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Fisheries and other alternative livelihood options in the rural areas


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a small portion of the chapter rural development in economics theory grade 11 cbse
fisheries and other alternative livelihood options

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Fisheries and other alternative livelihood options in the rural areas

  1. 1. • Marine and freshwater catch fishing combined with aquaculture fish farming is a rapidly growing industry in India. • Integral and life-giving source of the fishing community. • Fish production - increased more than tenfold since its independence in 1947. • Major supplier of fish in the world. • 2008 - sixth largest producer of marine and freshwater capture fisheries, and the second largest aquaculture farmed fish producer in the world. • Special efforts - to promote extensive and intensive
  2. 2. • Employing over 14 million people. • Fish products from India are well received by almost half of world's countries, creating export-driven employment opportunities in India, greater food security for the world. • In 2006 India exported > 600,000 metric tons of fish - 90 countries-earnings >$1.8 billion. • Fish production from inland sources - 61%, remaining 39% - marine sector (sea and oceans) of total fish production. • Value of fish and processed fish exports: increased from less than 1% (1960) to 3.6% (1993) (of the total production). • Total fish production - 0.7% of the total GDP of India • Major producers of marine products - Kerala, Gujarat,
  3. 3. • During the past decades the Indian fisheries and aquaculture has witnessed improvements in craft, tackle and farming methods. • Creation of required harvest and post-harvest infrastructure has been receiving due attention of the central and state governments. • All this has been inducing a steady growth. • In 1990 1.7m full-time fishermen, 1.3m part-time fishermen, 2.3m occasional fishermen- many of whom worked as salt makers, ferrymen, or seamen, or operated boats for hire.
  4. 4. • A large share of fishworker families are poor. • Major problems the fishing community : Rampant underemployment, low per capita earnings, absence of mobility of labour to other sectors, high rate of illiteracy,  indebtedness. • Even though women are not involved in active fishing, about 60% of he workers in export marketing 40% in internal marketing are women • There is a need to increase credit facilities though
  5. 5. • Important programs for the welfare of traditional fishermen are: Group insurance scheme for active fishermen Development of model fishermen villages Saving-cum-relief scheme Saving-cum-component financial assistance is provided to the fishermen during the lean fishing season. About 3.5 lakh fishermen were assisted under the saving-cum- relief program in 2008-2009.
  6. 6. Intensive aquaculture in ponds and tanks Enhancing productivity from reservoir fisheries Brackish-water coastal aquaculture Mariculture Sea ranching Seaweed cultivation Infrastructure for post-harvest programmes Fish dressing centres and solar drying fish Domestic marketing
  7. 7. • It plays a critical role in attaining sustainable development. • It helps in achieving food security by weather forecasting. • Helps in disseminating information regarding emerging technologies, weather and soil conditions for growing different crops, etc. • Acts as tool for identifying the creative potential and knowledge rooted in people. • Generates employment opportunities in the backward areas via developing ‘info kiosk’ in rural areas. • Ensures that their products find right kind of markets and reach these markets in minimum time without number of middle men