RelativePronouns in Non-DefiningClauses<br />Non-defining relative clauses (also known as non-restrictive, or parenthetica...
ESL Tips on the Use of Relative Pronouns<br />Although there is no one single rule to cover all the cases, the following s...
Non-defining relative clause as sentence modifiers<br />We can use non-defining relative clauses with which to comment on ...
Defining vs Non-Defining Clauses: Difference in Meaning<br />There is a difference in meaning between defining and non-def...
References<br />http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/645/02/<br />
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Relative clauses

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Relative clauses

  1. 1.
  2. 2. RelativePronouns in Non-DefiningClauses<br />Non-defining relative clauses (also known as non-restrictive, or parenthetical, clauses) provide some additional information which is not essential and may be omitted without affecting the contents of the sentence. All relative pronouns EXCEPT "that" can be used in non-defining clauses; however, the pronouns MAY NOT be omitted. Non-defining clauses ARE separated by commas.<br />The table below sums up the use of relative pronouns in non-defining clauses:<br />
  3. 3. ESL Tips on the Use of Relative Pronouns<br />Although there is no one single rule to cover all the cases, the following summary may be helpful if you need to make a quick decision:<br />Use that if the main clause poses the question WHAT? answered by the relative clause;<br />Do not use that presenting non-essential, additional information (that is, in non-defining relative clauses); use who or which instead;<br />Use who to refer to people;<br />Use which to refer to things or to refer to the previous clause as a whole;<br />If you choose between who or that, use who in writing;<br />If you choose between which and that, use which in writing;<br />Do not put a comma before that.<br />
  4. 4. Non-defining relative clause as sentence modifiers<br />We can use non-defining relative clauses with which to comment on the idea in a whole sentence:<br />She lives in a very big house, which is odd, because she doesn´t have much money. (i.e. it is old that she lives in an old house)<br />The elections take place every three years, which is very democratic. (i.e. the fact that the elections take place every three years is democratic)<br />
  5. 5. Defining vs Non-Defining Clauses: Difference in Meaning<br />There is a difference in meaning between defining and non-defining clauses that depends on the presence or absence of the comma. For example:<br />They have two sons who are doctors.<br />Defining clause; the meaning is that there are more sons in the family, e.g:<br />They have two sons who are doctors and one who is an architect.<br />Compare:<br />They have two sons, who are doctors.<br />non-defining clause; the meaning is that there are no more sons in the family.<br />
  6. 6. References<br />http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/645/02/<br />

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