Educational Theory and SimulationExploring and Understanding TheoriesAbout Why Simulation Works
Where am I SaIL at SaIL at Guy’s Hospital King’s College from? London SaIL at St Thomas’ SaIL at SLAM SaIL at Kings College Hospital
Who are we? Page 3 1. Nurse or Nurse Practitioner2. Midwife3. Doctor4. Other Healthcare Professional (e.g., Respiratory Therapist, Pharmacist, etc)5. Healthcare Administrator6. Educator/Academic
Objecves Understand how simulation as a medical education medium can be informed by research and theory on how people learn.Propose a few cognitive theoretical perspectives that could be used to inform the use and evaluation of simulation in medical education.Evaluate the applicability of various cognitive theoretical perspectives on simulation as a medical education medium.
Page 5 “You see, Grandmama,before you extract thecontents of this birds eggby suction, you must makean incision at oneextremity, and acorresponding orifice atthe other.”“Dearie me! And we usedto just make a hole at eachend.”
What learning theory is most useful? Page 9 1. Instructional Design Theory/ISD2. Expert/Novice Skill Acquisition Theory (Dreyfus)3. See one, do one, teach one4. Action learning (Argyris), Reflective Practice (Schön)5. Experiential learning (Kolb, Honey and Mumford)6. Deliberate Practice (Ericsson), Mastery learning (Bloom)7. Constructivist Learning (Bruner)8. Sociocultural theory (Vygotsky)9. Communities of Practice (Lave and Wenger)10. YOU DIDN’T LIST MY FAVORITE THEORY!
Learning Sciences: Help for Understanding Simulation? Page 10 Cognitive Computer psychology science Anthropology Educational and other technology What social happens sciences in learning?
Learning Sciences Research Questions Page 14 What is the nature of learning that occurs in simulation? What does learning look like? How can we gather evidence of learning? How is simulation reflective of practice? How can we design learning experiences in order to take advantage of what we know about how people learn?
Learning Sciences Research Questions Page 15 Legitimate Peripheral Participation as a lens for understanding what we are trying to do in simulation • What roles do learners to take and why? • What opportunities do we create for safe but legitimate peripheral participation opportunities for simulation learners? • How can we bring highly trained and motivated faculty into the world of simulation education? • How do we push some learners to the margins in simulation learning?
Learning Sciences Research Questions Page 16 Situated Cognition as a framework for appreciating, evaluating, or understanding what is happening in simulation • To what extent is learning embedded in the social and physical contexts of practice? • How do traditional notions of fidelity need to be re- examined in order to provide a valuable learning experience? • How does true inter-professional education in a simulated environment impact the learning experience for doctors, nurses, and midwives?
Learning Sciences Research Questions Page 17 Distributed Cognition as a way of understanding how artifacts, people, and the environment work together and how learning occurs in those settings • How is learning to be a medical professional distributed among the tools, the environment, and other aspects of the context in which we work? • How can we create meaningful learning environments that recognize the distributed nature of our work? • How does a group of professionals at a GP practice work together in their own setting to manage rare emergency events?
What have we done? Look at simulation as a medical education medium that can be informed by research and theory on how people learn.Propose a few cognitive theoretical perspectives that could be used to inform the use and evaluation of simulation in medical education.Evaluate the applicability of various cognitive theoretical perspectives on simulation as a medical education medium.
The emphasis on finding and describing “knowledgestructures” that are somewhere “inside” the individualencourages us to overlook the fact that humancognition is always situated in a complex socioculturalworld and cannot be unaffected by it.—Hutchins, 1995Dr Gabriel ReedyLecturer in Higher EducationKing’s College LondonSimulation and Interactive Learning (SaIL Centre)email@example.com