Post occupancy evaluation in an academic libraryUsing data to make the case for continuous improvement of facilities      ...
Welcoming, flexible, & state-of-the-art• Library users have choices     They vote with their feet• Inputs and outputs supp...
Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success     The customer experience• Five Phases     The capital investment c...
Measuring Success   Inputs Budget, staff, volumes,          subscriptions Outputs Circulation, questions         answered,...
The Experience EconomyIf you focus on the activities you execute, then   you’re in the service business;if you focus on th...
The Customer Experience                     CUSTOMER                   LIBRARY                                            ...
University outcome: RecruitingImportant facilities              Extremely or very important facilitiesto see during my vis...
Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success     The customer experience• Five Phases     The capital investment c...
Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success     The customer experience• Five Phases     The capital investment c...
Five Phases1. Vision     Concept, idea, problem2. Plan     Assess needs, develop program, assess feasibility3. Design     ...
Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE)Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) involves systematicevaluation of opinion about buildings in...
Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE)POE can be used for many purposes, including finetuning new buildings, developing new facil...
Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE)POE differs significantly from conventional surveys andmarket research.POE uses the direct,...
Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE)Building users are all people with an interest in abuilding:   –   Staff   –   Managers   –...
Five Phases1. Vision      2 – 3 years2. Plan        2 – 3 years3. Design      1 – 2 years4. Implement   1 – 2 years5. Occu...
Five phases can take ten years1. Vision                2. Plan                      3. Design            0               5...
Implement = 20% Occupy = 80% 1. Vision                 2. Plan                       3. Design             0              ...
Major capital investment             once every thirty years             Satisfactory    Unsatisfactory    Do something!  ...
Major capital investment             once every thirty years                                    1. Vision             Sati...
Implement = 7% Occupy = 93%                                   1. Vision            Satisfactory    Unsatisfactory 2. Plan ...
Occupancy is evaluation                  Plan            Design   Learn             Vision                  ImplementEvalu...
Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success     The customer experience• Five Phases     The capital investment c...
Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success     The customer experience• Five Phases     The capital investment c...
Emory University• Established 1836• Private university• Enrollment 14,000   – 7,500 Undergraduate   – 6,500 Graduate and P...
• 3.7M volumes  –   Business  –   Chemistry  –   Health and Life Sciences  –   Law  –   Math and Science  –   Music and Me...
Emory Main Library in the 20th century                1915                        1969                          1997      ...
Emory Main Library in the 20th century                1915                        1969                          1997      ...
Facility use: What does the data tell us?• Facilities improvements   – Exit count   – Group study use• Facilities operatio...
1,000,000                                           Exit Count 900,000                                               Woodr...
Woodruff Library exit count has increased in response to               facilities improvements over the last 20+ years1,00...
Woodruff Library                                                 1969 opened1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,...
Center for Library and Information Resources                               1997 opened (80% increase)1,000,000 900,000 800...
Candler Library renovation                      Renovated 2003 (exit count began to decline)1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,...
Jazzman’s on Level 1                                2005 opened (exit count increased)1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 60...
Beginning of Stack Tower floor-by-floor renovation                           Level 4 (2004), Level 5 (2007)1,000,000 900,0...
Beginning of Stack Tower floor-by-floor renovation                           Level 4 (2004), Level 5 (2007)1,000,000 900,0...
Group studies added to Stack Tower renovation                                      Level 6 (2008)1,000,000 900,000 800,000...
Group studies added to Stack Tower renovation                                      Level 7 (2009)1,000,000 900,000 800,000...
Library Service Desk on Level 2                                               Opens 20101,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 ...
Business Library renovation, Research Commons opens                                      20111,000,000 900,000 800,000 700...
Business Library renovation, Research Commons opens                                      20111,000,000 900,000 800,000 700...
1,000,000                                           Exit Count 900,000                                               Woodr...
Facility use: What does the data tell us?• Facilities improvements   – Exit count   – Group study use• Facilities operatio...
Facility use: What does the data tell us?• Facilities improvements   – Exit count   – Group study use• Facilities operatio...
Group studies
Room 656 offered a low-height table with cushions          Inspired by the University’s Cox Hall Computing Center213665764...
The unconventional furnishings were replaced                with a standard table and chairs213665764664765756656215      ...
Use of the rooms increased           from spring 2011 to fall 2011213665764664765756656215      0   100            200    ...
But there was a surprising decrease in 764 and especially 213    80    60    40    20     0          656 756 664 215 773 8...
Remember that 213 was the most heavily used room;                   764 was tied for second place213665764664765756656215 ...
Use shifted away from these rooms                        Why?213665764664765756656215      0     100           200        ...
Installed new technology, table and chairs in 213213665764664765756656215      0            100            200            ...
Installed tables and chairs in 764213665764664765756656215      0    100            200             300   400
Group study 656
Group study 756
Group study 764
Facility use: What does the data tell us?• Facilities improvements   – Exit count   – Group study use• Facilities operatio...
Facility use: What does the data tell us?• Facilities improvements   – Exit count   – Group study use• Facilities operatio...
Library schedule
Student Government Association          and College Council• Spring 2011: Please extend hours of operation• SGA/CC: “Emory...
Only one third of the top twenty US academic libraries offer 24 X 7 service somewhere in their library system        Brown...
Student Government Association          and College Council• Spring 2011: Please extend hours of operation• SGA/CC: “Emory...
Head count is steady until midnight                                    then falls off by 02:00 am             700         ...
Library agreed to change Friday and Saturday closing time          from 20:00 hours (8:00pm) to midnight         Brown Was...
By adding 8 additional hours per week                  Emory moved up higher in the second tier        BrownWash U St Loui...
Student Government Association          and College Council• Spring 2011: Please extend hours of operation• SGA/CC: “Emory...
Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success     The customer experience• Five Phases     The capital investment c...
Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success     The customer experience• Five Phases     The capital investment c...
Welcoming, flexible, state-of-the-art• Library users have choices     They vote with their feet• Inputs and outputs suppor...
Post occupancy evaluation in an academic libraryUsing data to make the case for continuous improvement of facilities      ...
Post occupancy evaluation in an academic libraryUsing data to make the case for continuous improvement of facilities      ...
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Post Occupancy Evaluation in an Academic Library: Using Data to Make the Case for Continuous Improvement of Facilities

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Digital access to all sources of information continues to expand at an accelerating rate, and academic libraries are working to transform themselves in response to a generation of students entering the university having embraced online, mobile, anytime, anywhere access to information. In an academic community that increasingly values intellectual collaboration among faculty and students, and learning in and out of the classroom, the twenty-first century academic library must continually recreate itself as a place that fosters curiosity, engagement, collaboration, and lifelong learning.

Typical twentieth-century capital investment cycles in academic libraries are characterized by large-scale once-a-generation investments. In the first decade of the twenty first century the drive to transform is greater than ever before, but there is less capital funding available, increasing the pressure on institutions to reduce capital investment cycle times in order to remain responsive to rapid changes in technology, pedagogy, scholarship, and user expectations.

The end of any project is the start of evaluation and planning for the next. This presentation explores and discusses efforts in the Emory University Libraries to develop new ways to evaluate library spaces, services, and operations. It highlights initiatives intended to operationalize capital investment, shorten cycle times and provide incremental interventions, within a general framework of planning big and implementing small. Exit counts, occupancy rates, and peer comparisons are used to address user needs, program innovation, and facilities enhancement, with the aim of continually refreshing and renewing library spaces to enhance learning, inspire scholarship, and foster community.

Presented at GaCOMO12 (as part of the GLA Academic Papers session) by Charles Forrest.

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Post Occupancy Evaluation in an Academic Library: Using Data to Make the Case for Continuous Improvement of Facilities

  1. 1. Post occupancy evaluation in an academic libraryUsing data to make the case for continuous improvement of facilities Charles Forrest Director, Library Facilities Emory University Atlanta, Georgia
  2. 2. Welcoming, flexible, & state-of-the-art• Library users have choices They vote with their feet• Inputs and outputs support outcomes Investment + activity = experience• Once a generation capital investment? Responsive libraries require shorter cycle times• Plan big, implement small Keep them coming with something new!
  3. 3. Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success The customer experience• Five Phases The capital investment cycle• The Emory experience Exit count, group study use, hours of operation• Continuous facilities improvement Choices, investment, outcomes
  4. 4. Measuring Success Inputs Budget, staff, volumes, subscriptions Outputs Circulation, questions answered, classes taughtOutcomes Student learning, faculty productivity, customer satisfaction
  5. 5. The Experience EconomyIf you focus on the activities you execute, then you’re in the service business;if you focus on the demonstrated outcome the customer achieves, then and only then are you in the transformation business. B. Joseph Pine II, James H. Gilmore, The Experience Economy: Work is Theatre & Every Business a Stage (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999)
  6. 6. The Customer Experience CUSTOMER LIBRARY Measures Mode Role Mode RoleUseful Investments Transaction Patron Control Gatekeeper Inputs Helpful Activities Service Customer Connect Assistant OutputsMemorable What Experience Guest Collaborate Partner Outcomes difference did it make?
  7. 7. University outcome: RecruitingImportant facilities Extremely or very important facilitiesto see during my visit in the selection decision 1. Facilities in my major 1. Facilities in my major 2. Residence halls 2. Library 3. Library 3. Sophisticated technology 4. Classrooms 4. Classrooms 5. Technology facilities 5. Residence halls APPA Center for Facilities Research 2006
  8. 8. Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success The customer experience• Five Phases The capital investment cycle• The Emory experience Exit count, group study use, hours of operation• Continuous facilities improvement Choices, investment, outcomes
  9. 9. Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success The customer experience• Five Phases The capital investment cycle• The Emory experience Exit count, group study use, hours of operation• Continuous facilities improvement Choices, investment, outcomes
  10. 10. Five Phases1. Vision Concept, idea, problem2. Plan Assess needs, develop program, assess feasibility3. Design Schematic, Development, Construction Documents4. Implement Construct, renovate5. Occupy Move in, celebrate, evaluate (Post Occupancy)
  11. 11. Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE)Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) involves systematicevaluation of opinion about buildings in use, from theperspective of the people who use them.POE assesses how well buildings match users needs,and identifies ways to improve building design,performance and fitness for purpose. http://www.postoccupancyevaluation.com/default.shtml
  12. 12. Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE)POE can be used for many purposes, including finetuning new buildings, developing new facilities andmanaging problem buildings.Organizations also find POE valuable when establishingmaintenance, replacement, purchasing or supplypolicies; preparing for refurbishment; or selectingaccommodation for purchase or rent. http://www.postoccupancyevaluation.com/default.shtml
  13. 13. Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE)POE differs significantly from conventional surveys andmarket research.POE uses the direct, unmediated experiences ofbuilding users as the basis for evaluating how a buildingworks for its intended use. http://www.postoccupancyevaluation.com/default.shtml
  14. 14. Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE)Building users are all people with an interest in abuilding: – Staff – Managers – Customers or clients – Visitors – Owners – Design and maintenance teams, – Particular interest groups such as the disabled http://www.postoccupancyevaluation.com/default.shtml
  15. 15. Five Phases1. Vision 2 – 3 years2. Plan 2 – 3 years3. Design 1 – 2 years4. Implement 1 – 2 years5. Occupy 1 year (warranty, budget close)
  16. 16. Five phases can take ten years1. Vision 2. Plan 3. Design 0 5 10 4. Implement 5. Occupy
  17. 17. Implement = 20% Occupy = 80% 1. Vision 2. Plan 3. Design 0 5 10 4. Implement5. Occupy 5. Occupy
  18. 18. Major capital investment once every thirty years Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Do something! 0 10 20 305. Occupy
  19. 19. Major capital investment once every thirty years 1. Vision Satisfactory Unsatisfactory 2. Plan 3. Design 0 10 20 30 4. Implement5. Occupy 5. Occupy
  20. 20. Implement = 7% Occupy = 93% 1. Vision Satisfactory Unsatisfactory 2. Plan 3. Design 0 10 20 30 4. Implement5. Occupy 5. Occupy
  21. 21. Occupancy is evaluation Plan Design Learn Vision ImplementEvaluate Occupy Measure
  22. 22. Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success The customer experience• Five Phases The capital investment cycle• The Emory experience Exit count, group study use, hours of operation• Continuous facilities improvement Choices, investment, outcomes
  23. 23. Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success The customer experience• Five Phases The capital investment cycle• The Emory experience Exit count, group study use, hours of operation• Continuous facilities improvement Choices, investment, outcomes
  24. 24. Emory University• Established 1836• Private university• Enrollment 14,000 – 7,500 Undergraduate – 6,500 Graduate and Professional• Business, Law, Medicine, Nursing, Public Health, Theology• Emory Healthcare Hospital and Clinic• Staff 23,000 – 12,000 University faculty and staff – 11,000 Emory Healthcare
  25. 25. • 3.7M volumes – Business – Chemistry – Health and Life Sciences – Law – Math and Science – Music and Media – Theology• Main Library – 1926 Candler Library – 1955 Candler renovated – 1969 Woodruff Library – 1998 Woodruff renovated
  26. 26. Emory Main Library in the 20th century 1915 1969 1997 Emory University Robert W. Woodruff Library Robert W. Woodruff Library chartered in Atlanta new main Library open addition and renovation 1900 1950 2000 1926 1955 2003 Asa G. Candler Library Asa G. Candler Library Asa G. Candler Library first main library open renovated renovated
  27. 27. Emory Main Library in the 20th century 1915 1969 1997 Emory University Robert W. Woodruff Library Robert W. Woodruff Library chartered in Atlanta new main Library open addition and renovation 1900 1950 2000 1926 1955 2003 Asa G. Candler Library Asa G. Candler Library Asa G. Candler Library first main library open renovated renovated
  28. 28. Facility use: What does the data tell us?• Facilities improvements – Exit count – Group study use• Facilities operations – Library schedule
  29. 29. 1,000,000 Exit Count 900,000 Woodruff Library 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  30. 30. Woodruff Library exit count has increased in response to facilities improvements over the last 20+ years1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  31. 31. Woodruff Library 1969 opened1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 1969 1926 300,000 1955 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  32. 32. Center for Library and Information Resources 1997 opened (80% increase)1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 1969 1997 1926 300,000 1955 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  33. 33. Candler Library renovation Renovated 2003 (exit count began to decline)1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 1969 1997 1926 300,000 2001 1955 2003 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  34. 34. Jazzman’s on Level 1 2005 opened (exit count increased)1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  35. 35. Beginning of Stack Tower floor-by-floor renovation Level 4 (2004), Level 5 (2007)1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  36. 36. Beginning of Stack Tower floor-by-floor renovation Level 4 (2004), Level 5 (2007)1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  37. 37. Group studies added to Stack Tower renovation Level 6 (2008)1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  38. 38. Group studies added to Stack Tower renovation Level 7 (2009)1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  39. 39. Library Service Desk on Level 2 Opens 20101,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  40. 40. Business Library renovation, Research Commons opens 20111,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  41. 41. Business Library renovation, Research Commons opens 20111,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  42. 42. 1,000,000 Exit Count 900,000 Woodruff Library 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
  43. 43. Facility use: What does the data tell us?• Facilities improvements – Exit count – Group study use• Facilities operations – Library schedule
  44. 44. Facility use: What does the data tell us?• Facilities improvements – Exit count – Group study use• Facilities operations – Library schedule
  45. 45. Group studies
  46. 46. Room 656 offered a low-height table with cushions Inspired by the University’s Cox Hall Computing Center213665764664765756656215 0 100 200 300 400
  47. 47. The unconventional furnishings were replaced with a standard table and chairs213665764664765756656215 0 100 200 300 400
  48. 48. Use of the rooms increased from spring 2011 to fall 2011213665764664765756656215 0 100 200 300 400
  49. 49. But there was a surprising decrease in 764 and especially 213 80 60 40 20 0 656 756 664 215 773 874 665 765 764 213 (20) (40) (60) (80) (100)
  50. 50. Remember that 213 was the most heavily used room; 764 was tied for second place213665764664765756656215 0 100 200 300 400
  51. 51. Use shifted away from these rooms Why?213665764664765756656215 0 100 200 300 400
  52. 52. Installed new technology, table and chairs in 213213665764664765756656215 0 100 200 300 400
  53. 53. Installed tables and chairs in 764213665764664765756656215 0 100 200 300 400
  54. 54. Group study 656
  55. 55. Group study 756
  56. 56. Group study 764
  57. 57. Facility use: What does the data tell us?• Facilities improvements – Exit count – Group study use• Facilities operations – Library schedule
  58. 58. Facility use: What does the data tell us?• Facilities improvements – Exit count – Group study use• Facilities operations – Library schedule
  59. 59. Library schedule
  60. 60. Student Government Association and College Council• Spring 2011: Please extend hours of operation• SGA/CC: “Emory is the only top twenty library in the country that doesn’t offer twenty-four hour access seven days a week.”• Emory Library: “Demand has never justified extending the library’s hours of operation.”
  61. 61. Only one third of the top twenty US academic libraries offer 24 X 7 service somewhere in their library system BrownWash U St Louis Johns Hopkins Dartmouth Stanford Cal Tech Columbia U of Penn U of Chicago Vanderbilt Rice Harvard Cornell EMORY Duke U Notre Dame Northwestern Princeton Yale MIT 0.0 24.0 48.0 72.0 96.0 120.0 144.0 168.0
  62. 62. Student Government Association and College Council• Spring 2011: Please extend hours of operation• SGA/CC: “Emory is the only top twenty library in the country that doesn’t offer twenty-four hour access seven days a week.”• Emory Library: “Demand has never justified extending the library’s hours of operation.”
  63. 63. Head count is steady until midnight then falls off by 02:00 am 700 20:00 pm 600 MidnightHead count 500 1-Apr-11 02:00 am 2-Apr-11 8-Apr-11 400 9-Apr-11 15-Apr-11 16-Apr-11 300 22-Apr-11 23-Apr-11 29-Apr-11 200 30-Apr-11 100 0 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  64. 64. Library agreed to change Friday and Saturday closing time from 20:00 hours (8:00pm) to midnight Brown Wash U St Louis Johns Hopkins Dartmouth Stanford Cal Tech Columbia U of Penn U of Chicago Vanderbilt Rice Harvard Cornell EMORY Duke U Notre Dame Northwestern Princeton Yale MIT 0.0 24.0 48.0 72.0 96.0 120.0 144.0 168.0
  65. 65. By adding 8 additional hours per week Emory moved up higher in the second tier BrownWash U St Louis Johns Hopkins Dartmouth Stanford Cal Tech Columbia U of Penn U of Chicago EMORY Vanderbilt Rice Harvard Cornell Duke U Notre Dame Northwestern Princeton Yale MIT 0.0 24.0 48.0 72.0 96.0 120.0 144.0 168.0
  66. 66. Student Government Association and College Council• Spring 2011: Please extend hours of operation• SGA/CC: “Emory is the only top twenty library in the country that doesn’t offer twenty-four hour access seven days a week.”• Emory Library: “Demand has never justified extending the library’s hours of operation.”• Test all assumptions—especially your own!
  67. 67. Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success The customer experience• Five Phases The capital investment cycle• The Emory experience Exit count, group study use, hours of operation• Continuous facilities improvement Choices, investment, outcomes
  68. 68. Continuous facilities improvement• Measuring success The customer experience• Five Phases The capital investment cycle• The Emory experience Exit count, group study use, hours of operation• Continuous facilities improvement Choices, investment, outcomes
  69. 69. Welcoming, flexible, state-of-the-art• Library users have choices They vote with their feet• Inputs and outputs support outcomes Investment + activity = experience• Once a generation capital investment? Responsive libraries require shorter cycle times• Plan big, implement small Keep them coming with something new!
  70. 70. Post occupancy evaluation in an academic libraryUsing data to make the case for continuous improvement of facilities Charles Forrest Director, Library Facilities Emory University Atlanta, Georgia
  71. 71. Post occupancy evaluation in an academic libraryUsing data to make the case for continuous improvement of facilities Charles Forrest Director, Library Facilities Emory University Atlanta, Georgia

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