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SCI 256 Final Exam 2015 version

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SCI 256 Final Exam Answers







FINAL EXAM TEST

1. According to the Environmental Science text, the environmental statement of the

1990s was “saving our planet”. Is earth’s very survival really in danger?

A) no, because in the long view, the changes humans have made to earth will be

cleansed by natural processes

B) no, because sustainability refers only to the next 2 generations of humans

C) yes, because resources are becoming really sparse

D) yes, because energy will run out

E) none of these

2. The total amount of food produced each year worldwide is sufficient to feed all the

world’s people today. Why do famines nevertheless occur?

A) food production is insufficient in some local areas

B) logging destroys agricultural land

C) worldwide transportation of food is inadequate

D) severe local shortage of firewood affects the ability to cook

E) food production is insufficient in some local areas and worldwide

transportation of food is inadequ

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SCI 256 Final Exam 2015 version

  1. 1. SCI 256 Final Exam Link : http://uopexam.com/product/sci-256-final-exam/ SCI 256 Final Exam Answers FINAL EXAM TEST 1. According to the Environmental Science text, the environmental statement of the
  2. 2. 1990s was “saving our planet”. Is earth’s very survival really in danger? A) no, because in the long view, the changes humans have made to earth will be cleansed by natural processes B) no, because sustainability refers only to the next 2 generations of humans C) yes, because resources are becoming really sparse D) yes, because energy will run out E) none of these 2. The total amount of food produced each year worldwide is sufficient to feed all th e world’s people today. Why do famines nevertheless occur? A) food production is insufficient in some local areas B) logging destroys agricultural land C) worldwide transportation of food is inadequate D) severe local shortage of firewood affects the ability to cook E) food production is insufficient in some local areas and worldwide transportation of food is inadequate Page 1 3. An observation that is agreed upon by the majority of scientists is called a A) hypothesis
  3. 3. B) controlled experiment C) technology D) theory E) fact 4. Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps, from beginning to end, in the Scientific Method: A) hypothesis –> controlled experiment –> inferences –> conclusions B) conclusions –> controlled experiment –> observations –> hypothesis C) controlled experiment –> inferences –> deductive proof –> hypothesis D) observations –> hypothesis –> controlled experiment –> conclusions E) conclusions –> observations –> alter observations to fit conclusions – > future research grants and awards Page 2 5. A chemical spill has occurred on the shore of a lake in an area where the underlying aquifer is widely used as a drinking water supply. The pollutants threaten to flow into both the surface water and the groundwater. The residence time of water in the lake is short, and the residence time in the groundwater is long. Which of the following statements is correct? A) pollutants will quickly invade the lake and will linger there the longest
  4. 4. B) pollutants will quickly invade the groundwater and will linger there the longest C) pollutants will quickly invade the groundwater, but will linger longest in the lake D) pollutants will quickly invade the lake, but will linger longest in the groundwater E) there is no cause for alarm 6. The region of the Earth where life exists is known as: A) the biota B) the crust C) the biosphere D) the biozone E) Gaia Page 3 7. Epidemic diseases include all of the following except: A) influenza B) measles C) cholera D) cancer
  5. 5. E) plague 8.Decreased death rate and the accelerated rate of human population growth are related to: I. improved sanitation and health II. increased food supply III. control of disease-spreading organisms A) I only B) II only C) III only D) I and II E) I, II and III Page 4 9. Which of the following cycles involves the movement of water from the surface of the Earth through the atmosphere back to the surface of the Earth? A) carbon cycle B) nitrogen cycle C) hydrologic cycle D) geological cycle E) biochemical cycle 10. The substance with the greatest significance for the global carbonate- silicate cycle
  6. 6. is: A) limestone B) carbon dioxide C) quartz minerals D) water E) fossil fuels Page 5 11. According to the Environmental Science text, an ecosystem: A) introduces life to the environment B) is the smallest system that includes and sustains life C) is a set of interacting species that occur at the same place D) is equivalent to an ecological community E) is equivalent to an ecological community but excludes natural resources 12. Which of the following statements is true about omnivores? A) omnivores only feed on dead animals B) omnivores feed on several on trophic levels C) omnivores feed on dead organic material D) omnivores are aquatic animals that feed on algae E) omnivores bacteria using chemosynthesis for food production
  7. 7. 13. In the open ocean, the first trophic level is composed primarily of: A) small fish B) zooplankton C) whales D) mussels E) phytoplankton Page 6 14. Firewood is the primary source of fuel for cooking and heating in many cultures. Approximately what percentage of the world’s total energy use involves fire wood? A) 25% B) 20% C) 15% D) 10% E) 5% 15. Gradual, sequential changes in the composition of an ecosystem, particularly following an initial disturbance is called: A) tolerance B) succession
  8. 8. C) facilitation D) interference E) reforestation Page 7 16. Since the extensive fires in Yellowstone National Park in 1988, the park often h as been cited as an example of the connection between forest fire and natural succession. An important part of understanding the danger of wildfire in Yellowstone is understanding its history. From the time of the founding of the park in 1872 until 1963, what was the policy regarding wildfires? A) to suppress all fires B) to allow all fires started naturally to burn naturally C) park officials set annual control burns D) seasonal control – suppress fires during the tourist season E) to allow fires in areas with species that need fire to reproduce 17. What is the most important cause of starvation worldwide? A) droughts B) inadequate distribution of food resources C) floods D) global warming
  9. 9. E) genetically engineered crops replacing local crops Page 8 18. Aquaculture refers to: A) the production of flood-resistant crops B) the production of rice and other water-growing crops C) the production of aquatic animals for food D) open-ocean fishing E) the development of coastal tourist resorts 19. Deserts occur naturally where: A) there is low temperature and low rainfall throughout the year B) there is too little water for substantial plant growth C) overgrazing removes water-holding vegetation D) sand supply exceeds the ability of wind to transport it away E) there is insufficient soil to grow plants 20. What is the main reason that DDT is still being used in large areas of the world ? A) need to maximize crop yields in populous developing countries B) coercion by U.S. chemical manufacturers C) the chemical breaks down in tropical climates to a benign form
  10. 10. D) pests have developed a resistance to it E) to combat malaria Page 9 21. Which of the terms below refers to the phenomenon in which many species esc ape from a cut area and seek refuge in the border of the forest: A) subsistence use B) shelterwood cutting C) selective cutting D) edge effect E) rotation use 22. The most fundamental difference between a park and a true wilderness area is: A) a park is managed B) a park has defined boundaries C) conservation of species takes place D) fewer species are found in a park E) human access is excluded in wilderness areas Page 10 23. As people clear land and modify the environment, species which _____ are esp ecially
  11. 11. vulnerable to extinction. A) are generalists B) have highly specific habitats C) are mammals D) can adapt to a different environment E) live in diverse ecosystems 24. Carrying capacity is the: A) largest-sized individual that can survive in a given ecosystem B) maximum number of a species that an environment can support without degradation to the environment C) maximum number of a species that can live in an environment without competition among individuals D) maximum number of a species confined to a specific area E) variety of species that can live in one habitat without going extinct Page 11 25. Which of the following are the three main energy sources used in the U.S? A) petroleum, coal, and nuclear B) wood, petroleum, and nuclear C) hydroelectric, natural gas, and coal
  12. 12. D) coal, gasoline, and nuclear E) petroleum, natural gas, and coal 26. The majority of Earth’s energy input comes from: A) geothermal heat from the Earth’s interior B) the Earth’s albedo C) sunlight D) combustion of fossil fuels E) photolysis of ozone in the stratosphere Page 12 27. _________ is an example of a fossil fuel; _________ is an example of an altern ative energy source; and _________ is an example of a renewable energy source: A) coal; nuclear; solar B) nuclear; solar; natural gas C) nuclear; natural gas; hydroelectric D) petroleum; solar; coal E) hydroelectric; wind; solar 28. The Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) has made headlines because of: A) it is the leading source of coal in North America B) proposals to explore for oil there
  13. 13. C) it is the proposed site for disposal of high-level nuclear waste D) the Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred there E) further oil migration there is blocked by a trap Page 13 29. Which of the following is the strongest argument in favor of pollution allowance trading: A) it involves the greatest change in the existing marketplace B) it is the best way to reduce or eliminate all local pollution problems C) it is the option favored by the Sierra Club and other wilderness groups D) individual businesses are given a range of options for complying with the law E) allowance trading creates the greatest government control of pollution emissions 30. Oil is: A) organic matter transformed into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons B) inorganic matter transformed into liquid hydrocarbons C) bituminous coals transformed into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons D) a variety of natural gases compressed by pressure E) organic particles in water Page 14
  14. 14. 31. Which of the following terms refers to energy produced from any source other than fossil fuels: A) power tower B) alternative energy C) fuel cell D) biofuel E) renewable energy 32. What is geothermal energy? A) a thermal spring B) heat energy in the core of the earth C) the rate of temperature increase with depth in the Earth D) heat derived from a geothermal power plant E) useful conversion of natural heat from the interior of the Earth Page 15 33. What one factor, more than others, determines the suitability of tidal power for a coastal site? A) the cost of building the plant B) sediment supply and transport C) the frequency of tides
  15. 15. D) large tidal range E) size and frequency of storm events 34. The worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power happened in 198 6 at Chernobyl, where a uranium fuel meltdown occurred. According to the Environmental Science text, in the next 20 to 30 years, there will be an increase in cancer: A) worldwide B) in the northern hemisphere C) in northern Europe D) within 100-200 km of the reactor side E) in workers at the plant the day of the accident Page 16 35. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 considered the role of nuclear power in the U.S. energy mix. Its recommendation was to: A) resume building new nuclear power plants in the U.S. B) halt to construction of all new nuclear power plants in the U.S. C) temporarily hold construction of new nuclear power plants until the Yucca Mountain site is operational
  16. 16. D) transition from fission to fusion power E) replace all existing nuclear reactors in the U.S. by pebble- bed reactors by 2010 36. What is an aquifer? A) a canal or system to transport water over long distances B) a zone of hot, pressurized groundwater C) a rock that holds and transmits water D) a rock in which permeability is low E) the area of a drainage basin which recharges water into the system Page 17 37. “Instream use” refers to: A) water removed from a river and eventually returned to the river B) use for agricultural purposes C) evaporation during transport in pipes or canals D) use by cities or agriculture in the close vicinity of the river E) uses of the river or lake itself, without removing water 38. Desalination is a promising source of water for some locations because: A) desalinated water can be delivered at a lower cost than many water sources B) desalination produces water purer than surface water and approaching the purity of groundwater
  17. 17. C) desalination requires less energy than transporting water over long distance s D) desalination is a potential water source for even the most arid coastal area E) all of these Page 18 39. The amount of phosphorus and nitrogen in groundwater probably would be greatest: A) in undisturbed forest land B) in agricultural land in the developed world C) in agricultural land in the developing world D) downhill from a petroleum refinery E) downhill from an urban population center 40. According to the Environmental Science text, what is the most critical water pollution problem in the world? A) lack of clean, disease-free drinking water B) thermal pollution C) municipal sewage D) sediment polluted waters E) industrial effluent Page 19
  18. 18. 41. During the last two million years or so, the climate of the Earth has: A) been very nearly constant B) swung sharply both up and down in temperature C) slowly decreased in humidity D) slowly increased in temperature E) seen a steady decrease in precipitation worldwide 42. Large volcanic eruptions appear to make the Earth’s climate ________ _, at least temporarily. A) drier B) more stormy C) wetter D) cooler E) less stormy Page 20 43. Carbon monoxide is particularly dangerous to humans because: A) it damages the nervous system B) low concentrations affect healthy and sickly people equally C) its deleterious effects increase with decreasing altitude
  19. 19. D) it prevents O2 from reaching vital tissues E) all of these 44. Atmospheric inversion conditions over urban areas pose a problem primarily because: A) the conditions are conducive to photochemical smog B) pollutants are trapped and concentrated C) the inhabitants can be cut off from oxygen D) many sensitive plants and animals freeze to death E) CFCs are concentrated and destroy protective ozone Page 21 45. This is an ailment caused by long- term exposure to air with high concentrations of soot or carbon-rich dust: A) formaldehyde B) sick building syndrome C) chimney effect D) black lung disease E) radon 46. The number of deaths caused by lung cancer due to exposure to radon is
  20. 20. comparable to the number of deaths caused by ______________ in the U.S. each year. A) plane crashes B) lightening C) car accidents D) volcanic eruptions E) old age Page 22 47. The field of environmental economics seeks to: A) find the most effective way to achieve rational solutions for environmental problems B) treat environmental problems no matter how expensive they might be C) solve environmental problems by government fiscal policies D) understand the purpose of scientific and technical solutions to environmental problems E) bear the burden and the cost of environmental catastrophes 48. Many natural organisms and ecosystems perform service functions that are beneficial to humans. These include all of the following except: A) bees pollinating crops B) bacteria fixing nitrogen in the ocean
  21. 21. C) salt marshes convert toxic compounds to nontoxic forms D) biological degradation of toxic material applied to land E) water in the atmosphere combines with sulfurous pollutants and rains to the ground Page 23 49. Before modern sanitation and medicine, a major control on population density i n European cities (and cities elsewhere) was: A) cockroaches in kitchens, which limited the food supply B) termites, which damaged wooden houses C) fleas, which carried infectious diseases D) pigeons, which spread excrement E) mice and rats 50. Love Canal, near Niagara Falls, New York, illustrates which of the following principles or problems? A) disposal of hazardous chemical waste in an uncontrolled site B) economic mineral reserves from sewage sludge C) wild species re-establishing themselves in an urban setting D) poor understanding of flood hazard
  22. 22. E) the difficulty in finding new solid waste sites as old dumps are filled to capacity Page 24 Answer Key Orderd this http://uopexam.com/product/sci-256-final-exam/

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