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"Open Educational Resources" by Gabriel Abad, Teach It2009

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Workshop presented at the TeachIT2009 workshop at United World College of South East Asia.

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"Open Educational Resources" by Gabriel Abad, Teach It2009

  1. 1. Open Educational Resources Gabriel Abad United World College of South East Asia
  2. 2. MIT OpenCourseWare
  3. 3. MIT OpenCourseWare/2 • To date, MIT has published 1900 courses online, and they are being accessed by more than one million users every month (MIT OpenCourseWare, n.d.).
  4. 4. The Copyright Paradox
  5. 5. The Copyright Paradox • Copyright can be a barrier to sharing knowledge and resources,
  6. 6. The Copyright Paradox • Copyright can be a barrier to sharing knowledge and resources, • but it can also be an enabler to achieve the aims and objectives of the OER movement.
  7. 7. The Copyright Paradox/2 • Most OER have copyright licenses that are purposefully designed to give you permission to download, alter, and share them, OER provide an exciting opportunity to create and share educational materials in your classroom, with your colleagues, and with the world at large.
  8. 8. The Cathedral and the Bazaar
  9. 9. Defining OER • The term “Open Educational Resource(s)” (OER) refers to educational resources (lesson plans, quizzes, syllabi, instructional modules, simulations, etc.) that are freely available for use, reuse, adaptation, and sharing.
  10. 10. Defining OER/2 • Most definitions of the term include • content, • software tools, • licenses, • and best practices.
  11. 11. This Presentation is Based on an OER!
  12. 12. This Presentation is Based on an OER ... that makes the most of digital media!
  13. 13. Wikipedia
  14. 14. OER Aims • The aim of OER is to improve access to learning opportunities by sharing knowledge and learning resources.
  15. 15. OER Aims • The aim of OER is to improve access to learning opportunities by sharing knowledge and learning resources.
  16. 16. Types of OER
  17. 17. Types of OER • Curricula,
  18. 18. Types of OER • Curricula, • Lecture-based and other forms of didactic learning resources for educators,
  19. 19. Types of OER • Curricula, • Lecture-based and other forms of didactic learning resources for educators, • Images, text, video, podcasts and screencasts
  20. 20. Types of OER • Curricula, • Lecture-based and other forms of didactic learning resources for educators, • Images, text, video, podcasts and screencasts • all of them by and for both educators and learners.
  21. 21. The Value Proposition for OER
  22. 22. The Value Proposition for OER • With OER you can, for example, browse online photo galleries, select appropriately licensed images, and use them to compose a poster or other learning resource for your own classroom.
  23. 23. The Value Proposition for OER • With OER you can, for example, browse online photo galleries, select appropriately licensed images, and use them to compose a poster or other learning resource for your own classroom. • The result may be shared similarly, as an OER, for others to use in their own learning design without having to ask for permission.
  24. 24. Advantages of OER
  25. 25. Advantages of OER • OER provide freedom of access for both yourself and others.
  26. 26. Advantages of OER • OER provide freedom of access for both yourself and others. • Because you can freely adapt them, OER encourage pedagogical innovation.
  27. 27. Advantages of OER • OER provide freedom of access for both yourself and others. • Because you can freely adapt them, OER encourage pedagogical innovation. • Because OER are available free of charge, using them can lower costs to students and organizations.
  28. 28. Advantages of OER/2
  29. 29. Advantages of OER/2 • You and your organization may benefit from potential publicity.
  30. 30. Advantages of OER/2 • You and your organization may benefit from potential publicity. • When you share OER, you are contributing to the global education community.
  31. 31. Advantages of OER/2 • You and your organization may benefit from potential publicity. • When you share OER, you are contributing to the global education community. • When you share OER, you open a new method of collaborating with your students and colleagues.
  32. 32. Advantages of OER/3
  33. 33. Advantages of OER/3 • Your OER may be helpful to future educators.
  34. 34. Advantages of OER/3 • Your OER may be helpful to future educators. • Your OER may be beneficial to undeserved individuals in the developed and developing world.
  35. 35. Advantages of OER/3 • Your OER may be helpful to future educators. • Your OER may be beneficial to undeserved individuals in the developed and developing world. • Using OER puts you in control and avoids “vendor lock-in” or a situation in which you can only use one company’s products.
  36. 36. Advantages of OER/4 • OER are represented in standard formats that can be edited and manipulated with free software for a wide variety of reasons including file conversion for access on different media (e.g., on paper, CD/DVD, via mobile devices, in multimedia presentations), re-purposing for various language and educational levels, etc.
  37. 37. OER Life Cycle
  38. 38. OER Life Cycle • Find
  39. 39. OER Life Cycle • Find • Compose
  40. 40. OER Life Cycle • Find • Compose • Adapt
  41. 41. OER Life Cycle • Find • Compose • Adapt • Use
  42. 42. OER Life Cycle • Find • Compose • Adapt • Use • Share
  43. 43. Time to Find OERs!
  44. 44. Find • Before venturing out and surfing the ocean of educational resources on the Internet, take a good look around at home and at the office for existing lesson plans, visual aids, handouts, and multimedia resources developed over the years and stored on backup disks or in folders, desk drawers, or filing cabinets.
  45. 45. Find/2
  46. 46. Find/2 • These resources have the advantage of having been designed for the context in which they were to be used, and some may have stood the test of time in the classroom.
  47. 47. Find/2 • These resources have the advantage of having been designed for the context in which they were to be used, and some may have stood the test of time in the classroom. • The resources found may meet the need, or they may be the beginning of an open educational resource. The next step is to find additional resources to expand and complete the needed resource.
  48. 48. Find/3: Specialized Search Engines • ARIADNE, Creative Commons Search, Commonwealth of Learning Knowledge Finder, Federal Resources for Educational Excellence, Learning Objects.net, MERLOT, OpenCourseWare Finder, OER Recommender, OER Commons, Universal Education Search...
  49. 49. Find/4: Tips for Effective Search
  50. 50. Find/4: Tips for Effective Search • AND, NOT, OR
  51. 51. Find/4: Tips for Effective Search • AND, NOT, OR • Example:
  52. 52. Find/4: Tips for Effective Search • AND, NOT, OR • Example: • apple AND fruit NOT macintosh NOT mac NOT computer
  53. 53. Find/4: Tips for Effective Search • AND, NOT, OR • Example: • apple AND fruit NOT macintosh NOT mac NOT computer • apple +fruit -macintosh -mac -computer
  54. 54. Find/4A: Specialized Search
  55. 55. Find/4B: Specialized Search
  56. 56. Find/4C: Specialized Search
  57. 57. Find/4D: Specialized Search
  58. 58. Find/4E: Specialized Search
  59. 59. Find/4F: Specialized Search
  60. 60. Find/4: Specialized Search Engines
  61. 61. Find/4: Specialized Search Engines
  62. 62. Find now some OERs relevant to your professional needs.
  63. 63. The Four Rs CC By Sunshine Connelly.
  64. 64. Compose • If you don't find ready-made resources that are easily adapted for use in your situation, then you may need to build some from scratch. • The easiest way to get started is to join in on an existing project like Wikipedia or Wikiversity. Even making small edits or corrections adds (cumulative) value.
  65. 65. Compose/2 • These projects tend to attract subject experts and some of the resources may lack the pedagogical finesse of educators. Over time, as you gain confidence in your OER development skills, you can move on to contributing larger sections or even starting your own project.
  66. 66. Adapt (Revise and Remix) • Adapting OER includes inserting and removing components, changing the sequence of learning activities, editing and remixing images, text, audio and video, etc. to suit the style of the educator and match the requirements of the learners.
  67. 67. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/2
  68. 68. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/2 • To address a particular teaching style or learning style
  69. 69. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/2 • To address a particular teaching style or learning style • To adapt for a different grade level
  70. 70. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/2 • To address a particular teaching style or learning style • To adapt for a different grade level • To adapt for a different discipline
  71. 71. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/2 • To address a particular teaching style or learning style • To adapt for a different grade level • To adapt for a different discipline • To adjust for a different learning environment
  72. 72. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/2 • To address a particular teaching style or learning style • To adapt for a different grade level • To adapt for a different discipline • To adjust for a different learning environment • To address diversity needs
  73. 73. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/2 • To address a particular teaching style or learning style • To adapt for a different grade level • To adapt for a different discipline • To adjust for a different learning environment • To address diversity needs • To address a cultural preference
  74. 74. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/3
  75. 75. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/3 • To support a specific pedagogical need
  76. 76. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/3 • To support a specific pedagogical need • To address either a school or a district’s standardized curriculum (ISKME, 2008)
  77. 77. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/4
  78. 78. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/4 • A teacher translates a web page about Queen Elizabeth from English to French.
  79. 79. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/4 • A teacher translates a web page about Queen Elizabeth from English to French. • A teacher replaces pictures depicting Russian children working on a water project with images that are more familiar to her students in Ghana.
  80. 80. Adapt (Revise and Remix)/4 • A teacher translates a web page about Queen Elizabeth from English to French. • A teacher replaces pictures depicting Russian children working on a water project with images that are more familiar to her students in Ghana. • A teacher changes some wording in a fourth grade unit on spaceflight to make it better suited for his third grade students.
  81. 81. Use (Learners)
  82. 82. Use (Learners) • Learners can derive their own unique benefits from using OER and promote their use through
  83. 83. Use (Learners) • Learners can derive their own unique benefits from using OER and promote their use through • Sharing lecture notes (and audio recordings), exam texts, and model answers with other students (on public web-sites) can create useful knowledge repositories that support study efforts.
  84. 84. Use (Learners)/2
  85. 85. Use (Learners)/2 • Encouraging educators to use OER readings where good alternatives to proprietary textbooks and articles exist; and using Google Scholar to identify open versions of closed materials.
  86. 86. Use (Learners)/2 • Encouraging educators to use OER readings where good alternatives to proprietary textbooks and articles exist; and using Google Scholar to identify open versions of closed materials. • Writing summaries of academic articles that are read during course work, and sharing them with peers on public websites to enable access to some of the knowledge that would otherwise only be available through closed journals and publications.
  87. 87. Use (Learners)/3
  88. 88. Use (Learners)/3 • Using social bookmarking and ranking tools to evaluate usefulness of resources; building social recommendation networks that make finding good resources easier.
  89. 89. Use (Learners)/3 • Using social bookmarking and ranking tools to evaluate usefulness of resources; building social recommendation networks that make finding good resources easier. • Reviewing published OER can help potential students determine which institution offers courses that best fit their interests. Once enrolled, looking through course descriptions helps them choose the courses they want to take.
  90. 90. Use (Educators)/4
  91. 91. Use (Educators)/4 • Adapting and extending existing OER for a local purpose.
  92. 92. Use (Educators)/4 • Adapting and extending existing OER for a local purpose. • Choosing OER as part of the readings to support a growing international movement towards more and higher quality OER.
  93. 93. Use (Educators)/4 • Adapting and extending existing OER for a local purpose. • Choosing OER as part of the readings to support a growing international movement towards more and higher quality OER. • Publishing materials as OER by simply allowing public access to online courses (if e-learning is used) or archiving key materials on sites that offer free hosting (for example, flickr.com for images, www.slideshare.net for presentations, etc.)
  94. 94. Use (Educators)/5
  95. 95. Use (Educators)/5 • Sharing one's work in ways that makes it easy for others to access it and collaborate on adding more materials or examples.
  96. 96. Use (Educators)/5 • Sharing one's work in ways that makes it easy for others to access it and collaborate on adding more materials or examples. • Translating the resources into other languages.
  97. 97. Use (Educators)/6
  98. 98. Use (Educators)/6 • Teaching in ways that encourage students to access and produce OER, and assess the quality of online resources.
  99. 99. Use (Educators)/6 • Teaching in ways that encourage students to access and produce OER, and assess the quality of online resources. • Experimenting with peer-based assessment models and reputation mechanisms familiar to the learners from social networking and e-commerce sites (e.g. rating each others' work based on five stars).
  100. 100. Share (Redistribute): Third Party/1
  101. 101. Share (Redistribute): Third Party/1 • One of the issues of self vs. third-party publishing has to do with control. Typically when placing an OER on a third-party website you sacrifice some control.
  102. 102. Share (Redistribute): Third Party/1 • One of the issues of self vs. third-party publishing has to do with control. Typically when placing an OER on a third-party website you sacrifice some control. • For example, as part of their terms of service YouTube can place whatever ads they'd like around a video.
  103. 103. Share (Redistribute): Third Party/2
  104. 104. Share (Redistribute): Third Party/2 • Others, like WikiEducator, allow for anyone with an account to edit a page, even if they are not directly affiliated with that project (although you can always rollback a page to a previous state).
  105. 105. Share (Redistribute): Third Party/2 • Others, like WikiEducator, allow for anyone with an account to edit a page, even if they are not directly affiliated with that project (although you can always rollback a page to a previous state). • Another disadvantage of third-party services is that they can disappear, sometimes abruptly. This disadvantage is less likely for well established services like Flickr, though the possibility always remains.
  106. 106. Share (Redistribute): Self-Publishing
  107. 107. Share (Redistribute): Self-Publishing • Self-publishing gives you complete control over the OER.
  108. 108. Share (Redistribute): Self-Publishing • Self-publishing gives you complete control over the OER. • However, self-publishing requires you to be entirely responsible for all aspects of the OER deployment.
  109. 109. Share (Redistribute): Self-Publishing • Self-publishing gives you complete control over the OER. • However, self-publishing requires you to be entirely responsible for all aspects of the OER deployment. • Which method of distribution is right for you depends on what you value and how you see the OER being used. The decision also depends on your technical skills and abilities.
  110. 110. License
  111. 111. License • Copyright Clearance
  112. 112. License • Copyright Clearance • License Compatibility
  113. 113. License • Copyright Clearance • License Compatibility • Creative Commons
  114. 114. Freedom!
  115. 115. Freedom! • With OER you are free to
  116. 116. Freedom! • With OER you are free to • use,
  117. 117. Freedom! • With OER you are free to • use, • adapt,
  118. 118. Freedom! • With OER you are free to • use, • adapt, • mix and share the resources,
  119. 119. Freedom! • With OER you are free to • use, • adapt, • mix and share the resources, • and become part of this growing community.
  120. 120. Thank you, and please reuse me, remix me and reshare me!

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