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Public (NASDAQ: AAPL, LSE: 0HDZ,
California, United States (April 1, 1976,
as Apple Computer Inc.)
1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California,
Steve Jobs (CEO, Chairman, and Co-founder)
Steve Wozniak (Co-founder)
Timothy D. Cook (COO and acting CEO)
Peter Oppenheimer (CFO)
Philip W. Schiller (SVP Marketing)
Jonathan Ive (SVP Industrial Design)
Mark Papermaster (SVP Device Engineering)
Ron Johnson (SVP Retail)
Sina Tamaddon (SVP Applications)
Bertrand Serlet (SVP Software Engineering)
Scott Forstall (SVP iPhone software)
Bob Mansfield (SVP Mac Hardware)
Daniel Cooperman (General Counsel and
Mac OS X
Mac OS X Server
Market cap US$ 80.0 billion (December 23, 2008)
Revenue ▲ US$ 32.48 billion (FY 2008)
▲ US$ 6.28 billion (FY 2008)
(19.32% operating margin)
▲ US$ 4.83 billion (FY 2008)
(14.88% profit margin)
Employees 35,000 (January 21, 2009)
Apple Inc., (NASDAQ: AAPL) formerly Apple Computer Inc., is an American multinational
corporation which designs and manufactures consumer electronics and software products. The
company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the iPod and the
iPhone. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system, the iTunes media browser, the
iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, the iWork suite of productivity software, and
Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products. The company
operates more than 250 retail stores in nine countries and an online store where hardware and
software products are sold.
Established in Cupertino, California on April 1, 1976 and incorporated January 3, 1977, the
company was called "Apple Computer, Inc." for its first 30 years, but dropped the word
"Computer" on January 9, 2007 to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumer
electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. Apple has about
35,000 employees worldwide and had worldwide annual sales of US$32.48 billion in its fiscal
year ending September 29, 2008. For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive
aesthetic design to its distinctive advertising campaigns, Apple has established a unique
reputation in the consumer electronics industry. This includes a customer base that is devoted to
the company and its brand, particularly in the United States. In 2008, Fortune magazine named
Apple the most admired company in the United States.
o 1.1 1976–1980: The early years
o 1.2 1981–1985: Lisa and Macintosh
o 1.3 1986–1993: Rise and fall
o 1.4 1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention
o 1.5 1998–2005: New beginnings
o 1.6 2005–present: The Intel partnership
2 Current products
o 2.1 Mac and accessories
o 2.2 iPod
o 2.3 iPhone
o 2.4 Apple TV
o 2.5 Software
3 Timeline of Apple products
o 4.1 Business
o 4.2 User
5 Corporate affairs
o 5.1 Headquarters
o 5.2 CEOs
o 5.3 Directors
o 5.4 Executives
o 5.5 Advertising
6 Environmental record
9 Further reading
10 External links
Main article: History of Apple
See also: Apple Inc. litigation
1976–1980: The early years
The Apple I, Apple's first product. Sold as an assembled circuit board, it lacked basic features
such as a keyboard, monitor, and case. The owner of this unit added a keyboard and a wooden
Apple was established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne, to
sell the Apple I personal computer kit. They were hand-built by Wozniak and first shown to
the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with
CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips)—less than what is today considered a complete
personal computer. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at
Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977 without Wayne, who sold his share of the company
back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and
funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple.
The Apple II was introduced on April 16, 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It
differed from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because it came with color
graphics and an open architecture. While early models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage
devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface,
the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business
world—the VisiCalc spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple
II, and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II—compatibility with the
office. According to Brian Bagnall, Apple exaggerated its sales figures and was a distant third
place to Commodore and Tandy until VisiCalc came along.
By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. The
Apple II was succeeded by the Apple III in May 1980 as the company competed with IBM and
Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market.
Jobs and several Apple employees including Jef Raskin visited Xerox PARC in December 1979
to see the Xerox Alto. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities
in return for $1 million in pre-IPO Apple stock. Jobs was immediately convinced that all
future computers would use a GUI, and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa.
1981–1985: Lisa and Macintosh
The heroine from Apple's 1984 ad, set in a dystopian future modeled after the Orwell novel
Nineteen Eighty-Four, set the tone for the introduction of the Macintosh.
Steve Jobs began working on the Apple Lisa in 1978 but in 1982 he was pushed from the Lisa
team due to infighting, and took over Jef Raskin's low-cost-computer project, the Macintosh. A
turf war broke out between Lisa's "corporate shirts" and Jobs' "pirates" over which product
would ship first and save Apple. Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal
computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag
and limited software titles.
The Macintosh 128K, the first Macintosh computer.
In 1984, Apple next launched the Macintosh. Its debut was announced by the now famous $1.5
million television commercial, "1984". It was directed by Ridley Scott, aired during the third
quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984, and is now considered a watershed event
for Apple's success and a masterpiece.
The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong. The machine's fortunes
changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first PostScript laser printer to be offered at
a reasonable price point, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishing package. The Mac was
particularly powerful in this market due to its advanced graphics capabilities, which were already
necessarily built-in to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI. It has been suggested that the
combination of these three products was responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing
With continued strong sales of the Apple II, and the introduction of the Macintosh, Apple's sales
reached new highs and the company had its initial public offering on September 7, 1984.
A power struggle developed between Jobs and new CEO John Sculley in 1985. Apple's board
of directors sided with Sculley and Jobs was removed from his managerial duties. Jobs
resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. the same year.
Apple's sustained growth during the early 1980s was partly due to its leadership in the education
sector, attributed to their adaptation of the programming language LOGO, used in many schools
with the Apple II. The drive into education was accentuated in California with the donation of
one Apple II and one Apple LOGO software package to each public school in the state.
1986–1993: Rise and fall
See also: Timeline of Apple II family and Timeline of Macintosh models
The Macintosh Portable was Apple's first "portable" Macintosh computer, released in 1989.
Having learned several painful lessons after introducing the bulky Macintosh Portable in 1989,
Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991, which established the modern form and ergonomic
layout of the laptop computer. The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to
the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking
capabilities. It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001.
The success of the PowerBook and other products led to increasing revenue. For some time, it
appeared that Apple could do no wrong, introducing fresh new products and generating
increasing profits in the process. The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989 and
1991 as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh.
Following the success of the LC, Apple introduced the Centris line, a low end Quadra offering,
and the ill-fated Performa line which was sold in several confusing configurations and software
bundles to avoid competing with the various consumer outlets such as Sears, Price Club, and
Wal-Mart, the primary dealers for these models. The end result was disastrous for Apple as
consumers did not understand the difference between models.
During this time Apple experimented with a number of other failed consumer targeted products
including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles, and TV
appliances. Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division
based on John Sculley's unrealistic market forecasts. Ultimately, all of this proved be too-little-
too-late for Apple as their market share and stock prices continued to slide.
Apple saw the Apple II family as too expensive to produce, while taking away sales from the low
end Macintosh. In 1990 Apple released the Macintosh LC with a single expansion slot for the
Apple IIe Card to migrate Apple II users to the Macintosh platform. Apple stopped selling the
Apple IIe in 1993.
Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows, focusing on delivering software with
cheap commodity PCs while Apple was delivering a richly engineered, but expensive,
experience. Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response. Instead
they sued Microsoft for using a graphical user interface similar to the Apple Lisa in Apple
Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corporation. The lawsuit dragged on for years before being
thrown out of court. At the same time, a series of major product flops and missed deadlines
destroyed Apple's reputation and Sculley was replaced by Michael Spindler.
1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention
The Newton was Apple's first foray into the PDA markets, as well as one of the first in the
industry. A financial flop, it helped pave the way for the Palm Pilot and Apple's own iPhone in
By the early 1990s, Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh, such as the
A/UX. The Macintosh platform was becoming outdated since it was not built for multitasking,
and several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware. In
addition, Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors like Sun Microsystems.
The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform, or reworked to run on more
In 1994, Apple allied with IBM and Motorola in the AIM alliance. The goal was to create a new
computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform), which would use IBM and Motorola
hardware coupled with Apple's software. The AIM alliance hoped that PReP's performance and
Apple's software would leave the PC far behind, thus countering Microsoft. The same year,
Apple introduced the Power Macintosh, the first of many Apple computers to use IBM's
In 1996, Michael Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO. Gil Amelio made many changes
at Apple, including massive layoffs. After multiple failed attempts to improve Mac OS, first
with the Taligent project, then later with Copland and Gershwin, Amelio chose to purchase
NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system, bringing Steve Jobs back to Apple as an advisor.
On July 9, 1997, Gil Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year
record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. Jobs became the interim CEO and began
restructuring the company's product line.
At the 1997 Macworld Expo, Steve Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release
new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, and that Microsoft made a $150 million
investment in non-voting Apple stock.
On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Store, tied to a new build-to-order
1998–2005: New beginnings
Company headquarters on Infinite Loop in Cupertino, California.
On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh
128K: the iMac. The iMac design team was led by Jonathan Ive, who would later design the iPod
and the iPhone. The iMac featured current technology and a groundbreaking design. It sold
close to 800,000 units in its first five months and returned Apple to profitability for the first time
Through this period, Apple purchased several companies to create a portfolio of professional and
consumer-oriented digital production software. In 1998, Apple announced the purchase of
Macromedia's Final Cut software, signaling its expansion into the digital video editing market.
The following year, Apple released two video editing products: iMovie for consumers, and Final
Cut Pro for professionals, the latter of which has gone on to be a significant video-editing
program, with 800,000 registered users in early 2007. In 2002 Apple purchased Nothing Real
for their advanced digital compositing application Shake, as well as Emagic for their music
productivity application Logic, which led to the development of their consumer-level
GarageBand application. iPhoto's release the same year completed the iLife suite.
Mac OS X, based on NeXT's OPENSTEP and BSD Unix was released on March 24, 2001, after
several years of development. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to
combine the stability, reliability and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an
overhauled user interface. To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9, the new operating system
allowed the use of OS 9 applications through Mac OS X's Classic environment.
The entrance of the Apple Store on Fifth Avenue in New York City is a glass cube, housing a
cylindrical elevator and a spiral staircase that leads into the subterranean store.
On May 19, 2001, Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and
California. The same year, Apple introduced the iPod portable digital audio player. The
product was phenomenally successful — over 100 million units were sold within six years.
In 2003, Apple's iTunes Store was introduced, offering online music downloads for $0.99 a song
and integration with the iPod. The service quickly became the market leader in online music
services, with over 5 billion downloads by June 19, 2008.
Since 2001 Apple's design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored
plastics first used in the iMac G3. This began with the titanium PowerBook and was followed by
the white polycarbonate iBook and the flat-panel iMac.
2005–present: The Intel partnership
Main article: Apple Intel transition
The MacBook Pro (15.4" widescreen) was Apple's first laptop with an Intel microprocessor. It
was announced in January 2006 and is aimed at the professional market.
At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs
announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac computers in 2006. OnJanuary
10, 2006, the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to utilize Intel's
Core Duo CPU. By August 7, 2006 Apple had transitioned the entire Mac product line to Intel
chips, over 1 year sooner than announced. The Power Mac, iBook, and PowerBook brands
were retired during the transition, the Mac Pro, MacBook, and Macbook Pro became their
Apple also introduced Boot Camp to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their
Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X.
Apple's success during this period was evident in its stock price. Between early 2003 and 2006,
the price of Apple's stock increased more than tenfold, from around $6 per share (split-adjusted)
to over $80. In January 2006, Apple's market cap surpassed that of Dell. Nine years prior,
Dell's CEO Michael Dell said that if he ran Apple he would "shut it down and give the money
back to the shareholders."
Delivering his keynote at the Macworld Expo on January 9, 2007, Steve Jobs announced that
Apple Computer, Inc. would from that point on be known as Apple Inc. The event also saw the
announcement of the iPhone and the Apple TV. The following day, Apple shares hit $97.80,
an all-time high. In May, Apple's share price passed the $100 mark.
On February 7, 2007, Apple indicated that it would sell music on the iTunes Store without DRM
(which would allow tracks to be played on third-party players) if record labels would agree to
drop the technology. On April 2, 2007, Apple and EMI jointly announced the removal of
DRM technology from EMI's catalog in the iTunes Store, effective in May.
On July 11, 2008, Apple launched the App Store to sell third-party applications for the iPhone
and iPod Touch. Within a month, the store sold 60 million applications and brought in $1
million daily on average, with Steve Jobs speculating that the App Store could become a billion-
dollar business for Apple.
On December 16, 2008, Apple announced 2009 would be the last year Apple would be attending
the Macworld Expo, and that Phil Schiller would deliver the 2009 keynote in lieu of the expected
On January 14, 2009, an internal Apple memo from Steve Jobs announced that he would be
taking a six-month leave of absence, until the end of June 2009, to allow him to better focus on
his health and to allow the company to better focus on its products.
See also: Timeline of Apple products and List of products discontinued by Apple Inc.
Mac and accessories
See also: Timeline of Macintosh models, List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU
type, and List of Macintosh models by case type
The Mac mini, low-cost desktop computer.
Mac mini, consumer sub-desktop computer introduced in January 2005.
iMac, consumer all-in-one desktop computer that was first introduced by Apple in 1998.
Its popularity helped revive the company's fortunes.
Mac Pro, workstation-class desktop computer introduced in August 2006.
MacBook, consumer notebook introduced in 2006, available in white and aluminum
MacBook Air, ultra-thin, ultra-portable notebook, introduced in January 2008.
MacBook Pro, professional portable computer alternative to the MacBook, introduced in
Xserve, rack mounted, dual core, dual processor 1U server.
Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Mac computers including the AirPort wireless
networking products, Time Capsule, Cinema Display, Mighty Mouse, the Apple Wireless
Keyboard computer keyboard, and the Apple USB Modem.
Main article: iPod
On October 23, 2001, Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. It has evolved to include
various models targeting the needs of different users. The iPod is the market leader in portable
music players by a significant margin, with more than 100 million units shipped as of April 9,
2007. Apple has partnered with Nike to introduce the Nike+iPod Sports Kit enabling runners
to synchronize and monitor their runs with iTunes and the Nike+ website. Apple currently sells
four variants of the iPod.
iPod Classic (Previously named iPod from 2001 to 2007), portable media player first
introduced in 2001, currently with a 120 GB capacity.
iPod Nano, portable media player first introduced in 2005, currently available in 8 and
16 GB models.
iPod Shuffle, digital audio player first introduced in 2005, currently available in 1 and
2 GB models.
iPod Touch, portable media player first introduced in September 2007, currently
available in 8, 16, and 32 GB models.
Main article: iPhone
At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007, Steve Jobs revealed the long
anticipated iPhone, a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod. The
original iPhone combined a 2.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found
in hand held devices, running a scaled-down versions of Apple's Mac OS X (dubbed iPhone OS),
with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. It also includes web-based and
Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. The iPhone features a 3.5-inch (89 mm)
touch screen display, 8 or 16 GB of memory, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (both "b" and "g"). The
iPhone first became available on June 29, 2007 for $499 (4 GB) and $599 (8 GB). On June 9,
2008, at WWDC 2008, Steve Jobs announced that the iPhone 3G would be available on July 11,
2008. This version added support for 3G networking, assisted-GPS navigation, and a price cut
to $199 for the 8 GB version, and $299 for the 16 GB version which was availabe in both black
and white. The new version was visually different from its predecessor in that it eliminated the
flat silver back, and large antenna square for a curved glossy black or white back. Following
complaints from many people, the headphone jack was changed from a recessed jack to a flush
jack to be compatable with more styles of headphones. The software capabilities changed as
well, with the release of the new iPhone came the realse of Apple's App Store; the store provided
applications for download that were compatable with the iPhone. It has since surpased five
hundred million downloads.
Main article: Apple TV
At the 2007 Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV, (previously known as the
iTV), a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-
definition televisions. The device links up to a user's TV and syncs, either via Wi-Fi or a wired
network, with one computer's iTunes library and streams from an additional four. The Apple TV
originally incorporated a 40 GB hard drive for storage, includes outputs for HDMI and
component video, and plays video at a maximum resolution of 720p. OnMay 31, 2007 a
160 GB drive was released alongside the existing 40 GB model and on January 15, 2008 a
software update was released, which allowed media to be purchased directly from the Apple
See also: List of Macintosh software
Apple develops its own operating system to run on Macs, Mac OS X, the latest version being
Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard. Apple also independently develops computer software titles for its
Mac OS X operating system. Much of the software Apple develops is bundled with its
computers. An example of this is the consumer-oriented iLife software package which bundles
iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, iTunes, GarageBand, and iWeb. For presentation, page layout and word
processing, iWork is available, which includes Keynote, Pages, and Numbers. iTunes,
QuickTime media player, Safari web browser, and Software Update are available as free
downloads for both Mac OS X and Windows.
Apple also offers a range of professional software titles. Their range of server software includes
the operating system Mac OS X Server; Apple Remote Desktop, a remote systems management
application; WebObjects, Java EE Web application server; and Xsan, a Storage Area Network
file system. For the professional creative market, there is Aperture for professional RAW-format
photo processing; Final Cut Studio, a video production suite; Logic, a comprehensive music
toolkit and Shake, an advanced effects composition program.
Apple also offers online services with MobileMe (formerly .Mac) which bundles personal web
pages, email, Groups, iDisk, backup, iSync, and Learning Center online tutorials. MobileMe is a
subscription-based internet suite that capitalizes on the ability to store personal data on an online
server and thereby keep all web-connected devices in sync. Announced at MacWorld Expo
2009, iWork.com allows iWork users to upload documents for sharing and collaboration.
Timeline of Apple products
See also: Timeline of Apple products, Timeline of Apple II family, and Timeline of
Products on this timeline indicate introduction dates only and not necessarily
discontinued dates, as new products begin on a contiguous product line.
Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the
traditional notions of what a corporate culture should look like in terms of organizational
hierarchy (flat versus tall, casual versus formal attire, etc.). Other highly successful firms with
similar cultural aspects from the same time period include Southwest Airlines and Microsoft.
Originally, the company stood in opposition to staid competitors like IBM more or less by
default, thanks to the influence of its founders; Steve Jobs often walked around the office
barefoot even after Apple was a Fortune 500 company. By the time of the "1984" TV ad, this
trait had become a key way the company attempts differentiated itself from its competitors.
As the company has grown and been led by a series of chief executives, each with his own idea
of what Apple should be, some of its original character has arguably been lost, but Apple still has
a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably draws talented people into its
employ, especially after Jobs' return. To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the
Apple Fellows program. Apple Fellows are those who have made extraordinary technical or
leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company. The Apple Fellowship has
so far been awarded to a few individuals including Bill Atkinson, Steve Capps, Rod
Holt, Alan Kay, Guy Kawasaki, Al Alcorn, Don Norman, Rich Page, and
According to surveys by J. D. Power, Apple has the highest brand and repurchase loyalty of any
computer manufacturer. While this brand loyalty is considered unusual for any product, Apple
appears not to have gone out of its way to create it. At one time, Apple evangelists were actively
engaged by the company, but this was after the phenomenon was already firmly established.
Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled
upon". Apple has, however, supported the continuing existence of a network of Mac User
Groups in most major and many minor centers of population where Mac computers are available.
Mac users meet at the European Apple Expo and the San Francisco Macworld Conference &
Expo trade shows where Apple traditionally introduced new products each year to the industry
and public. Mac developers in turn gather at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers
Apple Store openings can draw crowds of thousands, with some waiting in line as much as a day
before the opening or flying in from other countries for the event. The New York City Fifth
Avenue "Cube" store had a line as long as half a mile; a few Mac fans took the opportunity of the
setting to propose marriage. The Ginza opening in Tokyo was estimated in the thousands
with a line exceeding eight city blocks.
John Sculley told The Guardian newspaper in 1997: "People talk about technology, but Apple
was a marketing company. It was the marketing company of the decade."
Market research indicates that Apple draws its customer base from an unusually artistic, creative,
and well-educated population, which may explain the platform’s visibility within certain
youthful, avant-garde subcultures.
See also: List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple and Braeburn Capital
Apple has a history of vertical integration in their products, manufacturing the hardware on
which they pre-install their software.
During the Mac's early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for
hardware, instead creating their own. This trend was largely reversed in the late 1990s
beginning with Apple's adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs. Apple has
since adopted USB, AGP, HyperTransport, Wi-Fi, and other industry standards in its computers
and was in some cases a leader in the adoption of such standards such as USB. FireWire is an
Apple-originated standard which has seen widespread industry adoption after it was standardized
as IEEE 1394.
Ever since the first Apple Store opened, Apple has sold third party accessories. This allows,
for instance, Nikon and Canon to sell their Mac-compatible digital cameras and camcorders
inside the store. Adobe, one of Apple's oldest software partners, also sells its Mac-compatible
software, as does Microsoft, who sells Microsoft Office for the Mac. Books from John Wiley &
Sons, who publishes the For Dummies series of instructional books, are a notable exception
however. The publisher's line of books were banned from Apple Stores in 2005 because Steve
Jobs disagreed with their editorial policy.
Apple Inc., 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, CA.
Apple Inc.'s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley, at 1
Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California. This Apple campus has six buildings which total
850,000 square feet (79,000 m2) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos.
In 2006, Apple announced its intention to build a second campus on 50 acres (200,000 m2)
assembled from various contiguous plots. The new campus, also in Cupertino, will be about one
mile (1.6 km) east of the current campus.
1977–1981: Michael "Scotty" Scott
1981–1983: A. C. "Mike" Markkula
1983–1993: John Sculley
1993–1996: Michael Spindler
1996–1997: Gil Amelio
1997–Present: Steve Jobs (Interim CEO 1997–2000)
See also: Category:Directors of Apple Inc.
Bill Campbell, Chairman of Intuit Inc.
Millard Drexler, Chairman and CEO of J.Crew
Al Gore, Former Vice President of the United States
Steve Jobs, CEO and Co-founder of Apple; also a director of The Walt Disney Company
Andrea Jung, Chairman and CEO of Avon Products
Arthur D. Levinson, Chairman and CEO of Genentech
Eric E. Schmidt, Chairman and CEO of Google
Jerry York, Chairman, President, and CEO of Harwinton Capital
See also: Category:Apple Inc. executives
Steve Jobs, Chief Executive Officer
Timothy D. Cook, Chief Operating Officer
Peter Oppenheimer, Chief Financial Officer
Philip W. Schiller, Senior Vice President of Worldwide Product Marketing
Mark Papermaster, Senior Vice President of Devices Hardware Engineering
Jonathan Ive, Senior Vice President of Industrial Design
Bertrand Serlet, Senior Vice President of Software Engineering
Ron Johnson, Senior Vice President of Retail
Sina Tamaddon, Senior Vice President of Applications
Scott Forstall, Senior Vice President of iPhone Software
Bob Mansfield, Senior Vice President Mac Hardware
Daniel Cooperman, General Counsel and Secretary
Main article: Apple Inc. advertising
Since the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984 with the 1984 Super Bowl commercial to the
more modern 'Get a Mac' adverts, Apple has been recognized in the past for its efforts towards
effective advertising and marketing for its products, though it has been criticized for the claims
of some more recent campaigns, particularly 2005 Power Mac ads and iPhone ads in
See also: U+F8FF or , seen as the Apple logo in some fonts.
Apple’s first logo, designed by Jobs and Wayne, depicts Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple
tree. Almost immediately, though, this was replaced by Rob Janoff’s “rainbow Apple”, the now-
familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it, possibly as a tribute to
Isaac Newton's discoveries of gravity (the apple), and the separation of light by prisms (the
colors). This was one of several designs Janoff presented to Jobs in 1976.
While it is generally accepted to have referred to Isaac Newton, another explanation exists that
the bitten apple pays homage to the mathematician Alan Turing, who committed suicide by
eating an apple he had laced with cyanide. Turing is regarded as one of the fathers of the
computer. The rainbow colors of the logo are rumored to be a reference to the rainbow flag, as a
homage to Turing's homosexuality.
In 1998, with the roll out of the new iMac, Apple began to use a monochromatic logo —
supposedly at the insistence of recently returned Jobs — nearly identical in shape to its previous
rainbow incarnation. However, no specific color is prescribed throughout Apple's software and
hardware line. The logo's shape is one of the most recognized brand symbols in the world,
identifies all Apple products and retail stores (the name "Apple" is not even present) and has
been included as stickers in nearly all Macintosh and iPod packages through the years.
the fabled apple
The rainbow Apple
logo, used from late
1976 to early
The monochrome Apple
logo, used from 1998 to
late 2000, predominantly
on hardware. Still
appears on various
products in various
colors, such as iLife
logo, used 2001 to
around 2007 on
Logo used from
2007 to present.
Main article: List of Apple Inc. slogans
Apple's first slogan, "Byte into an Apple", was coined in the late 1970s. From 1997–2002,
Apple used the slogan Think Different in advertising campaigns. The slogan had a lasting impact
on their image and revived their popularity with the media and customers. Although the slogan
has been retired, it is still closely associated with Apple. Apple also has slogans for specific
product lines — for example, "iThink, therefore iMac", was used in 1998 to promote the
iMac, and "Say hello to iPhone" has been used in iPhone advertisements. "Hello" was
also used to introduce the original Macintosh, iMac ("hello (again)"), and iPod when they were
announced by Steve Jobs.
Greenpeace, an environmentalist organization, has controversially confronted Apple on various
environmental issues, including promoting a global end-of-life take-back plan, non-recyclable
hardware components, and toxins within the iPhone hardware. Since 2003 they have
campaigned against Apple regarding their chemical policies, in particular the inclusion of PVC
and BFRs in their products. On May 2, 2007, Steve Jobs released a report announcing plans
to completely eliminate PVC and BFRs by the end of 2008.
Greenpeace runs a "Guide to Greener Electronics", which rates companies on chemical-disposal
waste-reduction practices. In the first edition, released in August 2006, Apple scored 2.7/10.
In subsequent editions Apple's score has improved steadily. Apple has soon
improved its score to a 4.1/10, placing it in the 45 percentile among 17 other electronic
companies and 10th in the rankings.
At the 2007 Macworld Expo, Greenpeace presented a critique of Apple. Rick Hind, the
legislative director of Greenpeace's toxics campaign, said, "(The company) is getting greener, but
not green enough." Hind commented further, "The Macbook Air has less toxic PVC plastic and
less toxic BFRs, but it could have zero and that would make Apple an eco-leader."
In May 2008, Climate Counts, a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward
the greenest companies, gave Apple 11 points out of a possible 100 which placed the company
last among electronics companies. Climate Counts also labeled Apple with a "stuck icon," and
the environmental group added that Apple was "a choice to avoid for the climate conscious
consumer." Steve Jobs responded "get out of the computer business (and) go save some
The Environmental Protection Agency rates Apple highest amongst producers of notebook
computers, and fairly well compared to producers of desktop computers and LCD
In June 2007 Apple upgraded the MacBook Pro, replacing cold cathode lamps with mercury-free
LEDs and arsenic-free LCD glass, and has since done this for all notebooks. Apple has also
phased out BFRs and PVCs from various internal components. Apple also offers
detailed information about the emissions, materials, and electrical usage of each product.
Apple has also begun to advertise how environmentally friendly their new laptops are including
television spots and magazine ads, in addition to touting these facts on their website.
This article's Criticism or Controversy section(s) may mean the article does not present
a neutral point of view of the subject. It may be better to integrate the material in such
sections into the article as a whole. (December 2008)
The Danish Consumer Complaints Board reported a fault with Apple's iBook line and
criticized Apple's lackluster response to the issue, indicating customer support problems
at Apple. A solder joint between two components fractured after a certain number of
computer restarts causing the computer to break down, usually outside Apple's warranty
period. Websites such as AppleDefects.com have been set up detailing issues on Apples
Apple has been criticized for post-launch price changes, most notably after the price of
the iPhone was reduced by $200 just two months after its release, resulting in a flood of
complaints to Apple. Apple did however attempt to rectify complaints by offering
$100 store credit to early iPhone customers.
Apple has been accused of pressuring journalists to release their sources, with regards to
leaked information about new Apple products, going as far as filing lawsuits against
"John Does". In particular, Apple fought a protracted battle against the Think Secret
web site which resulted in a "positive solution for both sides". No sources were
There has been criticism of the iPhone and the iPod being locked into iTunes and creating
a iTunes store monopoly for these devices. Similarly, Apple has not licensed its
FairPlay DRM system to any other company, preventing iPod and iPhone users from
listening to DRM-protected music bought from sources other than the iTunes Store.
DRM-free music from competing services can be purchased and used on Apple devices.
However, Apple has transitioned the majority of its iTunes catalog to DRM-free, and will
see the rest of the catalog go DRM-free by April.
In 2006, the Mail on Sunday alleged possible sweatshop conditions existed in factories in
China where contract manufacturers make the iPod. Immediately after the allegations,
Apple launched an extensive investigation and worked with their manufacturers to
remove all unacceptable conditions but did not find any instances of sweatshop
The batteries in the iPod, iPhone, MacBook Air and 17-inch MacBook Pro are
not easily replaced by users. See also: Neistat Brothers.
Apple was caught up in controversy regarding the online sales of music in the European
Union where, as a single market, customers should be free to purchase goods and services
from any member state. iTunes Stores there restricted users to only allow the purchase of
content from the country to which their payment details originate, which also forced users
in some countries to pay higher prices. On December 3, 2004 the British Office of Fair
Trading referred the iTunes Music Store to the European Commission for violation of EU
free-trade legislation. Apple commented that they did not believe they violated EU law,
but were restricted by legal limits to the rights granted to them by the music labels and
publishers. PC World commented that it appeared "the Commission's main target is not
Apple but the music companies and music rights agencies, which work on a national
basis and give Apple very little choice but to offer national stores".
Apple products - particularly its higher end "pro" computers - are criticized as being
overpriced in comparison to competitor products of similar specification.
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Find more about Apple Inc. on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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Gil Amelio, William L. Simon (1999), On the Firing Line: My 500 Days at Apple ISBN
Jim Carlton, Apple: The Inside Story of Intrigue, Egomania and Business Blunders ISBN
Alan Deutschman (2000), The Second Coming of Steve Jobs, Broadway, ISBN 0-76790-
Andy Hertzfeld (2004), Revolution in the Valley, O'Reilly Books ISBN 0-596-00719-1
Paul Kunkel, AppleDesign: The Work of the Apple Industrial Design Group ISBN 1-
Steven Levy (1994), Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer
That Changed Everything ISBN 0-14-029177-6
Owen Linzmayer (2004), Apple Confidential 2.0, No Starch Press ISBN 1-59327-010-0
Michael S. Malone (1999), Infinite Loop ISBN 0-385-48684-7
Frank Rose (1990), West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple Computer, Penguin
Books ISBN 0-14-009372-9
John Sculley, John A. Byrne (1987) Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple, Harpercollins, ISBN 0-06-
Steve Wozniak, Gina Smith (2006), iWoz: From Computer Geek to Cult Icon: How I
Invented the Personal Computer, Co-Founded Apple, and Had Fun Doing It, W. W.
Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-06143-4
Jeffrey S. Young (1988). Steve Jobs, The Journey is the Reward, Lynx Books, ISBN 1-
Jeffrey S. Young, William L. Simon (2005), iCon Steve Jobs: The Greatest Second Act in
the History of Business, Wiley, ISBN 0-47172-083-6
Apple Inc. Hoover's Factsheet
Apple Inc. company profile — Google Finance
v • d • e
Bill Campbell · Millard Drexler · Al Gore · Steve Jobs · Andrea Jung · Arthur D.
Levinson · Eric E. Schmidt · Jerry York
Apple TV · iPhone · iPod (Classic, Nano, Shuffle, Touch) · Mac (iMac, MacBook
(Air, MacBook, Pro), Mini, Pro, Xserve) · Former products
Accessories AirPort · Cinema Display · iPod accessories · Mighty Mouse · Time Capsule
Aperture · Final Cut Studio · iLife · iTunes · iWork · Logic Studio · Mac OS X
(iPhone, Server) · QuickTime · Safari · Xsan
ADC · AppleCare · Apple Specialist · Apple Store (online) · App Store ·
Certifications · Genius Bar · iTunes Store · iWork.com · MobileMe · One to One ·
Steve Jobs · Tim Cook · Peter Oppenheimer · Phil Schiller · Jonathan Ive · Mark
Papermaster · Ron Johnson · Sina Tamaddon · Bertrand Serlet · Scott Forstall
Acquisitions Emagic · NeXT · Nothing Real · P.A. Semi · Silicon Color · Spruce Technologies
Advertising (Get a Mac, iPods, Slogans) · Braeburn Capital · FileMaker Inc. ·
History (Discontinued products, Litigation, Typography) · Portal
Annual revenue: US$32.48 billion (▲35.3% FY 2008) · Employees: 32,000 full-time; 3,100
temporary · Stock symbol: (NASDAQ: AAPL, LSE: ACP, FWB: APC) · Web site:
v • d • e
Major information technology companies
Alcatel-Lucent · Apple · Audiovox · HTC · Kyocera · LG · Motorola · Nokia ·
Palm · Qualcomm · RIM · Samsung · Sanyo · Sony Ericsson
Bull · GE · HCL · Hitachi · LG · NCR · Panasonic (JVC, Matsushita) · Philips ·
Samsung · Siemens (Infineon, Qimonda) · Sony · Thomson · Toshiba ·
Vivendi · Wipro Infotech · Yamaha
3Com · Alcatel-Lucent · Allied Telesis · Avaya · Ericsson · Huawei · Nokia
Siemens · ZTE
Amazon · AOL · eBay · Expedia · Google · IAC/InterActiveCorp · Monster
Worldwide · Yahoo!
AMD · Analog Devices · ATI Technologies · Fairchild · Freescale · Infineon ·
Intel · Micron · National Semiconductor · NVIDIA · NXP · Renesas · ROHM ·
Skyworks · STMicroelectronics · Texas Instruments · TSMC
Celestica · Elcoteq · Flextronics · Foxconn · Jabil · Kimball · Plexus · Quanta ·
Sanmina-SCI · SMTC
IT services Accenture · ACS · Atos Origin · Avanade · BearingPoint · Booz Allen
Hamilton · BT · Capgemini · CGI · Cognizant · CSC · Deloitte · EDS · First
Data · Fujitsu · Getronics · HCL Technologies · IBM Global Services · Indra ·
Infosys · Keane · Logica · Neusoft · PA · Perot · SAIC · Sapient · Satyam ·
Steria · Syntel · TCS · Tech Mahindra · ThoughtWorks · Tieto · Titan ·
Unisys · Virtusa · Wipro · Xansa
Brocade · Cisco Systems · Juniper Networks
Display / DTV BenQ · Sharp · Sony · Trident Microsystems · ViewSonic
Adobe · CA · Compuware · Corel · IBM · Idealab · Intuit · Microsoft · Oracle ·
PTC · Red Hat · SAP · Sun Microsystems
Activision Blizzard · Namco Bandai Games · Capcom · Codemasters · EA ·
Infogrames · Nintendo · Sega · Sony Computer Entertainment · Take-Two
Interactive · Valve Corporation
Acer · Apple · Asus · Dell · Hewlett-Packard · Hitachi · IBM · Lenovo ·
NEC · Panasonic · Sony · Sun · Toshiba
AVG Technologies · ESET · F-Secure · Kaspersky Lab · McAfee · SOFTWIN ·
Sophos · Symantec · Trend Micro
v • d • e
Companies of the NASDAQ-100 index (As of January 20, 2009)
Activision Blizzard · Adobe · Akamai Technologies · Altera · Amazon.com · Amgen · Apollo
Group · Apple · Applied Materials · Autodesk · Automatic Data Processing · Baidu · Bed Bath
& Beyond · Biogen Idec · Broadcom · C. H. Robinson Worldwide · CA, Inc. · Celgene ·
Cephalon · Check Point · Cintas · Cisco · Citrix · Cognizant Technology Solutions · Comcast ·
Costco · Dell · DENTSPLY International · Dish Network Corporation · eBay · Electronic Arts ·
Expedia · Expeditors International · Express Scripts · Fastenal · First Solar · Fiserv ·
Flextronics · FLIR Systems · Foster Wheeler · Garmin · Genzyme · Gilead Sciences · Google ·
Hansen Natural · Henry Schein · Hologic · IAC/InterActiveCorp · Illumina · Infosys · Intel ·
Intuit · Intuitive Surgical · J.B. Hunt · Joy Global · Juniper Networks · KLA-Tencor · Lam
Research · Liberty Global · Liberty Media · Life Technologies · Linear Technology · Logitech ·
Marvell · Maxim Integrated Products · Microchip Technology · Microsoft · Millicom
International Cellular · NetApp · News Corporation · NII · Nvidia · O'Reilly Automotive ·
Oracle · PACCAR · Patterson Companies · Paychex · Pharmaceutical Product Development ·
Qualcomm · Research In Motion · Ross Stores · Ryanair · Seagate · Sears · Sigma-Aldrich ·
Staples · Starbucks · Steel Dynamics · Stericycle · Sun Microsystems · Symantec · Teva
Pharmaceutical Industries · The DirecTV Group · Urban Outfitters · VeriSign · Vertex
Pharmaceuticals · Warner Chilcott · Wynn Resorts · Xilinx · Yahoo!
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Inc."
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