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LA PESTE NERA E LA   CRISI DEL TRECENTODi Aka Horlande Annabelle, Battistella Francesca, Bianchin Simone & Sacilotto Chiara
CAUSE              CONSEGUEN                         ZE Le carestie ed ilcambiamento delle     Diffusione delle      condi...
I LUOGHI PIU’ COLPITI          SONO:I paesi che si affacciano sul Mediterraneo:   Italia   Francia   SpagnaNegli anni succ...
MORTALITA’               ITALIA                               PARIGI                                   BORGOGNA150%       ...
LE CONSEGUENZEIMMEDIATE DELLA PESTE        SONO:SUL TERRITORIO: Riduzione demografica I terreni, un tempo coltivati, rit...
LE REAZIONI DEL                     POPOLO         Il popolo credeva che la peste fosse una          punizione mandata da ...
Dopo la crisi della peste, il temacentrale per le opere di letteratura e per quelle religiose, diventa la           MORTE.
LE RIVOLTENella seconda metà del 1300, i cittadini cominciano a ribellarsi a causa dello  sfruttamento a cui sono sottopos...
LA RIVOLTA DI PARIGI                RIVOLTA POPOLARE                      1350                 Scontro tra due parti:1. Ne...
BATTAGLIA DI POITIERS                      1356• Sconfitta dei francesi da parte degli inglesi.• Il re francese viene fatt...
RIVOLTA DI JACQUERIE                     13581. Disordini nelle           1. Irruzione nel palazzo   campagne             ...
LA RIVOLTA INGLESE               1380                         CAUSA Aumento dei prezzi che colpiscono soprattutto i ceti r...
LA RIVOLTA DEI CIOMPI         DI FIRENZE1282 - Vittoria del “popolo grasso”(imprenditori, mercanti e        professionisti...
21 Luglio 1378 - Il governo cittadino accoglie le richieste dei                 Ciompi.22 Luglio 1378 - I Ciompi si impadr...
Agosto 1378 - I rivoltosi vengono sconfitti, la loro                      corporazione sciolta ed i loro capi             ...
FINE
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La crisi del'300

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La crisi del'300

  1. 1. LA PESTE NERA E LA CRISI DEL TRECENTODi Aka Horlande Annabelle, Battistella Francesca, Bianchin Simone & Sacilotto Chiara
  2. 2. CAUSE CONSEGUEN ZE Le carestie ed ilcambiamento delle Diffusione delle condizioni malattie, soprattutto climatiche hanno della peste nera portano portata dalle pulci all’indebolimento dei topi.della popolazione.
  3. 3. I LUOGHI PIU’ COLPITI SONO:I paesi che si affacciano sul Mediterraneo: Italia Francia SpagnaNegli anni successivi raggiunge anche:• Germania• Fiandre• Inghilterra• Scozia• L’area del Mar Baltico• Paesi Scandinavi
  4. 4. MORTALITA’ ITALIA PARIGI BORGOGNA150% 150% 150%100% POPOLAZIONE 100% 100%50% POPOLAZIONE POPOLAZIONE 50% 50% 0% 0% 0% 1300 1400 1300 1400 agosto 1348 novembre 1348 TOSCANA PARIGI INGHILTERRA 150% 150%150%100% 100% 100% POPOLAZIONE POPOLAZIONE POPOLAZIONE 50% 50% 50% 0% 0% 0% 1340 1400 1348 1398 1300 1350
  5. 5. LE CONSEGUENZEIMMEDIATE DELLA PESTE SONO:SUL TERRITORIO: Riduzione demografica I terreni, un tempo coltivati, ritornano macchie e boschi I villaggi rurali si svuotano e assumono un aspetto selvaggio e deserticoSULL’ ECONOMIA SIGNORILE: Ricaduta sui prezzi delle derrate alimentari Aumento dei salari agricoli per la scarsità di manodopera Riduzione degli introiti signorili cioè delle entrate monetarie derivanti dagli affitti, dai pagamenti dei diritti d’uso, ecc… I contadini fuggono dal feudo e si rifugiano in città per trovare lavoro e risorse
  6. 6. LE REAZIONI DEL POPOLO Il popolo credeva che la peste fosse una punizione mandata da Dio per punire la malvagità umana. Nascita del fenomeno dei FLAGELLANTI. Venivano fatte lunghe processioni di penitenti, che vagavano per le strade italiane, svizzere e tedesche, percuotendosi il corpo e digiunando.Il popolo era convinto che attraverso il sacrificio individuale e la mortificazione della carne, si potesse riscattare l’uomo dalle sue colpe e liberarlo dalla peste.Infine, si pensava che le minoranze religiose, in particolare gli Ebrei, fossero portatori della malattia, e quindi venivano massacrati.
  7. 7. Dopo la crisi della peste, il temacentrale per le opere di letteratura e per quelle religiose, diventa la MORTE.
  8. 8. LE RIVOLTENella seconda metà del 1300, i cittadini cominciano a ribellarsi a causa dello sfruttamento a cui sono sottoposti. Le tre rivolte principali sono: LA RIVOLTA FRANCESE LA RIVOLTA INGLESELA RIVOLTA DEI CIOMPI DI FIRENZE
  9. 9. LA RIVOLTA DI PARIGI RIVOLTA POPOLARE 1350 Scontro tra due parti:1. Nelle campagne c’è la 1. Tentativo di riforma ribellione antifeudale. politica sostenuto dai ceti artigianali, commerciali e professionali parigini.
  10. 10. BATTAGLIA DI POITIERS 1356• Sconfitta dei francesi da parte degli inglesi.• Il re francese viene fatto prigioniero, e viene chiesto un riscatto in denaro.• Le organizzazioni dei mercanti parigini, guidate da Etienne Marcel, chiamate a raccogliere il denaro occorrente, levano un atto di accusa contro la nobiltà francese.
  11. 11. RIVOLTA DI JACQUERIE 13581. Disordini nelle 1. Irruzione nel palazzo campagne di Carlo di Valois, costretto ad andarsene3. Un esercito blocca la rivolta affrontando i contadini 3. Assassinio di Etienne Marcel5. Carlo di Valois ritorna in Francia
  12. 12. LA RIVOLTA INGLESE 1380 CAUSA Aumento dei prezzi che colpiscono soprattutto i ceti rurali. CONSEGUENZE• I contadini della regione del Kent marciano fino a Londra e assaltano i palazzi nobiliari per protesta. • Re Riccardo II concede, in seguito a ciò, l’abolizione della servitù, liberando i contadini dal feudo e concedendo un’ amnistia generale. • In seguito, le concessioni vennero annullate ed i nobili soffocarono la rivolta nel sangue.
  13. 13. LA RIVOLTA DEI CIOMPI DI FIRENZE1282 - Vittoria del “popolo grasso”(imprenditori, mercanti e professionisti organizzati nelle 7 Arti Maggiori) sui Magnati; - Nascita dell’ordinamento costituzionale fiorentino; - esclusione di una parte del popolo dal governo che non poteva neanche organizzarsi in corporazioni. Tra loro c’erano i CIOMPI (operai tessili addetti alla cardatura della lana) che venivano sfruttati nelle botteghe.1378 - I Ciompi presentano ai governanti della città la richiesta di riconoscimento di un loro statuto corporativo.
  14. 14. 21 Luglio 1378 - Il governo cittadino accoglie le richieste dei Ciompi.22 Luglio 1378 - I Ciompi si impadroniscono del palazzo del potere cittadino scacciando i membri del governo avviando così una riforma delle istituzioni politiche cittadine, che prevede la creazioni di 3 nuove Arti del “popolo minuto” e la equa ripartizione delle cariche governative fra le 7 Arti Maggiori, 14 Arti Minori e le 3 appena costituite; - reazione della borghesia fiorentina che fa chiudere i negozi della lana penalizzando l’economia cittadina; - i capi delle Arti Minori tolgono l’appoggio dato ai Ciompi.
  15. 15. Agosto 1378 - I rivoltosi vengono sconfitti, la loro corporazione sciolta ed i loro capi condannati e giustiziati.1382 - Vengono sciolte anche le altre 2 Arti create con quella dei Ciompi.
  16. 16. FINE

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