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T 4 a lrashidi


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T 4 a lrashidi

  1. 1. Effective Interface Design By Avoiding Cognitive Overload – Addressing issues with Visual Design Abdullah ALRASHIDI EDGE903 - 2011
  2. 2. Content:
  3. 3. <ul><li>The user interface is a part of program by which users (people) can communicate with the programs or machines. </li></ul><ul><li>The interface could be to devices or other complex systems. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides means for user to input information to manipulate a system. </li></ul><ul><li>It output effects created by the user’s manipulations. (Stone & Stone 2005) </li></ul>
  4. 4. • Graphical User Interface (GUI) – is the user visual interface that allow users to interacting with a computer using items such as windows and icons (Norman 2004). • Design considerations principles: organize, economize and communicate. It should take into account human factors and cognitive ability.
  5. 5. • Organize – consistency, screen layout, relationships and navigability are important concepts • Consistency – match with the real world – what users are used to. • Screen layout – the general 7+/-2 rule is essential to considered to avoid information overload. Designing visual representation can designed according to CLT to avoid overload • CLT to properly design learning materials  avoid cognitive overload
  6. 6. If Attended to LONG-TERM MEMORY <ul><li>Cognitive Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Perceive Incoming information </li></ul><ul><li>Attend to Information </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Limited duration </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent store all Knowledge and skills in multidimensional webs of interconnected nodes (schemas) </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited </li></ul>Stimuli in the Environment SENSORY MEMORY Elaborative Rehearsal Sweller, et al.,1998 Cognitive Architecture & Instructional Design WORKING MEMORY If toattended
  7. 7. <ul><li>Basic assumption: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning happens best under instructional conditions that are aligned with our cognitive architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If an overly complicated task is NOT so aligned  cognitive overload </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured visual design must be avoid high cognitive load </li></ul>LEARNING
  8. 8. CLT: 3 types of CL <ul><ul><li>Intrinsic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extraneous </li></ul><ul><li>Germane </li></ul>Intrinsic Load (Irreducible by instructional design) Extraneous Load (Reducible by Instructional Design) Germane Load (Increasable by instructional design) Free Capacity Fig 2 A visual representation of the assumptions underlying cognitive load theory (Plass, Moreno & Brünken 2010; p18) Total Working Memory Capacity Total Cognitive Load
  9. 9. CLT Instructional techniques The principal of CLT is applied to develop training material that efficiently make use of the available cognitive processing capacity  Instructional design Techniques. <ul><li>Decreasing Extraneous Load </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-free effect </li></ul><ul><li>Worked-example effect </li></ul><ul><li>Completion effect </li></ul><ul><li>Split-attention effect </li></ul><ul><li>Modality effect </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy effect </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing Germane Load </li></ul><ul><li>Self-explanation effect </li></ul><ul><li>Imagination effect </li></ul><ul><li>Process information effect </li></ul><ul><li>Variability effect </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Intrinsic Load </li></ul><ul><li>Fading support effect </li></ul><ul><li>Part-whole/whole-part effect </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence effect </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitive load Theory <ul><ul><li>Cognitive load theory focuses on the need to maximise working memory resources to facilitate learning. Cognitive load is a measure of the “total amount of mental activity imposed on working memory at an instance of time” (Cooper, 1998, p.10). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is based on the concepts of information processing in memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is multidimensional construct characterised by three key dimensions: Intrinsic, extraneous & germane CL. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Instructions and suggestions for interface designers <ul><li>The interface has to communicate with users by designing the interface contents that are clear leading to desired accurate actions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Avoid information clustering which can confuse to learners as it might increasing cognitive load through the disordering in the interface. </li></ul>Instructions and suggestions for interface designers
  13. 13. <ul><li>Do not fall in the same mistake that I made of clustering the slide with lots of information in slide 7 – CLT & Cognitive Resource Information. Do I need try to align text and picture to reduce cognitive load to align memory process. </li></ul>Instructions and suggestions for interface designers
  14. 14. <ul><li>Make design simple and user friendly to the user. Make it help the users to be more active and will motivate them to improve their interactions with the interface. </li></ul>Instructions and suggestions for interface designers
  15. 15. Summary
  16. 16. Summary
  17. 17. <ul><li>REFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Cooper, G 1998, Research into cognitive load theory and instructional design at UNSW, accessed 21/10/2011, http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Hasler, BS, Kersten, B & Sweller, J 2007, Learner control, control load and instructional animation, Journal of Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol.21, no.7, pp 713 – 729, Wiley Online Library database </li></ul><ul><li>Norman, D 2004, Design as Communication, accessed 24/10/2011, </li></ul><ul><li>Stone & Stone 2005, User interface design and evaluation , accessed 24/10/2011, </li></ul><ul><li>Sweller J, van Merrienboer JJG, Paas F 1998, Cognitive architecture and instructional design, Educational Psychology Review 1998, vol 10, no 2, pg 251 – 296, Wiley Online Library database </li></ul>