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Introduction to research draft2

  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENT Table of content List of Table CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Problem Statement 1.3 Research Objectives 1.4 Research Questions 1.5 Operational Definition 1.6 The Limitation of the Study 1.7 The Significant of the Study CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Visual Arts Teachers‘ Use of ICT 2.3 ICT in Arts Education 2.4 Integrating the Arts with Technology: Inspiring Creativity 2.5 Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement 2.6 Learning and Technology - "In That Order" 2.7 Conclusion CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Research Design
  3. 3. 3.3 Population and Sample 3.4 Instrumentation 3.5 Data Collection 3.6 Data Analysis 3.7 Conclusion LIST OF REFERENCES APPENDICES Appendix 1 – Research Instrument
  5. 5. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Because effective use of technology must be supported by significant investments in hardware, software, infrastructure, professional development, and support services, over the last decade, we as a nation have invested more than $66 billion investment in school technology (QED, 2004). This unprecedented level of investment in educational technology has raised expectations of legislators and the public who are now looking for returns on this investment (Benton, 2002; CEO Forum, 1999, 2000), and therefore are calling for evidence regarding the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of technology in K-12 schools (Ringstaff& Kelley, 2002; Panel on Educational Technology, 1997; Melmed, 1995). While complex factors have influenced the decisions for where, what, and how technology is introduced into our nation's school systems, ultimately, the schools will be held accountable for these investments. How can schools ensure that the promise that technology holds for student achievement is realized? What factors need to be in place to support the effective use of technology? What resources can school districts use to help them plan for technology that will have a positive impact on student achievement, and how can they justify that investment? Effective school leaders focus on reforminitiatives that offer the most promise for improving teaching and learning, and they ensure that schoolhave the resources, skills, and time necessary for turning the promise into reality. Evidence indicates that when used effectively, "technology applications can support higher-order thinking by engaging students in authentic, complex tasks within collaborative
  6. 6. learning contexts". When educators use the accumulating knowledge regarding the circumstances under which technology supports the broad definition of student achievement, they will be able to make informed choices about what technologies will best meet the particular needs of specific schools or districts. They also will be able to ensure that teachers, parents, students, and community members understand what role technology is playing in a school or district and how its impact is being evaluated. Finally, they will be able to justify the investments being made in technology. The objective of by using technology in learning is technology can improve teaching and learning; students are actively involved in the learning process. Next, students take ownership of their learning, acting as explorers and producers; teachers function as facilitators and guides. Other than that, technology also can encourage collaborative learning, development of critical thinking skills, and problem solving. It can help learners explore the world beyond the classroom by providing access to vast resources and information, promoting scientific inquiry and discovery, and allowing students to communicate with experts. Technology used for authentic tasks can provide students with opportunities to interact with a wealth of resources, materials, and data sets, and to perform challenging tasks similar to those in careers and out-of-school activities.
  7. 7. 1.2 Problem Statement ICT nowadays is an important technology that can improve student achievement.While no teachers explicitly expressed beliefs that digital work was at odds with their beliefs and values regarding visual arts itself, there were evident tensions for a number of the teachers interviewed; even those who actively embraced ICT themselves. Six discussed the importance of traditional mediums and the organic nature of art. Several teachers described ICT as a tool, much like a paintbrush, or a pencil or linotool. Such comments were often made in the context of digital art forms not replacing traditional techniques. For a big number of teachers said that, technology was perceived as opening up new, exciting and progressive forms of expression. Considerable differences existed in teachers‘ beliefs concerning the importance of ICT in the art classroom and think that ICT was a necessary, mandatory, fundamental or unavoidable part of contemporary art teaching.The teachers saw ICT as important in relation to student career opportunities, for instance as illustrators, graphic designers or architects. A number of teachers commented that integrating ICT positively impacted on perceptions of visual arts as a subject. Other than that ICT brought different students into the art room, not just the painters and drawers and actually ICT can helped art compete with other subjects. When we use computers it makes art more attractive, more accountable and when we have subject selections we talk about the role of ICT in art and it makes people sit up and take note. ICT important to support students to be active and critical visual consumers, particularly in relation to advertising and majority of the teachers highlighted the benefits of ICT in accessing, organisingand presenting information.With ICT we have access to every
  8. 8. image and every artist. No books have it all. We can access all galleries and so forth. ICT also, helps art teachers keep up with what is happening in contemporary art practice, for example, teachers can access more exciting things now, like performance art. The students can now experience a whole range of art influences, film, and technology and art practice. The students can see what is happening overseas. The ease and efficiency of displaying images, for instance by using PowerPoint and a data projector, was also strength; ―Now images can be larger, on a grander scale; they are more real.ICT can be quick and allows the classroom to be more dynamic and interactive tools in teaching and learning for nowadays. While most teachers used ICT for theory, about half indicated that they were usingtechnology with their students to create art works. These teachers indicated that ICT helped students play around with art and see progressive changes. The awareness about the using ICT to improve student achievement in art education is really needed because learning which is using and implementing with ICT or virtual excursions or other online learning experiences, or to including interpersonal exchanges, which are very important for nowadays. The students can communicate with other students or from different cultures. The teachers can refer to using the web to assiststudents to exhibit their work. 1.3 Research Objectives i) To determine achievement by using ICTin visual art education among students. ii) To identify the effective use of technology in teaching and learning, particularly visual art education iii) To investigate the problems occur during teaching art education while implement ICT in teaching.
  9. 9. 1.4 Research Questions i) How to improve the achievement by using technology in visual art education among the students? ii) What is the effectiveness by using technology in visual art education? iii) What are the ways to occur during teaching art education while implement ICT in teaching? 1.5 Operational Definition 1.5.1 Art M.Steel (2004) define the term of art refers to the activity or skill of producing things such as paintings, design and others;the objects that are produced needs skill. While Arthur Efland (1997) described art as the nature of art, like other important human concepts such as love and beauty, and is such as that it cannot be confined by word. This is because art is not entity or rigid category but a fluid, ever-changing way that human imaginations interact. In this study, art is defined an activity which apply skills in the epoxy has a work and can change the way of imagination by those who interpret it. 1.5.2 Art Education Besides that, the term of art education, is the area of learning that is based upon the visual, tangible arts- drawing, painting, sculpture, and design in jewellery, pottery, weaving, fabrics, etc. and design applied to more practical fields such as commercial graphics and home furnishings. Latest trends also include photography, video, film, design, computer art, etc. The term ―arts education‖ implies many things, but is definable as : Instruction and programming in any arts area – including the performing arts (dance, music, theatre) and visual arts, media arts, history, criticism,
  10. 10. and aesthetics.(Read, 1951) In this study, arts education means learning which is based on a theoretical and practical works of art. 1.5.3 Technology Technology as a body of knowledge that is use createstools, develop skills and collect materials. In addition technology is the application of science to solve a problem or meet a goal. Technology is using our knowledge, discoveries, and inventions to make life easier. The term comes from the ancient Greek words tekhne,which refers to an art or craft, and logiameaning an area of study, reason or logic.( Merriam Webster)In this study, technology can be interpreted as an application or use a tool that allows users to construct new or solve a problem easily. 1.6 The Limitation of The study This study examines the effectiveness of teachers using ICT in learning and teaching methods in the classroom; especially in the subject of visual arts education in schools based on structured interviews during theirtowards problem in the classroom. The validity of their opinions sometimes cannot be established, although every preparation was made to ensure respondents gave true and honest response. Moreover, the number of the respondents in the study was quite small proportion to the target population intended to generalize. Another limitation is the time consuming for dealing the observation using ICT especially in the classroom while art education session. Not all the students give their full cooperation.
  11. 11. 1.7 The Significant of the Study To ensure that our curriculum in educational setting is beneficial to students, teachers and the nation at large, systematic and effective evaluation and monitoring in long term in frequent observation. The finding of the study would provide useful information to ensure that using ICT is important especially on art education session. The study would therefore, try to provide some feedback concerning the effectiveness and achievement by using ICT in Art Education. Although currently there is no concrete evidence that shows exposure to the effectiveness by using ICT in art education among the students. It is hopes the study are important to help the teacher to improve the achievement in art education. With the information at hand, more studies could be planned for the future. 1.8 Conclusion This chapter has covered the background of the study, the statement of the research problem, the research objectives, the research questions, the significant of the research, the operational definition of terms used in this study and the limitation of this study. The literature review of the topics related to this study will be present in the next chapter.
  13. 13. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction Considerable differences existed in teachers beliefs concerning the importance of ICT in the art classroom and ICT was an integral part of art, it was possible to achieve well in visual arts courses without ICT. Apart from that, an opportunity for students using the ICT when they try to give idea in their artwork or maybe share their experiences with their peers and the same time they can experience and appreciate their friend‘s artwork become part of the learning process. Other than that, by using the ICT, teaching and learning session more effectively. This chapter will discuss on the following areas: The Important by Using ICT in Teaching, ICT make more attractive in teaching art,ICT as playing an important role in engaging and motivating students, support students to be active and critical visual consumers, particularly in relation to advertising and other issues that related to the area of the study. In this chapter, survey that had been done is taken from references book, journal, internet website and article review. Besides that, in the conclusion, this chapter will conclude what had been discuss in this chapter. Therefore, it is hope that the literature review will be guideline to researcher in doing this study.
  14. 14. 2.1 Visual Arts Teachers’ Use of ICT Visual arts teachers‘ willingness to integrate ICT in their teaching for easier the student approaches their learning in arts. In almost all instances, teacher‘s values, attitudes and beliefs, human inertia and resistance to change have been cited as significant contributing factors. These factors have been demonstrated to play a significant role in influencing all teachers‘ preparedness to embrace ICT. However there are a number of issues specific to visual arts teachers.For instance, teachers‘ traditional ideologies concerning the framework of aesthetics, and their beliefs about the incompatibility between technology and art itself, have been identified as barriers to the adoption of ICT. Previous studies have indicated that some art teachers view ICT as gimmicky and easily misused, and some fear loss of student creativity and a focus on replication of art. Interestingly, noted that photography, in its early history, faced similar resistance when debate ensued as to whether it should be considered an art form. Additionally, documented instances where teachers felt that the school network was set up on a ‗business model‘, which was not helpful in the context of an ‗art space‘. Reported continued reluctance on the part of visual arts teachers to embrace new technologies and refers to a study of accomplished art teachers and quality art education, within which no mention was made of the inclusion of ICT. While some resistance to integration might be attributable to age,although many art teachers are using more ICT, most use only basic applications (such as word processing) rather than applications designed to support creativity. The researcher said, while some teachers believe technology maintains student engagement and provides inspiration, others were concerned that students could be easily distracted by technology.
  15. 15. In this study also, the researcher try to identify poor training opportunities, lack of support and lack of time as significant impacts on visual arts teachers‘ willingness to integrate ICT. Professional development that does not focus on a specific area of content has been found to be less effective. While we do know that some teachers are integrating ICT in their visual arts teaching with ―open minds and a sense of adventure‖, what remains unclear is the extent to which this is occurring across school systems, how practising teachersview or learn to apply technology in their professional lives and the factors that impact on teachers‘ willingness to integrate ICT. Considerable differences existed in teachers‘ beliefs concerning the importance of ICT in the art classroom. He said that, only six felt that ICT was a necessary, mandatory, fundamental or unavoidable part of contemporary art teaching, while five teachers expressed that ICT was not essential. Mia pointed out that although she believed ICT was an integral part of art, it was possible to achieve well in visual arts courses without ICT. Four of the teachers saw ICT as important in relation to student career opportunities, for instance as illustrators, graphic designers or architects. A number of teachers commented that integrating ICT positively impacted on perceptions of visual arts asa subject. Jodie, for instance, noted that ICT brought different students into the art room, ―not just the painters and drawers‖ and Liam believed that ICT helped art compete with other subjects; ―When we use computers it makes art more attractive, more accountable. When we have subject selections we talk about the role of ICT in art and it makes people sit up and take note‖. Seven teachers identified ICT as playing an important role in engaging and motivating students; ―ICT is part of the real world; their real world‖. ―If imagery does not engage them they switch off. You have to be very clever in stimulating the kids and are clever, gimmicky, grandstand a bit to get their attention, or be more charismatic than you had to do‖. Only one
  16. 16. of the teachers talked at length about the role visual arts could play in nurturing critical literacy. The researcherthought it was important to support students to be active and critical visual consumers, particularly in relation to advertising; ―I talk to my seniors about this all the time. You don‘t accept an image just because it‘s presented on a computer screen‖. For researcher, an important aspect of her role was to teach students ―how to deconstruct, analyse and how to be critical consumers of art‖. 2.2 ICT in Arts Education ICT as a term encompasses a range of human-devised hardware, software andtelecommunications technologies that facilitate communication and sharing of information across boundaries and which may be used to generate arts experiences and objects. In order to best utilise ICT, digital and information literacies are required to access and utilise e-learning and online materials, and to appropriately select and operate digital materials and technologies. To this end, governments around the world are developing digital strategies to support education in the 21st century. The focus of these strategies is to enable countries to realise their economic, social and cultural capital; to keep pace with rising expectations and technological advancements; to develop creative, thinking people who can solve problems in new ways and within multi-dimensionallearning environments. Literature from Australia (Newhouse, 2002) and the United Kingdom (Loveless, 2002) provides evidence that ICT positively impacts on student achievement in core subjects, including evidence that specifically relates to the use of music and visual arts to enhance learning processes and outcomes. Findings assert that both the learning environment and curriculum pedagogy and content are central to the effective use of ICT. However, teachers need to be confident in their subject knowledge as well as in basic ICT literacies so that they can effectively integrate ICT into teaching programmes. A large number of studies have
  17. 17. found that students are often more engaged and motivated to learn when using relevant ICT to support specific intentional learning. Unintentional learning can be identified and is often beneficial to wider learning but research has not yet investigatedthis in any depth (and not in any arts education contexts). Studies from the United Kingdom and Australia often conclude that teachers need to plan for the integration of ICT into teaching and learning programmes to cater for individual students‘ needs and the selection of quality digital material. To this end, studies on the impact of ICT on teaching have noted the need for new pedagogies to cater for the dynamic and chaotic learning that can take place as students steer their own learning in areas of need and interest. All ICT in education studies note the need for teachers to be provided with professional support to integrate ICT into programmes of learning – particularly regarding technical, practical, pedagogical, infrastructure, and school management aspects. Researcher has shown that ICT usein schools is uneven and low in arts classrooms compared with other learning areas. Barriers identified by research participants include lack of reliable internet access, and insufficient professional and technical support to embed ICT into programmes of learning, not just as tools, but as planned opportunities to improve engagement andachievement. The online professional materials and online facilitator support provided by the Arts Online website (Ministry of Education) improved arts planning and classroom practice, and hence outcomes for students. No other studies are available on the impact of online professional support for arts education– in either educational or in community settings. The Arts Online continues to provide online support for arts educators in all sectors by providing discipline-specific interactive listserves, units and lessons, resources and site links, professional readings, events and community links, interactive planning, newsletters
  18. 18. and facilitated individual subject support. It is expected that this literature review will support these projects by drawing conclusions and making recommendations to key stakeholders for further developments in ICT and arts learning and teaching. ICT in arts programmes, as in other learning areas, can enhance both student and teachermotivation. In order for ICT to impact most effectively on traditional school-based arts learning and teaching, educators need to critically review available digital multimedia to assess advantages and disadvantages so that selection and utilization of digital resourcesand objects best meet the needs of particular students and learning contexts, thereby supporting engagement, motivation and quality learning experiences. Teachers need support to implement ICT effectively in their arts programmes. This support could be in the form of technical personnel, subject and pedagogical expertise, appropriate hardware and software, along with school infrastructures that enable fast, reliable service. Ideally this would include online sharing of arts expertise and ICT collaborative opportunities to demonstrate and discuss successful practice through a portal such as the Arts Online. ICT has the potential to enhance real world experiences through collaborativecommunities of practice. Developments in virtual technologies are creating new andexciting approaches to arts learning and teaching that have never been conceived of before, where real and simulated electronic environments can interact in virtual worlds of practice, and where creativity has the potential to be artistically explored, shared and experienced with others, in the widest possible range of learning contexts and environments. E-learning allows different spaces and places for creating and sharing arts makingprocesses with others who are involved in similar endeavours, by providing opportunities to mentor and to be mentored beyond the limitations of the traditional classroom or school setting. By collaborating across what were once barriers of time,
  19. 19. available expertise, culture, and place, new perspectives and enhanced cross-cultural communication can be developed. ICT tools allow new ways to manipulate existing and create new arts practices (such as trans discipline or intermedia arts), which can then be shared and presented (both processes and products) in online, interactive environments. This connectivism allows for refinement and reflection in and on the creative processes specific to arts practices, and for opportunities to learn new, dynamic ways of thinking and knowing about arts and cultures of the world‘s peoples for greater understanding and guardianship of the world in which we live. 2.3 Integrating the Arts with Technology: Inspiring Creativity Adding creativity into students' daily schoolwork can sometimes seem like a daunting task. However, the synergy between the arts and academic learning is one that can be harnessed by students with disabilities, their teachers, and their schools as a way to integrate the arts into curricula to enhance student motivation, engagement, and learning. It is also an effective alternative mean of increasing academic achievement. The arts offer important benefits for children with disabilities, including access to the general curriculum required by IDEA 2004, as alternative assessments for children with cognitive disabilities, and as alternative learning methods for English language learners.Through the arts, students gain self-confidence and self-esteem by expressing and exploring their identities, as well as communicating issues and personal reflections through alternative mediums of expression. Research has found that students at-risk for dropping out of school who participate in arts programs gain a more positive attitude about themselves and their future, increase academic achievement, and decrease delinquency. For students with disabilities in particular, the opportunity to be self-expressive and successful in an artistic
  20. 20. medium can often diffuse or transcend the sense of isolation and frustration they may feel when working with their disability in daily life. Today's technologies offer multiple ways to accomplish this in the classroom alongside already established curricula. This Information brief will summarize some of the research pointing to the benefits of the arts for students with disabilities and offer a number of technology resources teachers, families and students can explore. 2.4 Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement Since educators first began to use computers in the classroom, researchers have tried to evaluate whether the use of educational technology has a significant and reliable impact on student achievement. Searching for an answer, researchers have realized that technology cannot be treated as a single independent variable, and that student achievement is gauged not only by how well students perform on standardized tests but also by students' ability to use higher-order thinking skills (such as thinking critically, analysing, making inferences, and solving problems). Judging the impact of any particular technology requires an understanding of how it is used in the classroom and what learning goals are held by the educators involved, knowledge about the type of assessments that are used to evaluate improvements in student achievement, and an awareness of the complex nature of change in the school environment. Evidence indicates that when used effectively, "technology applications can support higher-order thinking by engaging students in authentic, complex tasks within collaborative learning contexts". When educators use the accumulating knowledge regarding the circumstances under which technology supports the broad definition of student achievement, they will be able to make informed choices about what technologies will best meet the particular needs of specific schools or districts. They also will be able to ensure that teachers, parents, students, and community members understand what role technology is playing in a
  21. 21. school or district and how its impact is being evaluated. Finally, they will be able to justify the investments being made in technology. Many innovations in education have come and gone without fulfilling the promised impact on student learning. How can schools ensure that the promise that technology holds for student achievement is realized? What factors need to be in place to support the effective use of technology? What resources can school districts use to help them plan for technology that will have a positive impact on student achievement, and how can they justify that investment?To answer these questions, educators need to look at the research on technology and student achievement and the contextual factors that affect learning goals. Rapid advances in multimedia and telecommunications technologies, combined with a growing consensus among educators regarding the need for developing educational standards for student achievement, have led to a new set of expectations for how educational technology can support meaningful, engaged learning for students. Instead of focusing merely on isolated, skills-based uses of technology (such as integrated learning systems), educational technologists are promoting the use of various technologies (ranging from word processors to modelling software to Internet-based research) that are integrated across the curriculum. Researchers are now beginning to meet the more complicated research task of investigating the impact of technology use in meeting these new expectations for what students should learn. They are examining students' ability to understand complex phenomena, analyse and synthesize multiple sources of information, and build representations of their own knowledge. This model of integrated technology-supported learning emphasizes the ability to access, interpret, and synthesize information instead of rote memorization and the acquisition of isolated skills.
  22. 22. Central to this change in expectations for student learning has been an acknowledgment of the complexity of three key factors that must be considered in evaluating the impact of technology on student achievement:The term technology refers not to simply one type of technology but to a wide range of electronic materials and methods for learning. It can apply to the use of computers in education, but it also can apply to video production and distance learning classes. Each type of technology has different uses and fulfils different learning goals.Assessing the effect of technology on student achievement is a complex process. Changes in the classroom correlate with changes in other educational factors as well. 2.5 Learning and Technology - "In That Order" Over the past several years, researcher has been impressed by how fruitful it can be to solicit students' ideas when making plans for technology in support of learning. Judging from those experiences, He thought it might be worthwhile to construct a New Horizons column from a "geographically distributed" focus-group session, inviting students from a variety of institutions to suggest what educators should be thinking about as we plan our learning environments for the next two to four years. With the help of colleagues, I was able to enlist the help of fourteen students, all of whom responded with thoughtful contributions, summarized here. In sum, the sentiments most often articulated were: (1) too much or unfettered technology is bad and directly hinders learning; and (2) the use of technology should not come at the expense of personal interaction both in and outside the classroom. Perhaps the most succinct formulation of these ideas was: He believe the most important thing to keep in mind about learning and technology is that they should be considered in that order" (CV). The message here is that technology needs to clearly serve learning. This idea was also expressed eloquently as: "Any technology that separates the student from the teacher or his or
  23. 23. her peers detracts from a fundamental dimension of education" (CV); and "While IT is important, it is not always the only way to improve learning" (CS). These students were very sensitive to the circumstances and conditions of their courses. Other than that, one gains the impression that they distinguished very quickly between successful and artificial implementations of technology, between usage that served their learning and usage that did not. It was also clear that they valued contact and mentoring from their instructors and that they felt any use of technology that diluted this contact worked against learning. What distinguishes a good use of technology, according to these students, is when the technology is well integrated with real-time, personal interactions and is not a replacement for them. In good uses of technology, traditional interactive engagements — "active learning exercises, group activities, demonstrations, and guest speakers" (CS) — are retained as a part of the course, and technology supports those engagements. Signs of ineffective use of technology are when there is too much reliance on it or when its use by instructors comes across as artificial: "Students can tell when you are faking it" (SH). The use of technology is artificial when it has no clear connection to the learning and so appears to be merely a placeholder. To use technology effectively, instructors must make its rationale clear, sometimes repeatedly so. As a student explained, it is vital for instructors "to remind students again and again" why they are using the technology. Instructors should "help students see connections between the technology and their learning, especially for new technology" (SH). One student provided an especially compelling illustration of how the same technology was highly successful in one course and unsuccessful in another. We could call this "the case of good lecture capture and bad lecture capture": "The bad lecture capture was
  24. 24. for [a] physics class, a course with relatively large enrolment and conducted using a traditional lecture format. The lectures were recorded as 'full video casts' (using a video camera positioned in the back of the lecture hall) and made available on the class website. Since the recordings were merely a repeat of what transpired in the lecture hall, these lecture recordings worked to the detriment of student attendance. No need to go to class if you can get class later online" (MA). In the "good" case, the session recordings were made in a course that had a high degree of student interaction designed into the class meetings. As this student described it: "The class was mostly based on student presentations, and student presenters were specifically expected to invite participation from the rest of the class during their lectures." In this course, "students essentially taught two out of every three lectures." The student presentations "consisted of pairs of students presenting scientific papers that have built our knowledge of the subject," evaluating those papers, and tying "them in with related issues in biomedical research" (MA). Why were these recordings valuable to the students' learning? "The weekly problem sets were based on the material presented in all three lectures, so in all these cases, the podcasts provided a crucial tool that students could use, along with presentation slides, to review the presented material as they thought about the problems posed in the problem set questions" (MA). In the "bad" case, the technology simply replicated transmissions and so provided a disincentive to come to class — clearly a negative result from the students' perspective. In the "good" case, the technology was supporting a course that was already designed around a high level of student activity and that directly leveraged this activity.
  25. 25. What these students are urging is for instructors to avoid art approach to the use of technology in the curriculum. A multimedia project is not better than the traditional written term paper. New media is no magic bullet. Indeed, if a multimedia project is not carefully designed to accomplish curricular goals, it is worse than the traditional methods. The new media must be carefully and thoughtfully integrated with the traditional liberal arts aspirations: the awakening in learners of the capability of critical thinking; the sophisticated, deliberate, and skill full use of information and reference; the competent expression of ideas; and the ability to appreciate and work with diverse points of view. Any innovation, be it technology-based or otherwise, that is not grounded in this vision of education is a failure from the very outset. A student who served as a peer tutor vividly described the problems he had seen in projects involving new media: "The difficulty of arguing with a series of images — for students who had barely learned to argue with words — turned the whole project into a rather empty and directionless exercise in multimedia scrapbooking." He suggested: "Multimedia forms should be taught in tandem with traditional papers, and only after students have developed some expertise in the clearer strategies of the latter practice" (JS). One student cautioned that a reliance on technology returned to the old transmission model of "one size fits all." Not all students are adept with technology or new media. This student explained: "Major changes in educational style must always be made only after considering . . . [the] effect [on] not just some students but all students" (AS). For example, for an instructor to declare that everything will be done using online discussion sections simply "technologizes" old practices: "Some may learn best by reading, but some may need to hear the information explained and interpreted" (AS). This echoes a theme of constructivism: there need to be multiple paths through the course and its content, since learning styles are not the same for everyone.
  26. 26. Make no mistake: these students are into networked-based technology. They are not Luddites. One found Second Life a compelling way to develop skills in computer programming: "Second Life caught my attention in a way that no other technology in the classroom has" (KB). Another said that multiplayer online games, such as Counterstrike and World of Warcraft, are vehicles for "teaching teamwork and leadership skills" (BP). Technology can provide these additional paths through the course, but if technology condenses into a single path, then we are back to where we started from. Learning is sometimes messy and inefficient. It can involve departures from the plan — for example, if a point needs additional discussion and clarification or if contentious ideas require more debate than originally foreseen. Technology, these students warn, should not sacrifice learning for efficiency. As one student succinctly noted: "There is a difference between increasing efficiency and increasing learning" (SH). The students were very clear that to completely displace lectures and class sessions would be to bark up the wrong tree: "In some cases, professors will try to completely replace lectures and discussions with forum posts and assigned readings, which may work just fine for some students but may leave others feeling that they're getting as much personal attention and human interaction as they would find in a correspondence course" (AS). The students also point out that in a course, everybody learns, including the instructors. This learning is not just about the course content but also about curricular strategies for mastering the content. One student put it this way: "Students don't always know what is best for them, but that doesn't mean they can't provide valuable insight" (SH). The students encourage instructors to explicitly discuss and evaluate different uses of technology: "If you are unsure about a technology in the classroom, talk to the students" (SH).
  27. 27. 2.6 Conclusion Researchers from previous studies has proved that by using ICT students will be more interested and able to use the latest technology to facilitate teaching. Indirectly through technology, teachers are more easily carry out their teaching and learning. Students are more interested in their learning sessions.
  29. 29. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction This chapter explains the research design of this study, the method of data collection, the population as well as the sample of this study and the data analysis of the data. The data that has been analysed will then be presented in the next chapter. 3.1 Research Design This study will be carried out a descriptive research which includes the observation of 10 students from secondary school, 50 art teachers for the likert scale instrumentation and 5 art teachers who selected randomly for interview instrumentation. The descriptive research method is designed to determine on how to improve the students achievement in art education learning based on ICT. The descriptive on this study involve the administration of observation (rubric), likert scale and interview session to sample groups of research participants. This method involves three different methods for participants. The observation consists of rubric which has its own criteria. While the likert scale consists of 10 statements and there also have interview method consists about 6 interview questions. In short, I choose the descriptive research methods that are observation, likert scale and interview to finish this study.
  30. 30. 3.2 Population and Sample The target population of this study is the students in secondary school and art teachers. There are three different population and sample in this study. First, for the population and sample on observation among secondary schoolstudents, I choose non- random sampling which is convenience sampling as the sample whoever happens to be available. I will conduct action and action an observation toward class may fit the description of the sample to investigate. Moreover, by using this sample, the method of collecting a sample is cheap, convenient and practical toward the characteristic that I want to survey. While the population and sample on likert scale among art education‘s teachers, I choose random sampling which is systematic sampling refers to randomly selected art education teachers in Shah Alam district which is located in Selangor state. The population is all 150 secondary schools in Shah Alam district. The desired sample size is 50. Select two art education‘s teachers only each school. By using this sample, the first sample is usually randomly selected. The interview session involve the non-random sampling which is quato sampling. I randomly choose 5 teachers for interview session, this sample would include choosing subjects based on a particular criteria that person of varying characteristics who are to be interviewed.
  31. 31. 3.3 Instrumentation The instrumentation that will be used in this study is the observation which is consists of rubric for answer the first research question. The observation consists the four criteria based on five aspects that are artwork, creativity, effort, skill and exploration. All criteria must be filled and evaluate by the researcher by its own. And the result is finalized with the average value from the observation. Before fill up section B, the respondent are required to fill the section A, respondents will ask about their demographic background, such as gender, age, race, higher academic qualification and the experience of teaching in school. Thus in section B, for the second research question, the research instrumentation that will be used is likert scale. The 10 statements are stated and all statement must be filled by respondents. Lastly, for completed the third research question, focusing on problem occur while implement ICT in teaching among the teacher, there are interview method which is consists 6 questions that have the interviewer ask the respondents. In short, the instrumentation must consider the limited of the study to make the study completed in successfully.
  32. 32. 3.4 Data Collection There are three parts in research instrument. So, the first part which is observation consists of rubric will be determine by me into a number of students who are selected randomly based on age and class. Then, the set of likert scales will be distributed to the teacher who is teaching art education in secondary school. 50 set likert scales will distribute to the art teachers who has selected randomly. Meanwhile, for part three which is interview, I will conduct personally the interview section through art teacher as my respondent. 5 teachers will be selected randomly for my interview section.
  33. 33. 3.5 Data Analysis The following table elaborates the techniques of data manipulation used to obtain the information required to answer the research questions. Table 1.0 : The method of data analysis Research Question i) How to improve the achievement by using technology in visual art education among the Method of analysis Observation Rubric students? ii) What is the effectiveness by using technology Likert scale in visual art education? iii) Average What are the ways to occur during teaching art Interview education while implement ICT in teaching? Content analysis
  34. 34. 3.6 Conclusion This chapter has covered the research design, the sample population, the instrument, the data collection method, and the data analysis. The next chapter will be discussing on the findings of this study.
  36. 36. BIBLIOGRAPHY Arslanagic, M. D. (July 2006). ICT in Arts Education. A Literature Review, 6-8. Brown, M. (July,2009). Learning and Technology - "In That Order". Literature Riview, 1-2. Brown, M. (n.d.). Learning and Technology - "In That Order". Learnin. Buffington, S. T. (n.d.). Art Teaching for a New Age. Magoz for The Chronicle, 1-5. Ed., N. C. (2009). Integrating the Arts with Technology: Inspiring Creativity. 1-6. Effective ICT.Co.Uk. (n.d.). Retrieved from H.Hopson, M. (n.d.). Using Technology - Enriched Environment to Improve Higher-Order Thinking Skills. 111-112. Laboratory, N. C. (1999-2005). Critical Issue: Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement. 130. Maddison, R. P. (2008). ICT in the secondary visual arts classroom: A study of Teacher's value, attitude and beliefs. 1-10. Malaysia, K. P. (2013-2025). Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia. Malaysia: Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. Mullama, K. (2010). ICT in Language Learning - Benefits and Methodological Implications . 38,41. Noor-Ul-Amin, S. (n.d.). An Effective use of ICT for Education and Learning by Drawing on . Literature Review, 3. Saucedo, A. R. (n.d.). Exploring the Impact of Using Stories and ICT to Teach English to Three and Four Year Old Spanish Children: Motivation and Development . 4. Spaces, G. (2003). Keys to imagination ICT in art education. 13,14,15,21,22,31.
  37. 37. Stepp-Greany, J. (n.d.). Student Perceptions On Language Learning In A Technological Environment: Implications For The New Millennium. 3-14. Wikipedia, t. F. (n.d.). Information and Communication Technology In Education. Retrieved from
  38. 38. FACULTY OF EDUCATION RESEARCH INSTRUMENT USING TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN ART EDUCATION LEARNING Dear respondents, To fulfill the requirements for EDU 702 Research Methodology courses, I had been asked to conduct a research about Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement in Art Education Learning. All the data will be considered as confidential. All your collaboration is kindly appreciated. Thank you for spending a few of your precious time to answer this questionnaire form. Researcher : Master Education in Research Methodology Faculty of Education, UniversitiTeknolgi Mara This research will be used for academic purpose only. All details that have been given are CONFIDENTIAL and will only be used for research purpose. Thank you for your commitment and corporation.
  39. 39. Part I : Observation (Rubric) Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement in Art Education Learning Name:________________________________ Year :______________ 1 The student did the minimum and the artwork(activity) never complete) Criteria 2 3 The student did the The student applied artwork is a the principles satisfactory manner discussed in class but lack of planning adequately in artwork Creativity The artwork show little and no evidence of own idea, interest and thought The students artwork lack sincere of own idea, interest and thought The students artwork demonstrate originality of idea, interest Effort The students did not finish the work in satisfactory manner The students finished the artwork but it lacks finishing touches or can be improvise with effort Skill The students showed poor skill or lack of understanding The students showed average skill and understanding The students completed the artwork in an above average manner, yet more could have been done The students showed average skill and understanding Artwork (Activity) Instruction/ There is maximum exploration guidance from teacher. Student follow the teachers step-by-step instructions The teacher provides several examples of ―right‖ answers. Student follow the example in satisfactory manner The artwork is outstanding and was finished with great deal of patience The teacher There is provides broad minimum criteria and some guidance from guidance. Student teacher. Student follow criteria and has freedom to allowed freedom for explore their individual idea. interpretation Result Average Artwork (activity) Creativity Effort Skill Instruction/ exploration 4 The student applied the principle discussed in unique manner in artwork The students artwork demonstrates a unique level of originality of idea and interest The students gave an effort for beyond the requirement of the artwork : _____________
  40. 40. Section A : Please answer the following question completely (√), in the box/boxes RESPONDENT DEMOGRAPHY 1. Gender : Male 2. 4. 40-49 50 and above Malay Race : 20-29 30-39 3. Age Female Others: _____________ : : Diploma Master Bachelor 5. Highest Academic Qualifications PhD The experience of teaching in school : 1-5 years 6-10 years 11-15 years 16-20 years
  41. 41. Part II : Likert Scale Section B: Please tick the following questions completely (√), in the appropriate space. 1:strongly disagree 2:Disagree No 1 3: Neutral 4: Agree Statement I like to use ICT as a teaching and learning in the classroom 2 I believe that the students are able to learn better when ICT is used in the classroom? 3 I believe that use ICT in the classroom can help the students to be able to pay better attention? 4 I always use the ICT when I demonstrate in front of students. 5 I give my students freedom to explore and discover without having meet preconceived expectations. 6 I encourage students to enhance their skill using their own idea and inspirations to create their artwork. 7 I always provide the opportunity to touch and interact with the ICT affect learning? 8 I provide the assessment to the student after teaching and learning process. 9 I always give students the opportunity to use their ICT 5: strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5
  42. 42. skills before embarking on teaching and learning in the classroom. 10 I always to spend extra time and effort in teaching after integrating ICT tools in teaching
  43. 43. Part III : Questionnaire Section C: Please answer the following question completely. The problems occur during teaching art education while implement ICT in teaching. 1. How do you define yourself as an art educator? On how you know about learning ICT? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Did you implement ICT in your teaching process? What approaches that you give to the students to accelerate their learning in ICT? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. How you implement the ICT toward your students which is unsimilar with their background? On how you encourage your students to retain their skill using their idea, interests and inspirations? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. How effective were your teaching strategies in promoting students use the ICT? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
  44. 44. 5. What is the problem occur during teaching art education while using the ICT? Did the tools in your school facilitate the implementation of using the ICT during teaching and learning? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________