File System.
We’re Windows user at one point
Remember C:/Program      Files?
Right. Let’s forget that.
/srv /media/mnt /var /tmp /opt /usr /       /sbi           /dev /boot               n      /bin  /proc      /etc         /...
Looks like a mess
But you can’t make an  omelette without breaking any eggs
So let me explain
the file system is the organs of operating        system
To understand filesystem means you understand how tooperate & “heal” the  operating system
But it’s up to you,       actually,You can still use Linux without knowing File       System.
So back to this again.
/srv /media/mnt /var /tmp /opt /usr /       /sbi           /dev /boot               n      /bin  /proc      /etc         /...
Can we makesomething out of that?
/srv /media/mnt /var /tmp /opt             /sbi       / /dev /boot              n /usr /bin /etc  /proc         /lib /home
It’s a mess. But not        really.
Let’s take it one by one.
/•Every single file and directory startsfrom the root directory.•Only root user has write privilegeunder this directory.•P...
/bin •Contains binary executables. •Common linux commands you need to use in single-user modes are located under this dire...
/sbin•Just like /bin, /sbin also containsbinary executables.•But, the linux commands locatedunder this directory are usedt...
/etc•Contains configuration filesrequired by all programs.•This also contains startup andshutdown shell scripts used tosta...
/proc•Contains information about systemprocess.•This is a pseudo filesystemcontains information about runningprocess. For ...
/var•var stands for variable files.•Content of the files that areexpected to grow can be foundunder this directory.•This i...
/tmp•Directory that contains temporaryfiles created by system and users.•Files under this directory aredeleted when system...
/usr•Contains binaries, libraries, documentation, andsource-code for second level programs.•/usr/bin contains binary files...
/home•Home directories for all users tostore their personal files.•For example: /home/john,/home/nikita
/boot•Contains boot loader related files.•Kernel initrd, vmlinux, grub files arelocated under /boot•For example: initrd.im...
/lib •Contains library files that supports the binaries located under /bin and /sbin •Library filenames are either ld* or ...
/opt•opt stands for optional.•Contains add-on applications fromindividual vendors.•add-on applications should beinstalled ...
/mnt•Temporary mount directory wheresysadmins can mount filesystems.
/media•Temporary mount directory forremovable devices.•For examples, /media/cdrom forCD-ROM; /media/floppy for floppydrive...
/srv•srv stands for service.•Contains server specific servicesrelated data.•For example, /srv/cvs containsCVS related data.
There’s a guy who  famously said
" A lot of us have beenworking for ten years toget rid of the traditional       file system”
His name is Steve Jobs
Whether you like it or         not,File System still exist.
Thank you.
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Week6 filesystem

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Week6 filesystem

  1. 1. File System.
  2. 2. We’re Windows user at one point
  3. 3. Remember C:/Program Files?
  4. 4. Right. Let’s forget that.
  5. 5. /srv /media/mnt /var /tmp /opt /usr / /sbi /dev /boot n /bin /proc /etc /lib /home
  6. 6. Looks like a mess
  7. 7. But you can’t make an omelette without breaking any eggs
  8. 8. So let me explain
  9. 9. the file system is the organs of operating system
  10. 10. To understand filesystem means you understand how tooperate & “heal” the operating system
  11. 11. But it’s up to you, actually,You can still use Linux without knowing File System.
  12. 12. So back to this again.
  13. 13. /srv /media/mnt /var /tmp /opt /usr / /sbi /dev /boot n /bin /proc /etc /lib /home
  14. 14. Can we makesomething out of that?
  15. 15. /srv /media/mnt /var /tmp /opt /sbi / /dev /boot n /usr /bin /etc /proc /lib /home
  16. 16. It’s a mess. But not really.
  17. 17. Let’s take it one by one.
  18. 18. /•Every single file and directory startsfrom the root directory.•Only root user has write privilegeunder this directory.•Please note that /root is root user’shome directory, which is not sameas /.
  19. 19. /bin •Contains binary executables. •Common linux commands you need to use in single-user modes are located under this directory. •Commands used by all the users of the system are located here.
  20. 20. /sbin•Just like /bin, /sbin also containsbinary executables.•But, the linux commands locatedunder this directory are usedtypically by system aministrator, forsystem maintenance purpose.•For example: iptables, reboot,fdisk, ifconfig, swapon
  21. 21. /etc•Contains configuration filesrequired by all programs.•This also contains startup andshutdown shell scripts used tostart/stop individual programs.•For example: /etc/resolv.conf,/etc/logrotate.conf
  22. 22. /proc•Contains information about systemprocess.•This is a pseudo filesystemcontains information about runningprocess. For example: /proc/{pid}directory contains information aboutthe process with that particular pid.
  23. 23. /var•var stands for variable files.•Content of the files that areexpected to grow can be foundunder this directory.•This includes — system log files(/var/log); packages and databasefiles (/var/lib); emails (/var/mail);print queues (/var/spool); lock files
  24. 24. /tmp•Directory that contains temporaryfiles created by system and users.•Files under this directory aredeleted when system is rebooted.
  25. 25. /usr•Contains binaries, libraries, documentation, andsource-code for second level programs.•/usr/bin contains binary files for user programs. Ifyou can’t find a user binary under /bin, look under/usr/bin. For example: at, awk, cc, less, scp•/usr/sbin contains binary files for systemadministrators. If you can’t find a system binaryunder /sbin, look under /usr/sbin. For example: atd,cron, sshd, useradd, userdel•/usr/lib contains libraries for /usr/bin and /usr/sbin•/usr/local contains users programs that you installfrom source. For example, when you install apachefrom source, it goes under /usr/local/apache2
  26. 26. /home•Home directories for all users tostore their personal files.•For example: /home/john,/home/nikita
  27. 27. /boot•Contains boot loader related files.•Kernel initrd, vmlinux, grub files arelocated under /boot•For example: initrd.img-2.6.32-24-generic, vmlinuz-2.6.32-24-generic
  28. 28. /lib •Contains library files that supports the binaries located under /bin and /sbin •Library filenames are either ld* or lib*.so.* •For example: ld-2.11.1.so, libncurses.so.5.7
  29. 29. /opt•opt stands for optional.•Contains add-on applications fromindividual vendors.•add-on applications should beinstalled under either /opt/ or /opt/sub-directory.
  30. 30. /mnt•Temporary mount directory wheresysadmins can mount filesystems.
  31. 31. /media•Temporary mount directory forremovable devices.•For examples, /media/cdrom forCD-ROM; /media/floppy for floppydrives; /media/cdrecorder for CDwriter
  32. 32. /srv•srv stands for service.•Contains server specific servicesrelated data.•For example, /srv/cvs containsCVS related data.
  33. 33. There’s a guy who famously said
  34. 34. " A lot of us have beenworking for ten years toget rid of the traditional file system”
  35. 35. His name is Steve Jobs
  36. 36. Whether you like it or not,File System still exist.
  37. 37. Thank you.

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