ULTRASONIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM
FOR THE BLIND
Under guidance of
PROF. A.K. SINGH
PROF. Y.K. MISHRA
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
PROF. S.P. GANGWAR
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
KAMLA NEHRU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
DR. A. P. J. ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY,
LUCKNOW (U.P.), INDIA
• BASIC LOGIC
• PROTOTYPE OF OUR STICK
• USAGE OF DIFFERENT SENSORS
• ATMEGA 16
• ULTRASONIC SENSOR
• IR SENSOR
• WATER SENSOR
• FIRE SENSOR
• LIGHT SENSOR
• OUTPUT DEVICES
• SOFTWARE USED
• INTERFACING WITH CONTROLLER
• FUTURE SCOPE
Vision is the most important part of human
physiology as 83% of information human being gets
from the environment is via sight. The 2011 statistics
by the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates
that there are 285 billion people in world with visual
impairment, 39 billion of which are blind and 246
with low vision.
Presently, blind people use a white stick as a tool for
directing them when they move or walk.
Here, we develop a tool which can serve as a blind
stick being more efficient and helpful than the
This will assist the blind persons during the walk and
provides an alarm if any hurdle is detected within the
• Five different sensors with microcontroller
interface are used which are connected to
buzzer and vibrator.
• ATMEGA 16 as the main microcontroller is
USAGE OF DIFFERENT SENSORS
• Ultrasonic sensor is used for obstacle avoidance. The vibrator vibrates
when an obstacle is encountered which helps in alerting the blind person
and allows enough time to change their path.
• IR sensor is used for pit and staircase detection.
• Water sensor is used to detect the presence of water and provide an alert
in time for path change so as to avoid slipping.
• Fire sensor is used for avoiding fire.
• Light sensor is useful at night. It alerts the people in the surrounding area
that a blind person is walking and to allow space so that the blind person
can walk easily.
• ATmega16 is a 40 pin
microcontroller. There are 32 I/O
(input/output) lines which are
divided into four 8-bit ports
designated as PORTA, PORTB,
PORTC and PORTD.
• ATmega16 has various in-built
peripherals like USART, ADC, Analog
Comparator, SPI, JTAG etc. Each I/O
pin has an alternative task related
to in-built peripherals.
Ultrasonic sensors works on a principle
similar to radar or sonar which evaluates
attributes of a target by interpreting the
echoes from radio or sound waves
respectively. Ultrasonic sensors generate
high frequency sound waves and evaluate
the echo which is received back by the
• Infrared sensors can measure the
heat of an object, as well as detect
• IR sensor work on the principal in
which IR LED emits IR radiation
and Photodiode sense that IR
• Thermistors usually have
coefficients which means
the resistance of the
thermistor decreases as the
• Buzzer is used for output.
• A water sensor is an
electronic device that is
designed to detect the
presence of water and provide
an alert in time to allow the
prevention of water damage.
• A common design is a small
cable or device that lies flat on
a floor and relies on the
electrical conductivity of
water to decrease the
resistance across two
• Photoresistor changes its
resistance drastically based on
the ambient lighting in an
environment. Exposed to
darkness, a photoresistor has
a tremendous amount of
resistance. When exposed to
bright light, a photoresistor's
resistance drops drastically.
• The LM358 chip in this circuit
is used as a comparator to
It consists of piezo crystals between
two conductors. When a potential is
applied across these crystals they push
on one conductor and pull on the
other. This, push and pull action,
results in a sound wave.
It is a p–n junction diode, which
emits light when activated. When a
suitable voltage is applied to the
leads, electrons are able to
recombine with electron holes
within the device, releasing energy in
the form of photons. This effect is
called electroluminescence, and the
color of the light is determined by
the energy band gap of the
• A vibrating motor is essentially a motor that is improperly balanced. In
other words, there is an off-centered weight attached to the motor's
rotational shaft that causes the motor to wobble. The amount of wobble
can be changed by the amount of weight attached, the weight's distance
from the shaft, and the speed at which the motor spins.
• Vibrating motors can be found inside cell phones, pagers, gaming
controllers, and personal massagers
• AVR STUDIO 4
• AVR LOADER V2.0
• PROTEUS DESIGN SUITE
• The project proposed the design and architecture of a new concept of
Smart Electronic Guiding Stick for blind people. The advantage of the
system lies in the fact that it can prove to be very low cost solution to
millions of blind person worldwide. The proposed combination of various
working units makes a real-time system that monitors position of the user
and provides dual feedback making navigation more safe and secure.
• It can be further improved to have more decision taking capabilities by
employing varied types of sensors and thus could be used for different
applications. It aims to solve the problems faced by the blind people in
their daily life. The system also takes measures to ensure their safety.
• It can be further enhanced by using VLSI technology to design the PCB
unit. This makes the system further more compact. Also, use of active RFID
tags will transmit the location information automatically to the PCB unit,
when the intelligent stick is in its range. The RFID sensor doesn’t have to
read it explicitly.
• The global position of the user is obtained using the global positioning
system (GPS), and their current position and guidance to their destination
will be given to the user by voice.
• Abhishek Choubey, Dattatray Patil, “RFID Based Cognition Device for Assistance to
Blind and Visually Challenged Persons for Indoor Use”, International Journal of
Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 1, Issue 6, June 2012.
• João José, Miguel Farrajota, João M.F. Rodrigues, J.M. Hans du Buf, “The Smart Vision
Local Navigation Aid for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons‖ International Journal of
Digital Content Technology and its Applications” Vol.5 No.5, May 2011.
• Calder, David J, “Curtin .An obstacle signaling system for the blind ,Digital Ecosystems
and Technologies Conference (DEST)” 5th IEEE International Conference ,30 June 2011
• Bouvrie J . V ., “ Visual Object Concept Discovery: Observation in Congeniality Blind
Children , and a Computational Approach”, Elsevier Science, USA, 2007
• . Mazo M. and Rodriguez F. J., “ Wheelchair for Physical Disable People With Voice
,Ultrasonic and Infrared Control”, Autonomous Robots, Vol. 2, pp. 203-224,