Efficiency Culture </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Conservation <ul><li>Conservation - “Negawatts” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing Successful Models at all Scales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sunrise Ranch, Portland, Boulder, Europe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immense Potentials - up to 50% Savings and more of Present Load </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-15% - 0-2 Year Paybacks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15%-30% - 2-10 Year Paybacks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30-50+%- 10-30 Year Paybacks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be funded with help of utilities and government incentives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive Pricing - Higher Prices for the Wasteful, Cheaper for Savers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Tax </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives and Rebates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essential that Education Program be Major Component </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Conservation <ul><li>Energy Conservation (Negawatts) (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic Program Driven by Menu of Technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritized by Economics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low Investment, Short Payback, Medium to High Savings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medium Investment, Medium Payback, High Savings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long Term Investment, Long Payback, High Savings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologies Managed by End-Use Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space Heating & Cooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water Heating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water Pumping & Purification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Conservation <ul><li>Energy Conservation (Negawatts) (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunrise Ranch Ecovillage as Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long Term Energy Conservation & Renewable Energy Plan Starts with Strong Commitment to Conservation! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecovillage Context Provides “Container” to Manage Project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecovillage Context Provides “Buy-in” through Ease of Education & Peer Motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecovillage Management provides Cost Analysis of NOT pursuing Conservation as Motivator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Tax – other incentives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Energy Conservation Program <ul><li>Results of Energy Conservation Work at Sunrise Ecovillage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Conservation Program Is being Embraced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>49 Specific Recommendations in final Report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low Investment, High Payback, High Savings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$22,480 invested to save $24,910/Year! - 0.9 yr PB </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medium Investment, Medium Payback, High Savings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$107.500 invested to save $15,810/Year - 6.8 yr PB </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High Investment,” Long” Payback, Medium Savings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$72,000 invested to save $3860/Year 18.7 yr PB </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total Investment - $202,084 - Total Savings - $44,580/Year - 4.5 Year PB </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original Energy Bill - $116,200 Year - After Conservation - $71,620 - 38% Savings! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Energy Conservation - Negawatts <ul><li>Energy Conservation (Negawatts) (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Ecovillage we use Ecological Footprint Model as well as payback economics to Guide Conservation and Renewable Energy Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Footprint - Scientific Sustainability Standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translates all human activities to hectares of bioproductive Earth needed to sustain that activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then divides total number of bioproductive hectares by total population to determine fair share </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method is scalable from individual to household, to ecovillage, to town to city to nation to continent to Earth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Charts for comparisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent way to motivate, provide goals & measure progress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study it ! Use it! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Energy Use – Heat & Cooling <ul><li>Heating and Cooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Super Insulate – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Makes incendental heat significant! Bodies, lights, fridge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth Coupling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Coupling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water Coupling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive Solar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radiative Cooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporative Cooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Hot Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Hot Air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric Heat – Resistive & Heat Pumps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bio Fuel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Clean” burning fossil fuel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 21. Energy Use – Hot Water <ul><li>Domestic Hot Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-Heat Cold Water in Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Batch Heater – A Tank in the sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermosyphone – Collector below Tank </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pumped systems – several kinds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heating System Integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stirling Engine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Pump – Ground, Water or Air Sourced </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Energy Use - Refrigeration <ul><li>Refrigeration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Cold Climates – Seasonal Ice Storage – Louvered Cold Boxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Hot Dry Climates – Evaporative Coolers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Hot Humid Climates – Solar absorption or solar adsorption refrigeration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water body or creek coupled box </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth coupled box </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric Refrigeration Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Driven Refrigeration Cycle (solar, or fuel based) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adsorption or Absorption Cooling (solar or electric driven) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stirling Engine (electric or heat driven) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Energy Use - Cooking <ul><li>Cooking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Super Insulation – Hay Box Cookers – New super low input cooking products just waiting to be marketed! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar – Ovens and Parabolas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Energy Use – Water Pumping <ul><li>Water Pumping and Purification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct or through Ram Pump </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rain Water Collection Systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated hydro power water supply systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation – Active and Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth or Water body coupled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration based condensation machines – Air to Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Super Efficient Positive Displacement Pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human & other Animals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Energy Use – Lighting <ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incandescent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct or through Ram Pump </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rain Water Collection Systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated hydro power water supply systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human & other Animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact Fluorescent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth or Water body coupled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration based condensation machines – Air to Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-Emitting Diodes - LEDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth or Water body coupled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration based condensation machines – Air to Water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Energy Use – Electronics <ul><li>Electronics and Entertainment </li></ul>
  24. 27. Energy Use - Transportation <ul><li>Transition to Renewable Transportation “Fuels” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning & Access - Conservation First! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle Efficiency & Emission Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed “Green” Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Electric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Renewable Energy Sources <ul><li>Overview of Practical Renewable Urban Energy “Sources” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation - “Negawatts” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nano & Micro Hydro (where possible - has best economics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind (fastest growing of all energy sectors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive Solar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Hot Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air Conditioning & Refrigeration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Electric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photovoltaic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal Electric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geothermal/Ground Sourced Heating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Green Gas” (from Waste & Biomass) & Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Transportation “Fuels” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Excess” Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People Power ! Creativity, Innovation, Positive Incentives </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Micro Hydro Electric <ul><li>Scales of Hydroelectric </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Picohydro < 1KW - Single Homes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nanohydro 1 KW – 10 KW - Small Business, Commercial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microhydro 10 KW–100 KW - Large Commercial, Small Industrial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mini Hydro 100 KW – 1 MW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small Hydro 1 MW – 10 MW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Scale Hydro > 10 MW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ In-Fill” Micro Hydro - 1 KW to 100 KW </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Previously passed up sites or existing unused dams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes no “Dams” needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can use natural topography of creeks and small rivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing Reservoirs, Ponds, Lakes, Irrigation, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Micro Hydro Electric <ul><li>Nano & Micro Hydro (Where Possible) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ In-Fill” Hydro - 1-100 KWs - 1 KW = 720 KWhrs/month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Low-Impact Technology opens up more sites that were previously passed up due to restrictions on dams or economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics good down to small creeks feeding individual buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Technology makes utility intertie simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net Metering allows End Use Customers to drive development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Driven, Partner Financed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net Metered, Uses existing Transformers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelton, Turbo, Scroll Francis, Propeller & Crossflow Turbines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syphon Intakes - No breaching of dams, draw water over river or pond banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Head systems down to 1 meter @ 3000 Gpm for 1 KW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Head Systems down to 50 gpm @ 200’ for 1 KW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs - $4-$20/Watt - Paybacks - 3-20 years minus RECS </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Micro Hydro Electric <ul><ul><ul><li>Microhydro Examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sarsardi Reserve - Darien Jungle - Columbia - .1 KW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Powwow River - Amesbury, MA - Urban Small Commercial - 22 KW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience from Peru - 9 Microhydro Projects </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 32. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Pico Hydro Electric <ul><li>Sarsardi Reserva Ecovillage - Darien Jungle - Colombia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2 KW = (144 KWhrs/Month), 35 Meter Head, 0.5 l/s, 0.017 cfs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enabled Refrigeration, Lighting, Internet & laptops for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecovillage Network (ENA-Colombia) Headquarters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total Cost: US$1250, Payback Priceless (if on-grid - 4.8 yrs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design done while training 50 Educators at Ecovillage Training </li></ul></ul></ul>-
  30. 33. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Micro Hydro Electric <ul><li>Powwow River - Amesbury, MA - Urban Small Commercial 24 KW “In-Fill” </li></ul><ul><li>100 KWs Mill Shaft Power Hydro Abandoned in 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>8 Meter Head, 25 cfs, .7 m3/sec, 706 l/s </li></ul><ul><li>Now Installing 2 Scroll Turbines of 8 & 16 KW </li></ul><ul><li>3 Flow Levels 8 or 16 or 24 KWs = 139,000 KWh/Yr </li></ul><ul><li>Installed Cost: $235,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Rebate from State: $96,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Final Cost: $139,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Revenues/Year - NM - $20,960 </li></ul><ul><li>Revenues/Year - RECS - $7,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Payback - 5.0 Years </li></ul><ul><li>Cottage Industry Turbine </li></ul><ul><li>Uses only 10% of River Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Provides 70 % of Customers Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated with “Riverwalk” </li></ul>
  31. 34. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Micro Hydro Electric <ul><li>Experience with 9 Micro Hydro Project in Peru - 10-100 KW </li></ul><ul><li>Final installed costs of $3.00 - $4.90/W </li></ul><ul><li>KWH Production from 80,000 to 800,000/yr </li></ul><ul><li>If Grid Tie = 2.5 - 4.1 Year Paybacks @.15/KWH </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Maintenance - No Fuel Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Locally Produced & Maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Equipment Used More Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Than PV Grid-Tied Inverters </li></ul><ul><li>Syphon Intakes Could Reduce Civil Works </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Tie Uses all Available Energy for High E </li></ul><ul><li>Experience with rural electrification can benefit </li></ul><ul><li>grid-tied hydro in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>We can do it even cheaper ! </li></ul>
  32. 35. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Micro Hydro Electric <ul><li>Microhydro Equipment - Perfect for Local Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use existing off-the-shelf motors for generators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Castings and Templates available - no patent problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive grassroots peer network exists internationally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Weight/KW - Easily Transported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robust - Not Easily Damaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Maintenance = Low Call-backs or Warranty Issues </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Solar Electric <ul><li>Solar Electric (PV - Photovoltaic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable Proven Systems - Expected to Last for 50 Years - 100 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infinitely Scalable - Customer or Project Driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 6000 Megawatts Now Installed Worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive but Price Still Dropping - Practically Zero Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary Module Shortage - Price up but will come down again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$5-8/Watt Installed with Grid-Tie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18-25¢/KWh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets Summer Peak Demand Perfectly </li></ul></ul>
  34. 37. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Small Solar Electric (PV) <ul><li>PV Examples - Small - 1-5 KW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sirius Community - 1.8 KW, 150 KWhrs/Mo - Grid & Backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $12,500, $270/yr, Payback = 38 Yrs. (No Rebate) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GreenFields Market - 2.4 KW, 225 KWhrs/Month Grid Only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $21,600, State paid $12,000, total = $,9600, Pb = 19 Yrs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathways Cohousing - 5.1 KW, 490 KWhrs/Month Grid Only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost: $33,500, Rebate: $21,600, Total = $11,900, 11.2 Yr PB </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Solar Electric <ul><li>PV Example - Intermediate - 10-50 KW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glen Ivy Community - 24 KW on Trackers - Single & Dual Axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost: $192,000, $85,000 paid by California, = $107,000 Installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces: 47,500 KWHrs/Yr, $8550/Yr, 12.5 Yr Payback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trackers add 40% Production over Fixed Arrays </li></ul></ul>
  36. 39. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Solar Electric <ul><li>PV Examples - Large Commercial - 50KW-500KW </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menlo Park, CA Commercial Properties - 380 KW on 4 Buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces 602,000 KWh/Yr, $108,000/Yr </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installed Cost: $2,030,000, State Pays $1,140,000 - Customer Cost - $890,000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Payback = 8.2 Years, then Saves $1,000,000 every 9.3 years for 50+ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 40. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Solar Electric <ul><li>Solar Thermal Electric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point Focus and Linear Focus Systems both now in production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dish Stirling Systems hold world record for solar to electric conversion @31% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Gearing up for 5 KW and 25 KW production Models for Solar Thermal Farms in the Deserts (Arizona Public Service) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Units - especially 5 KW could replace Diesel Generators - Easily scalable </li></ul></ul>
  38. 41. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Solar Thermal <ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive Solar Design for Reducing all Buildings’ Heating & Cooling Loads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essential for Zero-Energy Buildings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No more expensive than normal construction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Savings up to 80% of Load </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial, Commercial and Residential Solar Hot Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Payback, Immense Savings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates and Supports Locally Sourced Employment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can Integrate with Space Heating System </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial, Commercial and Residential Solar Air Conditioning& Refrigeration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Systems use Evaculated Tubes & Adsorption Chillers w/ Water as Refrigerant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Steam & Process Heat </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 42. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Wind Energy <ul><ul><li>Wind Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest Growing Sector of All Energy Sectors - Major commitments by scores of countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Costs comparable or better than fossil fuel plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Mature, Industry Mature, Financing Mechanisms in Place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 Scales of Development for Urban Areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individually Sited - 2-150 KWs x 1, Customer Owned </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Parks - 30-250 KW Units x 10 in Industrial Zones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Farms - 100 KW-2.0 MW Units x 100 outside City </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reconditioned Generators coming out of Europe and USA - Altamount Pass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of Brazil, Sirius Ecovillage, Findhorn Ecovillage, Sunrise </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 43. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Small Wind Energy <ul><ul><li>Small Scale Wind - 2-10 KW - Residential, Small Commerical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3-4 times the Energy Production as Solar Electric per Dollar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More flexible siting than Wind Farms, Take Advantage of Microclimates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry beginning to Mature, Great Opportunity for Small Businesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now Have Tilt-up Towers up to 30 meters @ 2.5 KW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sirius Ecovillage - 3.2 KW, 33 meter guyed tower </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 44. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Small Wind Energy <ul><li>Sirius Ecovillage - 3.2 KW, 33 m tower, Grid Tie & Backup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Voltage allows up to 600 meter siting from Grid or Residence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PV Grid-tie Inverters = easy, cost effective, grid connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Batteries Needed - Direct Grid Tie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Generator, Used Tower, “Ecovillage Labor” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Installed Cost = $7950 (17,649 R) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces = 5400 KWh/Yr @ .15 (with RECS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.7 Yr Simple Payback, then $810/yr </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Intermediate Wind Energy <ul><li>Findhorn Community, Scotland - “Moya” - 75 KW </li></ul><ul><li>Vesta Turbine - Installed 1989 - 16,000 (British LBs) </li></ul><ul><li>115,000 KWh/Yr = $11,500/yr (15-20% Capacity Factor) </li></ul><ul><li>Import/Export Contract Negotiated with utility </li></ul><ul><li>Community Planning 3 more Turbines - 250 KW Total </li></ul>
  43. 46. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Intermediate Wind Energy <ul><li>Sunrise Ranch - Colorado </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for 44-120 KW Turbine </li></ul><ul><li>Considering Vespa Reconditioned 90-120 KW from Altamount Pass </li></ul><ul><li>35 % of Community of 100 People’s Energy Needs After Conservation Plan in Place </li></ul>
  44. 47. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Combined Conservation & Renewables <ul><li>Sunrise Ranch Energy Conservation & Renewable Energy Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>38% of 2005 Energy to be saved by Conservation Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 % to be Generated by Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another 16% to be saved by Solar Hot Water & Constructed Wetlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Savings 70% of present Energy Bill of $116,200/Yr = $81,200/Yr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Investment - $550,000 = 6.7 Years Payback! Then save $1,000,000 every 12 years . </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Intermediate Wind Energy
  46. 49. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Inermediate Wind Energy <ul><li>Small Wind Parks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent Economics in Relation to Project Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manageable - Good size for Municipal Electric Utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can often Site Close to Urban Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can often use Reconditioned Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paybacks on the order of 2-5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation Costs of 4-6¢/KWh </li></ul></ul>
  47. 50. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Large Wind Energy <ul><li>Large Wind Farms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1, 2, even 3 MW Machines x hundreds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics as low as $2/Installed Watt & 2-3¢/KWh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Utilities, Govt. Commitments, Wholesale power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siting is Crucial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employs hundreds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offshore potential Immense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil now has large project in South </li></ul></ul>
  48. 51. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources Wind Energy in Latin America <ul><li>Wind In Central & South America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive Resource Potential On & Off-shore - SWREA Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential Just Beginning to Be Realized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent Opportunity for Small - Large Businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconditioned Machines could Jump Start Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late start means can learn from others experience </li></ul></ul>
  49. 52. Appropriate Renewable Energy Sources <ul><ul><li>Geothermal/Ground Sourced Heating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Term is used to mean true Geothermal (volcanic hot vents), and latent heat in earth extracted from heat pump (Ground Sourced Heating), as well as “tertiary storage” - storing heat in the earth such as pumping hot water into wells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Pumped heat has similar efficiency to burning Nat Gas directly but a major advantage if using Hydro generated electric - not if using thermally generated electric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest advantage is can be used for Air Conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be used to recover waste heat from waste water or runoff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Green Gas” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane from Sewage Treatment and Landfills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syngas from Solid & Industrial Wastes via Gassifyers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible H2 production from Syngas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Future Potentials for Local H2 Production from Bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Transportation “Fuels” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires local source of waste oil - Fast Food Insustry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OR determine continous waste feedstock </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimate solution for urban air quality if electric is produced cleanly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Sector to transfer to electric infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent for Public Transport </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H2 Potentials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Waste” Heat </li></ul></ul>
  50. 53. Applying Whole Systems Design to Renewable Energy for Cities <ul><li>Utilizing “Waste” to Energy Schemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Green” Gasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane from Sewage Treatment and Landfills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syngas from Solid & Industrial Wastes via Gassifyers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Waste” Heat to Electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cogeneration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Recovery to Electric (Stirling engines) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Waste” Heat to Useful Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ground Based Heat Pumps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water Based Heat Pumps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combined Heat & Power (CHP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Recovery Hot Water Systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 54. Applying Whole Systems Design to Renewable Energy <ul><li>Appropriate Technology is Essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People Friendly, Simple, Locally Produced Ideal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate matching of Source to Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate Level of High Tech/Low Tech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate Design In Whole Systems Context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Scale is Essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized <> Appropriate Scale <> Centralized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale Affects Aesthetics, Economics, Equipment needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to tie to electric grid, Financing, Public Acceptance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Scale - Zoning, Aesthetics, Noise, Locally Maintainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation and Renewables are highly Scalable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate Scales are Often Peak Economic Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Siting is Essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must Integrate & Enhance People Friendliness of Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siting Matches Scale, Scale Matches Siting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Access Laws and Aesthetics Policy Standards Needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Appropriate (on each bldg) technologies include Conservation, Solar Thermal, Solar Electric, Heat Pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Park Technologies include all of above and small Wind Parks and microhydro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside of city - Larger Microhydro and Wind Parks and Farms. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 55. Applying Whole Systems Design A Roadmap to Green Energy Cities <ul><li>Overview of Roadmap to Green Energy Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just 5 Simple Steps! - Just a few Generations should do it! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation First! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green the Electric Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transform “Waste” to Energy & Income Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift Transportation Infrastructure to Sustainable Green “Fuels” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish Innovative Local Renewables Industry </li></ul></ul>
  53. 56. Applying Whole Systems Design A Roadmap to Green Energy Cities <ul><li>“ Greening the Grid” - Distributed Renewables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized, Utility-Intertied Wind, Microhydro, Solar, Fuel Cell, Biomass, Waste Heat Electric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Multiple Partners to share cost of infrastructure shift by spreading costs between, consumer, utility, taxpayers & government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for Initiative from all Sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable installations sized to backfeed existing utility transformers - no need for additional distribution infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in More Stable & Higher Energy Quality Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net Metering Essential - Parity Metering Essential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation from Utilities for Feed-in (Intertie) Essential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Partner Model a Proven Funding Formula in Many Countries and States </li></ul></ul>