The underlying problem: why is Palestine so important to these two religions?• Judaism:• Up until the expulsion of the Jews by the Roman Emperor Hadrian in AD 135, the land of Palestine had been an important cultural and spiritual centre for Judaism for the past 2000 years.• After their expulsion Jews were scattered all across the world, with no homeland.• Islam:• Palestine was the place of the emergence of this religion and the place of birth of Mohammed the prophet.• Mohammed dies in Jerusalem and after the re-capture of the city from the Byzantines (AD 637), Jerusalem became one of the most important centres of Islamic faith.
• In 1518 Palestine was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and it remained part of it until the fall of the ‘sick man’ of Europe in 1917. THIS IS WHERE WE BEGIN.
Zionism• As a result of mistreatment (especially Russia), Jews formed movement known as ‘Lovers of Zion’.• Their aim was to return and settle in Palestine.
WORLD WAR ONE• War brought Britain into alliance with Arabs who wanted to be free from Ottoman Empire rule.• Hussein-McMahon letters: Arab revolt in exchange for help in forming Arab state.• Balfour Declaration: help Zionists create a ‘national home’.
POST WAR MANDATES• Peacemakers at Paris Peace Conference decided that Arabs should have the right to national self-determination.
Peel Partition 1937 • Although Jewish settlers owned 5% of the land, Peel suggested to give half the country to a new Jewish state. • Arabs were outraged and this led to the Arab Rebellion of 1937-39. • A result of this rebellion was a change in British immigration policy; the White Paper was introduced in 1939.
WORLD WAR TWO & HOLOCAUST• The threatened Jewish revolt did not happen primarily because of the outbreak of WW2- many Jews fought on Britain’s side in the war against Germany.• By the end of the war, around 6 million Jews had been killed – after this many were sympathetic towards the Jewish population.• A key player was the USA’s President Truman who in 1946 demanded that 100, 000 Jews should be allowed into Palestine at once.• This severely aggravated tensions between Arabs and Israelis.
UN PARTITION PLAN 1947• Britain was in an impossible position after WW2, violence between Jews and Arabs was increasing.• UN STEPS IN• The date of the partition was May 1948, six months from then.
CIVIL WAR IN PALESTINE• Began May 1948 ended July.• Arab league could not match the strength of the Jews.• A series of armistice agreements brought the war to an end.• Israelis: ‘Year of Liberation’• Palestinians: ‘Year of Catastrophe’
Changes in the Arab World 1950s• A series of military take-overs, most significant one being Colonel Nasser in Egypt• Emergence of the Fedayeen.• Economic Warfare: boycott of Israel’s trade
SUEZ-SINAI WAR OF 1956• President Nasser wanted to avenge Egypt’s defeat to Israelis in 1948.• Nasser was building up a modern, well- equipped army, aided by the USSR.• Aswan Dam Project
Effects• Israel war victory (aided by British & French).• In the long run, the war strengthened the Arab states and Nasser’s reputation as a leader of the Arab world increased and pro- Western governments turned against Britain and France.• A United Arab World under Nasser’s control and influenced by the USSR emerged.
Reshaping of the Middle East 1960s• Increasing nationalism in both Israel and Arab countries.• 1964: Palestinian Liberation Organisation• Palestinian National Liberation Movement, aka FATAH
TRIGGERS• Soviets provided false information about Israeli mobilisation.• Nasser put Egypt’s armed forces on alert and moved 100, 000 troops to Sinai.• 16th of May Nasser ordered UN Emergency force to leave Egyptian territory.• May 28 Jordan and Egypt Defence Pact.• Nasser declared his intention to strike Israel.• Israelis struck pre-emptively on the 5th of June, to start a war, which they saw as inevitable.
Summary of Causes:• Social/Religious differences and Territorial• Nationalism• Militarism• Foreign Involvement
Nature• At breakfast time Monday, 5th of June, Israeli forces were given orders to bomb Egyptian airfields. By the end of the day Israel controlled the skies in the Middle East.• Egypt had been forced all the way back to the Suez Canal- defeat within 3 days.• Within three days of the war West bank and city of Jerusalem completely captured.• 9th of June: attacked Syria• UN-sponsored ceasefire. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PYHJFbh2S ls
Role of Technology/Tactics• Balanced armies numerically, but not skill- wise.• Element of surprise was another key factor.• Foreign involvement: USSR vs USA battle between spheres of influence.
Effects 1• Around 250,000 Palestinians fled from the ‘occupied territories’ and this added to the huge population of refugees in Jordan.• The Palestinians lost much faith in the ability of the Arab states to defeat Israel. Many turned to the radical military guerrilla group- Fatah.
Effects 2• For those who stayed, Israeli rule meant restrictions on lives, including heavy policy surveillance.• Egypt-Israel begin ‘War of Attrition’ in 1968 and ends in 1970 as both sides realise that neither could win, resulting in a ceasefire.• Many guerrilla attacks on Israel by Arab extremist group- Fatah. Black September Organisation assassinated the Prime Minister of Jordan in 1971. The following year, the same terrorist group, kidnapped eleven Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games.
Effects 3• Yom Kippur War of 1973 initiate by Egyptian and Syrian forces in an invasion plan of Sinai across the Suez Canal.• Israel-Lebanon War of 1978
In what ways can we compare andcontrast this war to other 20th century wars?• BRAINSTORM:• World War One• World War Two• Your Own War