DOHA DEVELOPMENT ROUND<br />Presented By :<br />GaganPareek<br />Harish Nath<br />Sabyasachi Behura<br />SandeepKumar.A.<br />Vinay Chaudhary<br />The idea of “pluralism” has its roots not just in western liberal thought but in Indian philosophy as well.<br />AmartyaSen<br />
WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION<br />History:<br /><ul><li>Officially commenced on 1st January 1995.
Governed by a ministerial conference, meeting every two years, a General Council and a Director-General</li></ul>Objective:<br /><ul><li>Supervise and Liberalize International Trade.
Provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements.
Dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO</li></li></ul><li>DOHA DEVELOPMENTAL ROUND<br />History:<br /><ul><li>Launched at the fourth ministerial conference in Doha, Qatar in November 2001.
Succeeded the Uruguay round and the three ministerial conferences at Singapore (1996), Geneva (1998) and Seattle (1999).</li></ul>Objectives:<br /><ul><li>Lower trade barriers around the world.
Committing all countries to negotiations opening agricultural and manufacturing markets, as well as trade-in-services (GATS) negotiations and expanded intellectual property regulation (TRIPS).
Make trade rules fairer for developing countries</li></li></ul><li>KEY ISSUES AT DOHA <br /><ul><li> Agriculture has become the linchpin of the agenda for both developing and developed countries
Compulsory licensing of medicines and </li></ul>patent protection <br /><ul><li> A review of provisions giving special and differential treatment to developing countries.
Resolve problems that developing countries are having in implementing current trade obligations.
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPs)</li></li></ul><li>
Types of Impasses of relevance at DOHA round <br /><ul><li>Parties could not agree to launch a negotiation. (Impasse on initiation.)
Parties could not agree on the subjects for the negotiation (Impasse on contents.)
After agreeing to start a negotiation the parties take a long time to come to a mutually agreeable outcome. (Impasse as delay.)
Having agreed to start a negotiation, subsequently the parties appear unable to conclude the negotiation with an agreement. (Impasse as high expected failure to agree.)
Having agreed to start a negotiation, subsequently the parties can only agree to conclude the activity of negotiation without an agreement. (Impasse as actual failure to agree—fortunately the DDA has not reached this point.)</li></li></ul><li>INTERESTS OF INDIA<br /><ul><li> Accelerating integration with world economy (Globalization).
Foster more rapid growth and poverty reduction.
Voice in formulation of rules and Decision Making in the WTO.
Guarding against the intrusion of non-traded matters in WTO. </li></ul>BENEFITS TO INDIA<br /><ul><li>Increase in India’s textile & clothing exports due to the phasing out of MFA (in 2005).
The reduction in agricultural subsidies & barriers to export of agriculture products, agricultural exports from India also increased.
Market access to a number of developing countries without trade discrimination increased.</li></li></ul><li>Disadvantages for India<br /><ul><li>TRIPs agreement went against the Indian Patents Act (1970)
Introduction of product patents in India lead to hike in drug prices by the MNCs. Hence the poor were left with no generic option
Extension of intellectual property right to agriculture has negative effects on India and Indian research institutions
Application of TRIMs agreement undermines any plan or strategy of self reliant growth based on local technology.
Service sectors in India are backward compared to the service sectors in developed countries. Hence inclusion of trade in services is detrimental to the interest of India.
The MFN clause proved to be detrimental to India’s interest & provided grounds for Chinese invasion in Indian market through dumping.</li></li></ul><li>Unaddressed Issues<br /><ul><li>In order not to discredit itself, globalization would have to squarely address sustainable development and poverty reduction .
There must be an attempt to link the strategies of development to something more fundamental, the ends of economic and social development .
The international trade rules are underpinned by an insufficient appreciation of the adverse impact of rapid liberalization, if it does not pay adequate attention to the need to reduce asset and income inequalities.
Without substantial investment in the capacity to supply and, equally important, a guaranteed safety net against falling prices and import surges, sudden liberalization would expose the constituents to unbearable risk.</li></li></ul><li>Agriculture Issues in Developing Nations<br /><ul><li> One of the key issues is the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA).
Areas related to Agriculture-Market Access, Domestic Support, export Competition, Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights .
40 to 50 % of support to the farmers in the form of Green Box subsidies.
Developed countries allowed to retain 80% of their subsidies while developing countries can subsidize their farmers not more than 10%.
Increasing dependency on imports for food grains could bring strain on external payment position of these countries.</li></li></ul><li>Textile Industry<br /><ul><li>What is MFA all about ?
Textile industry merged into GATT under WTO..</li></li></ul><li>Impact of Free Trade on Different produts<br />Poultry<br />Tea and Coffee<br />Butter<br />Cheese<br />Cigarettes<br />Chocolate<br />Coconut Oil<br />Shaving Brushes<br />Removal of Quantitative Restrictions.<br />Liquor Beverages<br />Baby Food<br />Oral Hygiene<br />
Weakness Of World Trade Organization<br /><ul><li>WTO is fundamentally undemocratic.
WTO causes trampling of labor and human rights.