Madagascar biodiversity


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Explain the concept and importance of biodiversity in tropical rainforests. Examine the causes andconsequences of reduced biodiversity in this biome.

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Madagascar biodiversity

  1. 1. Madagascar Biodiversity Presentation By: Eugene Ling
  2. 2. Biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction to Madagascar’s Rainforests <ul><li>Location : Southern Africa, 4 th largest island in the world. Rainforests are mainly located on the coats of the island </li></ul><ul><li>Economy: 11 th Poorest Country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Environment: The majority of the 200,000 species of plants and animals are only found exclusively in Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>Only 17% of the original forest is left. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity declined by more than 25% in the last 35 years </li></ul>
  4. 4. Natural Cause Invasive Species <ul><li>Introduction of invasive alien species </li></ul><ul><li>Causes a reduction of biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems by killing other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases Siltation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces light penetration and thus kills organisms living in water, and their rotting corpse depletes the water of oxygen. </li></ul></ul>Water Hyacinth
  5. 5. Human Cause Overpopulation <ul><li>Population growth: 3% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected to double by the year 2025. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts enormous strain on the natural environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid growth in the 1940, as vaccines were introduced to lower the death rate. During the next 40 years, the population grew from 4.2 million to 9.2 million – 4 million hectares of forest cleared </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Human Cause Soil Erosion <ul><li>One of Madagascar's greatest environmental problems — soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Soil Loss: 112 tons per acre, the largest amount recorded anywhere in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Exacerbated by deforestation, soil erosion decreases the quality of soil thus reduces plant biodiversity, but it also increases sedimentation which leads to a decrease in biodiversity of aquatic organisms. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Economic Cause: Mining <ul><li>Due to Madagascar ’ s vast mineral wealth, many companies have established mines to exploit the resources. </li></ul><ul><li>An example of such a company would be a Canadian based “ Sherritt ” </li></ul><ul><li>Will tear up 1,300 to 1,700 hectares of land </li></ul><ul><li>These lands contain thousands of species of plants and animals including the highly endangered Greater Bamboo Lemur. </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentation will also affect fishing. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Political/ Socioeconomic (All the Above) Cause March 2009 Coup <ul><li>During the coup, illegal loggers ransacked Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>Logging affected 27,000 – 40,000 acres of protected rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>More than $200 million worth of timber was cut </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, the sale of commercial bush meat of LEMURS also started. </li></ul><ul><li>Even more disturbing, France, the Netherlands, Morocco, and the World Bank supported it. </li></ul><ul><li>Even Gibson Guitars was accused of using illegal rosewood. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Socioeconomic Consequences of Loss in Biodiversity <ul><li>Loss of tourism. In 2009 tourist arrivals dropped by 50-60% </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in the businesses that are indirectly linked to tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Half of tourism profits goes to village conservation and development projects, so decreased tourism equals underdevelopment. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased potential in new vaccines </li></ul>
  10. 10. Health Consequences of Loss in Biodiversity <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity improves crop performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls certain pests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monoculture = DISASTER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of pharmaceutical compounds in the US are from natural compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¼ of them are from the rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Madagascar ’ s periwinkle is a cure for leukemia and Hodgkin's disease </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ecological Consequences of Loss in Biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity can lead to an increase in productivity and stability of an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementarity Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Averaging Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolio Effect </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> = </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>