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# Experimental research

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### Experimental research

1. 1. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH GROUP 3 1. ZURAINI BT MOHAMED 2. MAZNAH BT SALLEH 3. NORHASLINE BT MOHD SOLEH
2. 2. DEFINING  Experimental research is the best way to establish the cause and effect relationship among variables.  It is only type of research that directly attempts to influence a particular variable, and when properly applied, it is the best type for testing hypotheses about cause and effect
3. 3. UNIQUENESS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH  Experimental Research is unique in two important respects: 1) 2)  Only type of research that attempts to influence a particular variable Best type of research for testing hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships Experimental Research looks at the following variables:   Independent variable (treatment) Dependent variable (outcome)
4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH The researcher manipulates the independent variable.  They decide the nature and the extent of the treatment.  After the treatment has been administered, researchers observe or measure the groups receiving the treatments to see if they differ.  Experimental research enables researchers to go beyond description and prediction, and attempt to determine what caused effects. 
5. 5. COMPARISON OF GROUPS • Most experimental studies measure the impact of treatments against a comparison or control group. Sometimes the control condition is deﬁned as one to which the treatment is NOT applied. Sometimes different treatments are compared against each other. • the control or the comparison group is crucially important in all experimental research, for it enables the researcher to determine whether one treatment is more effective than another.
6. 6. MANIPULATION OF THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE • the researcher manipulates independent variable. This means that the experimenter actually changes the value of that variable in a systematic way. This variable, which is called the independent variable, is the one that the researcher believes is the cause. The other variable, which the researcher believes is the effect, is called the dependent variable.
7. 7. RANDOMIZATION     Random assignment is similar but not identical to random selection. Random assignment means that every individual who is participating in the experiment has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the experimental or control groups. Random selection means that every member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to be a member of the sample. Three things occur with random assignments of subjects: 1) It takes place before the experiment begins 2) Process of assigning the groups takes place 3) Groups should be equivalent
8. 8. CONTROL OF EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES  The researcher has the ability to control many aspects of an experiment.  It is the responsibility of the researcher to control for possible threats to internal validity.  This is done by ensuring that all subject characteristics that might affect the study are controlled.
9. 9. WEAK EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS  The following designs are considered weak since they do not have built-in controls for threats to internal validity  The One-Shot Case Study   The One-Group-Pretest-Posttest Design   A single group is exposed to a treatment and its effects are assessed Single group is measured both before and after a treatment exposure The Static-Group Comparison Design  Two intact groups receive two different treatments
10. 10. Example of a One-Shot Case Study Design (Figure 13.1)
11. 11. Example of a One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design (Figure 13.2)
12. 12. Example of a Static-Group Comparison Design (Figure 13.3)
13. 13. Example of a Randomized Posttest-Only Control Group Design (Figure 13.4)
14. 14. Quiz http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_8/38/9868/2526439.cw/index. html http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_8/38/9868/2526432.cw/index. html