Methods Historical Teacher’s Role Student’s Ability Class Advantages Disadvantages Brown’s Context Role Summary Principles thGrammar During the 18 Active. Passive. Reading and -Presentation Development of Ss’ don’t develop The native thTranslation and 19 Writing grammar oral language effect century, in the Presents, Memorizes -Explanation structures and communicative Europeans explains and vocabulary, vocabulary skills, Universities. It commands Ss’ in conjugate -Translation learning had a cultural Ss’ mother verbs and Has no theory intention tongue translate Easy Content has no texts elaboration of context texts Structure is more relevant than contentSuggestopedia It was Auto-hypnotist, Relaxer, Listening Material Gives creative Automaticity developed by Authority Figure True- (music), presentation. solution the Dr. Georgi Believer,resp Speaking Encourages Language Lozanov ects and Primary relaxation Culture (dialogues) trusts the activation Strengthens Connection teacher ,writing and self-image Reading( Secondary Optimizes teacher reads activation learning several Propagates times) Much attention talent is devoted to Include, learner feelings pictures, music &movementCooperative Created by Facilitator/Coach Learner Cognitive Based on Promotes Group work can AutomaticityLearning and May and Dob Centered Social Teaching Intrinsic lead to inequalityMultiple in 1973 who Monitor Cooperative Linguistic Strategies, Ss’ motivation, of contributions MeaningfulIntelligences got influenced work, Emphasizes work in small perseverance Some Ss’ can Learning by John Provides autonomy Listening groups(formal, and feel left out or Dewey, Burt work Speaking informal, cooperative behind Willingness Lewin and Feedback Ss’ are active cooperative) learning Ss’ have the Inter language Morton Deutsh experiences tendencies to get off tasks.Silent Way Caleb Silent Autonomous Receptive Presentation of T cannot be T too distant to Meaningful Gattengo Technician Skills the structure overprotective create affective learning Independent Production links Inter-language Expert Productive Ss’ uses the Materials Autonomy Responsible Skills Feedback language for deteriorate over Willingness to self-expression time communicate Cooperative Find words Atmosphere too abstract for Ss’ Real control of the language
Audio Lingual War World II Modeling and Imitates and - Listening - Repetition -Improves - Can produce Automaticity Guide Produces the Memorization pronunciation but not create correct output -Speaking of structures to repeat a -Useful for - Boring and - Reading dialogue Children mindless for Ss’ - Writing -Improves - Too much direct importance to communication listening and speakingNatural Developed by T is the primary Active role Listening The way in Delay of Oral Self confidence Stephen source of the Takes which Ss’ production Krashen & comprehensible decisions Speaking acquire the Risk taking Tracy Terrell n input of the target about new language Lack of accuracy 1977 language speaking 3 Environment of Translation Language culture stages the class connection T creates a Meaningful and classroom motivating Communicative atmosphere class competence T chooses a rich mix of classroom activitiesCommunicative Created T facilitates the Ss practice Listening Presentation of Class Long classes for Automaticity against audio- communication target a dialogue. environment is SS. lingual and process. language as Speaking comfortable for Meaningful grammar much as Oral practice. T and Ss. Perception of the Learning translation T acts as a guide possible and activities could be method. of the process. interact with Study of Ss feel closer too abstract for Intrinsic Developed by their expressions. to the language SS. Motivation Robert Langs. partners. that they use it Discovery of in other Target language rules. contexts. used in classroom Practice Ss became the couldn’t be useful main character in real life. Evaluation. of the learning process.Content-based Language is T makes the Be motivated Writing Presentation of Ss could cover Could make feel Intrinsic used to learn language a meaningful the four abilities students motivation content and understandable Autonomous Reading topic in a foreign uncomfortable learning in for Ss. language. and confused in Meaningful 1970’s Active Listening Activities to terms of the learning T engages them engage Ss are acquisition of to cover different Immersed. Speaking immersed with abilities. Communicative
topics. Learn language. competence. vocabulary from the Ss are able to presented evaluate and topic. interpret. Speaking and listening enhanced.TPR Developed by Active role Listener role Speaking Grammar Reduces Ss do not use Meaningful James Asher structures and pressure on Ss. creativity learning in 1970 to Direct role Performer Writing vocabulary are teach role teaching throw Uses different Excludes shy Ss. Automacity vocabulary and imitation, learning grammar rules. commands and teaching styles More suitable for Intrinsic repetition. beginners than motivation Allows team advantage Ss. work. Language ego.Direct XVI languages Directs activities Led to self- Speaking Presentation Power of It require a native Automacity included in the and performer of correction of the topics. expression are speaker Autonomy curriculum target Language and they are properly users of Ss work in developed Activities take lot Willing to language grammar and And the Ss’ has of time. communicate lexis. a lively learning process Communicative Students competence produce in writing or speaking activities.CommunicativeLanguageLearningLexical - Provides real Observe and Productive Language Recognizes the Depends on AutomaticityApproach language for SS. experiment skills. awareness. role of student’s memory with linguistic multiword units Meaningful Creates a self- generalizatio Receptive Experimentatio in language Refers to only Learning learning ns. skills. n. learning one component Atmosphere. communication. of communicative Communicative competence. competence. Can be used in lower classes
of English.Task based Prabhu 1987 Acts as a Accomplish Writing T presents the Aims to give Mistakes frighten Automacityapproach student’s tasks specific tasks task. In the pre students a make Ss be save monitor. into the class. Speaking task natural context in basic Meaningful for the use of language. learning Reading Circle task the language. where Ss do Team work helps Autonomy Listening different levels Interaction only advance of tasks. opportunity in students. the classroom. Language focus: Ss have Provides Extra- to analyze and Linguistic Skill practice the Building language.
Universidad Católica de la Santísima ConcepciónEnglish PedagogyEnglish Methodology.Roxana CorreaMethods Summary Nicole Cleveland Gabriel Jara.