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POSITIVE TECHNOLOGY V0.2 Andrea Gaggioli, Ph.D www.positivetechnology.info
Outline <ul><li>Living in digital ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Why Positive Technology? </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges and op...
#1 LIVING IN DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS
Eras of Computing One computer for many users One computer for each user Many computers for each user Thousands computers ...
responsive disappearing ubiquitous intelligent Digital Ecosystems
DISAPPEARING
RESPONSIVE
INTELLIGENT
UBIQUITOUS
VIRTUAL REALITY
AUGMENTED REALITY
WEARABLE DISPLAYS
SMART CLOTHING
SMART JEWERLY
LIFE LOGGING
HOME ROBOTICS
SOCIAL COMPUTING
INTERNET OF THINGS
does technology make us happy?
LA TECNOLOGIA POSITIVA
TECHNODEPENDENCY
TECNODIPENDENZA IPERCONNECTIVITY
TECNODIPENDENZA TECHNOSTRESS
TECNODIPENDENZA SUSTAINABILITY
TECNODIPENDENZA ETHICS
TECNODIPENDENZA SECURITY & PRIVACY
#2 WHY POSITIVE TECHNOLOGY?
How can technology contribute to wellbeing? <ul><li>Technology as a tool that can  release us from burden   and extend our...
Positive Psychology: the “Science of Wellbeing”
The goal of Positive Psychology The goal of Psychology <ul><li>Understanding what makes people: </li></ul><ul><li>Happy </...
 
“ I think with  technology , entertainment and design, we can actually  increase the amount of tonnage of human happiness ...
HEDONISTIC EUDAIMONISTIC EPICURUS ARISTOTLE PERSPECTIVES ON WELLBEING Enjoy pleasures and avoid pain (the “pleasant life”)...
(1)  TECHNOLOGY AND THE “PLEASANT LIFE”
The PLEASANT LIFE:  the role of  positive emotions  1/2 <ul><li>Provide the organism with nonspecific action tendencies th...
The PLEASANT LIFE:  the role of  positive emotions  2/2 <ul><li>Positive emotions build durable personal resources </li></...
FROM ERGONOMICS TO HEDONOMICS Playfulness Emotional design Enchantment Aesthetics & pleasureness “ ..in the same realm of ...
CAN WE USE TECHNOLOGY TO INDUCE POSITIVE EMOTIONS? YES… A. Grassi, A. Gaggioli, G. Riva (2009)  The green valley: the use ...
APPLICATIONS? <ul><li>Technology-based intervention strategies  that foster  positive emotions  may be suited for  prevent...
(2)  TECHNOLOGY AND THE “GOOD LIFE”
“ I can get totally into the music and not get self-conscious about dancing. I know that when I first start or if there is...
.
Anxiety, Boredom and Flow   (Csikszentmihalyi 1990 - Dots and text added: van Gorp 2006) Level of Physiological Arousal
Key characteristics of Flow Experience Positive emotions Total concentration on the task at hand Clear goals and clear fee...
Can technologies provide Flow? Certain technologies become successful at least in part because they provide flow and thus ...
Virtual activities associated with Flow <ul><li>Online exploratory behaviour (Ghani & Despande, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>On...
Virtual Reality as a source of Flow   (Gaggioli et al., 2004; 2005) <ul><li>Opportunities for action </li></ul><ul><li>Tas...
Transformation of Flow Riva & Gaggioli, 2009
APPLICATIONS: Transformation of Flow in rehabilitation  (1/3) <ul><li>The “Virtual Reality Play Intervention Program “(Mil...
Transformation of Flow in rehabilitation  (2/3) <ul><li>VR and emerging technologies have the potential to provide disable...
APPLICATIONS: Transformation of Flow in rehabilitation  (3/3) “Rehabilitation Gaming System”
Gaming VR systems for rehabilitation: Nintendo Wii  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofm-dyjOu1s
Future of Flow in Rehabilitation:  Microsoft Natal
#3 OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
The goal of PT: to design technologies that promote wellbeing and empowerment at individual, group, and social levels
 
EXPERIENCE ECONOMY Pine & Gilmore, 1999 TIME
ABSORPTION IMMERSION ACTIVE PARTICIPATION PASSIVE PARTICIPATION ENTERTAINMENT EDUCATIONAL ESCAPIST ESTHETIC EXPERIENCE ECO...
 
“ fostering power in people for use in their own lives, their communities and in their society” EMPOWERMENT
COGNITIVE EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>goal: to develop and enhance cognitive abilities </li></ul>
AFFECTIVE EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>goal: help individuals manage their emotions and reduce psychological stress </li></ul>
MOTIVATIONAL EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>goal: help people to choose healthy lifestyles and reduce addictive behaviours </li></ul>
PSYCHOSOCIAL EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>goal: help people to get  involved with other people and with their communities </li></ul>
COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>goal: foster social and environmental change  by promoting participatory approaches </li></ul>
SELF-IMPROVEMENT MARKET (US) Source: Marketdata
 
 
 
www.positivetechnology.info
AND THEY LIVED HAPPILY EVER AFTER  (WITH TECHNOLOGY)
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Positive Technologies

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As information and communication technologies become more ubiquitous and pervasive, they increasingly shape the ways we communicate, collaborate and establish new relationships. However, important questions need to be explored: are computers making us happy? Are new ways of interacting with and using technology actually improving the quality of our life, by enhancing our opportunities for growth and self-expression, and making us feel safer and more connected? The recent and growing interest towards these issues is paving the way for a new research area: “Positive Technology”.

Published in: Technology

Positive Technologies

  1. 1. POSITIVE TECHNOLOGY V0.2 Andrea Gaggioli, Ph.D www.positivetechnology.info
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Living in digital ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Why Positive Technology? </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges and opportunities </li></ul>
  3. 3. #1 LIVING IN DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS
  4. 4. Eras of Computing One computer for many users One computer for each user Many computers for each user Thousands computers for each user 1960: Mainframe Era 1980: Personal Computer Era 2000: Mobility Era 2020+: Ubiquity Era Source: Abigail Sellen, Yvonne Rogers, Richard Harper, Tom Rodden: Reflecting human values in the digital age . Commun. ACM 52(3): 58-66 (2009)
  5. 5. responsive disappearing ubiquitous intelligent Digital Ecosystems
  6. 6. DISAPPEARING
  7. 7. RESPONSIVE
  8. 8. INTELLIGENT
  9. 9. UBIQUITOUS
  10. 10. VIRTUAL REALITY
  11. 11. AUGMENTED REALITY
  12. 12. WEARABLE DISPLAYS
  13. 13. SMART CLOTHING
  14. 14. SMART JEWERLY
  15. 15. LIFE LOGGING
  16. 16. HOME ROBOTICS
  17. 17. SOCIAL COMPUTING
  18. 18. INTERNET OF THINGS
  19. 19. does technology make us happy?
  20. 20. LA TECNOLOGIA POSITIVA
  21. 21. TECHNODEPENDENCY
  22. 22. TECNODIPENDENZA IPERCONNECTIVITY
  23. 23. TECNODIPENDENZA TECHNOSTRESS
  24. 24. TECNODIPENDENZA SUSTAINABILITY
  25. 25. TECNODIPENDENZA ETHICS
  26. 26. TECNODIPENDENZA SECURITY & PRIVACY
  27. 27. #2 WHY POSITIVE TECHNOLOGY?
  28. 28. How can technology contribute to wellbeing? <ul><li>Technology as a tool that can release us from burden and extend our capabilities (Human-Computer Interaction) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology as a medium to happiness (Positive Technology) </li></ul>Our goal: to design technologies that promote wellbeing and empowerment at individual, group, and social levels
  29. 29. Positive Psychology: the “Science of Wellbeing”
  30. 30. The goal of Positive Psychology The goal of Psychology <ul><li>Understanding what makes people: </li></ul><ul><li>Happy </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy life </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfied and fulfilled </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally stable </li></ul><ul><li>Mentally healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><li>Able to cope </li></ul><ul><li>Successful </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding what makes people: </li></ul><ul><li>Suffer </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed </li></ul><ul><li>Anxious </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed </li></ul><ul><li>Unhappy </li></ul><ul><li>Angry </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Violent </li></ul><ul><li>Strange </li></ul><ul><li>Mentally ill </li></ul>
  31. 32. “ I think with technology , entertainment and design, we can actually increase the amount of tonnage of human happiness on the planet . And if technology can in the next decade or two increase the pleasant life , the good life and the meaningful life, it will be good enough” Martin Seligman Pioneer of Positive Psychology
  32. 33. HEDONISTIC EUDAIMONISTIC EPICURUS ARISTOTLE PERSPECTIVES ON WELLBEING Enjoy pleasures and avoid pain (the “pleasant life”) Realize personal potential (the “good life”)
  33. 34. (1) TECHNOLOGY AND THE “PLEASANT LIFE”
  34. 35. The PLEASANT LIFE: the role of positive emotions 1/2 <ul><li>Provide the organism with nonspecific action tendencies that can lead to adaptive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Positive emotions broaden Thought-Action Repertoires (Fredrickson, 2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joy > PLAY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest > EXPLORE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contentment > SAVOR AND INTEGRATE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Love > ALL OF THE ABOVE </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. The PLEASANT LIFE: the role of positive emotions 2/2 <ul><li>Positive emotions build durable personal resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological resources </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. FROM ERGONOMICS TO HEDONOMICS Playfulness Emotional design Enchantment Aesthetics & pleasureness “ ..in the same realm of human-technology interaction, hedonomics is primarily concerned with the promotion of pleasure.” (Hancock et al., 2005)
  37. 38. CAN WE USE TECHNOLOGY TO INDUCE POSITIVE EMOTIONS? YES… A. Grassi, A. Gaggioli, G. Riva (2009)  The green valley: the use of mobile narratives for reducing stress in commuters. Cyberpsychol Behav 12: 2. 155-161 Rosa María Baños, Gemma García-Soriano, Cristina Botella, Elia Oliver, Ernestina Etchemendy, Juana María Bretón (2009) Positive mood induction and well-being, in Proceedings of IEEE HSI2009, Special Session on Positive Technology Riva G, Mantovani F, Capideville CS, Preziosa A, Morganti F, Villani D, Gaggioli A, Botella C, Alcañiz M. (2007) Affective interactions using virtual reality: the link between presence and emotions. Cyberpsychol Behav. Feb;10(1):45-56.
  38. 39. APPLICATIONS? <ul><li>Technology-based intervention strategies that foster positive emotions may be suited for preventing and treating problems rooted in negative emotions, such as aggression, anxiety , depression , and stress -related health problems </li></ul>
  39. 40. (2) TECHNOLOGY AND THE “GOOD LIFE”
  40. 41. “ I can get totally into the music and not get self-conscious about dancing. I know that when I first start or if there is some distraction, or I’m conscious of the way I’m dancing, I don’t dance as well as when I’m really totally into the music….it’s something that just comes out in my body, ’cause I don’t usually think about the steps I’m going to do consciously.” FLOW Quote from a dancer, M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, p. 105
  41. 42. .
  42. 43. Anxiety, Boredom and Flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1990 - Dots and text added: van Gorp 2006) Level of Physiological Arousal
  43. 44. Key characteristics of Flow Experience Positive emotions Total concentration on the task at hand Clear goals and clear feedback Autothelic experience (intrinsic motivation) High challenges matched by high skills Effortless action Reduced self-awareness
  44. 45. Can technologies provide Flow? Certain technologies become successful at least in part because they provide flow and thus motivate people to use them (Csikszentmihalyi et al. 2005)
  45. 46. Virtual activities associated with Flow <ul><li>Online exploratory behaviour (Ghani & Despande, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Online consumer behaviour (Hoffman & Novak, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Online learning (Chan & Ahem, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Online gaming (Chen, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Hacking behaviour (Luthiger & Jungwirth, 2007) </li></ul>
  46. 47. Virtual Reality as a source of Flow (Gaggioli et al., 2004; 2005) <ul><li>Opportunities for action </li></ul><ul><li>Task complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Multimodal feedback </li></ul><ul><li>High control </li></ul>
  47. 48. Transformation of Flow Riva & Gaggioli, 2009
  48. 49. APPLICATIONS: Transformation of Flow in rehabilitation (1/3) <ul><li>The “Virtual Reality Play Intervention Program “(Miller & Reid, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>19 participants aged 8-13 who had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy </li></ul><ul><li>Participants experienced a sense of control and mastery over the virtual environment and were provided a safe way to explore and challenge their abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Participants perceived experiencing flow and reported perceived physical changes and increased social acceptance from both peers and family </li></ul>
  49. 50. Transformation of Flow in rehabilitation (2/3) <ul><li>VR and emerging technologies have the potential to provide disabled persons with greater control over events in their environment, thereby enhancing a sense of competence and satisfaction with life </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEO </li></ul>
  50. 51. APPLICATIONS: Transformation of Flow in rehabilitation (3/3) “Rehabilitation Gaming System”
  51. 52. Gaming VR systems for rehabilitation: Nintendo Wii http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofm-dyjOu1s
  52. 53. Future of Flow in Rehabilitation: Microsoft Natal
  53. 54. #3 OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
  54. 55. The goal of PT: to design technologies that promote wellbeing and empowerment at individual, group, and social levels
  55. 57. EXPERIENCE ECONOMY Pine & Gilmore, 1999 TIME
  56. 58. ABSORPTION IMMERSION ACTIVE PARTICIPATION PASSIVE PARTICIPATION ENTERTAINMENT EDUCATIONAL ESCAPIST ESTHETIC EXPERIENCE ECONOMY - Pine & Gilmore, 1999
  57. 60. “ fostering power in people for use in their own lives, their communities and in their society” EMPOWERMENT
  58. 61. COGNITIVE EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>goal: to develop and enhance cognitive abilities </li></ul>
  59. 62. AFFECTIVE EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>goal: help individuals manage their emotions and reduce psychological stress </li></ul>
  60. 63. MOTIVATIONAL EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>goal: help people to choose healthy lifestyles and reduce addictive behaviours </li></ul>
  61. 64. PSYCHOSOCIAL EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>goal: help people to get involved with other people and with their communities </li></ul>
  62. 65. COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>goal: foster social and environmental change by promoting participatory approaches </li></ul>
  63. 66. SELF-IMPROVEMENT MARKET (US) Source: Marketdata
  64. 70. www.positivetechnology.info
  65. 71. AND THEY LIVED HAPPILY EVER AFTER (WITH TECHNOLOGY)

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