The author of the diary. She was born on June
12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany, and was four
years old when her father moved to Holland to
find a better place for the family to live. She is
very intelligent and perceptive, and she wants
to become a writer. She grows from an
innocent, tempestuous, precocious, and
somewhat petty teenage girl to an empathetic
and sensitive thinker at age fifteen. she dies of
typhus in the concentration camp at BergenBelsen in late February or early March of 1945.
Anne's older sister. She was born in Frankfurt in
1926. She receives little attention in Anne's
diary, and Anne does not provide a real sense
of her character. Anne thinks that she is
pretty, smart, emotional, and everyone's
favorite. However, Anne and she do not form a
close bond, and Margot mainly appears in the
diary when she is the cause of jealousy or
anger. She dies of typhus in the concentration
camp a few days before Anne does.
Anne's father. He is practical and kind, and Anne
feels a particular kinship to him. He was born on
May 12, 1889, into a wealthy Frankfurt family, but
the family's international-banking business
collapsed during the German economic depression
that followed World War I. After the Nazis came to
power in Germany, he moved to Amsterdam in
1933 to protect his family from persecution. There
he made a living selling chemical products and
provisions until the family was forced into hiding in
1942. He is the only member of the family to
survive the war, and he lives until 1980.
Anne's mother. she was originally from
Aachen, Germany, and she married Otto in
1925. Anne feels little closeness or sympathy
with her mother, and the two have a very
tumultuous relationship. Anne thinks her
mother is too sentimental and critical. She dies
of hunger and exhaustion in the concentration
camp at Auschwitz in January 1945.
The father of the family that hides in the annex
along with the Franks and who had worked with
Otto Frank as an herbal specialist in Amsterdam.
His actual name is Hermann van Pels, but Anne
calls him Mr. van Daan in the diary. According to
Anne, he is intelligent, opinionated, pragmatic,
and somewhat egotistical. He is temperamental,
speaks his mind openly, and is not afraid to
cause friction, especially with his wife, with
whom he fights frequently and openly. He dies in
the gas chambers at Auschwitz in October or
November of 1944.
Mr. van Daan's wife. Her actual name is Auguste
van Pels, but Anne calls her Petronella in her
diary. Anne initially describes her as a friendly,
teasing woman, but later calls her an instigator.
She is a fatalist and can be petty, egotistical,
flirtatious, stingy, and disagreeable. She
frequently complains about the family's
situation—criticism that Anne does not admire
or respect. She does not survive the war, but
the exact date of her death is unknown.
The teenage son of the van Daans, whose real name
is Peter van Pels. Anne first sees him as
obnoxious, lazy, and hypersensitive, but later they
become close friends. He is
quiet, timid, honest, and sweet to Anne, but he
does not share her strong convictions. During their
time in the annex, Anne and him develop a
romantic attraction, which Mr. Frank discourages.
He is Anne's first kiss, and he is her one confidant
and source of affection and attention in the annex.
Hex dies on May 5, 1945, at the concentration
camp at Mauthausen, only three days before the
camp was liberated.
A dentist and an acquaintance of the Franks who
hides with them in the annex. His real name is Fritz
Pfeffer, but Anne calls him Mr. Dussel in the diary.
Anne finds Mr. Dussel particularly difficult to deal
with because he shares a room with her, and she
suffers the brunt of his odd personal hygiene
habits, pedantic lectures, and controlling
tendencies. Mr. Dussel‟s wife is a Christian, so she
does not go into hiding, and he is separated from
her. He dies on December 20, 1944, at the
Neuengamme concentration camp.
A man who helps hide the Franks in the annex.
Victor Kugler is arrested along with Kleiman in
1944 but escapes in 1945. He immigrates to
Canada in 1955 and dies in Toronto in 1981.
Mr. Kugler is also referred to as Mr. Kraler.
Another man who helps the Franks hide.
Johannes Kleiman is arrested in 1944 but
released because of poor health. He remains in
Amsterdam until his death in 1959. Mr. Kleiman
is also referred to as Mr. Koophuis.
A worker in Otto Frank's office. She helps the
family by serving as a liaison to the outside
world. She remains in Amsterdam until her
death in 1983.
A secretary at Otto's office who helps the
Franks hide. After the Franks are arrested, she
stows the diary away in a desk drawer and
keeps it there, unread, until Otto's return in
1945. She died in 2010 at the age of 100.
Miep's husband. He dies in 1993.
Anne's school friend. The Nazis arrest her
early in the war.
The love of Anne‟s life from the sixth grade.
Peter Schiff is a boy one year older than Anne.
She has dreams about him while in the annex.
Peter Schiff is also referred to as Peter Wessel.
A boy with whom Anne has an innocent, though
romantic relationship before she goes into
hiding. He is also referred to as Harry Goldberg.
Anne‟s diary begins when Hitler already started
his anti-Jewish campaign. On her 13th
birthday, Anne‟s family was already living in
Holland, having immigrated from Germany. Anne
had to leave her Montessori School as Jews could
study only in a Jewish school. We get introduced
to Anne‟s family and her classmates, the kind of
things teenagers enjoyed. We get a glimpse of
Anne‟s inner thoughts who in spite of a loving
family longs for a „true friend‟. The harshness of
life they are subjected to is revealed from the
things they can and cannot do. Yet these all
hadn't affected Anne who is enjoying her
The second chapter tells a bit about the
society in which Anne had lived. It was a very
open society which allowed and encouraged
its people of both sexes to meet each other
and go out together at a very young age. This
chapter tells that the people were aware of
there few options left to them and were
planning about hiding from Nazis. The
parents did not put any pressure on their kids
and wanted them to live a very normal life.
Here the Frank family are forced into hiding as a
SS call up notice comes and they leave their
home in care of Mr. Goldschmidt, their tenant.
They have been long since preparing for this day
but are forced to prepone the date of hiding by
10 days. Anne writes about their hiding place
called „The Secret Annexe‟ vividly. They fears
they might have to stay there a long time. The
plans of the government it seems that it wants to
put the young Jewish girls separated from their
families as the call up notice was indented for
In this chapter we come to know that the Frank family
is joined by another family the Van Daans,a family
consisting of three members Mr. and Mrs. Van Daan
and Peter Van Daan. Here we see how two families an
overall seven members adjust to live together in
confined quarters. As usual there are disagreements
regarding the usual matters like matters concerning
linen, plates and also how children should be raised.
There is a discussion about the content the children
their children should be allowed to read and Mrs. Van
Daan appears to be a troublemaker who gets
squashed in debates. The fear of being discovered is
always present and Anne‟s feelings and emotions are
As we go through the news of how the Jews are
treated by the Germans get worse. The Jews are
rounded up by the Germans and taken to
concentration camps without mercy. And a lot of
„Fatal Accidents‟ are occurring which are actually a
mass genocides carried with pin point precession.
The reports came that the Jews were all headed to the
gas chamber. The seven inmates of the „Secret
Annexe‟ try to make their life in hiding the best they
can with whatever available. The fear of discovery
always over their heads, Anne‟s clashes with her
mother and Mrs. Van Daan‟s comments are among
the negatives of her life in hiding. The birthdays are
still celebrated and Anne‟s education grows up and
her great writing ability.
The seven members of the Annexe is joined by
an eight member- Mr. Alfred Dussel. He brings
the frightening news from the outside about the
horrors into which the Jews are being subjected.
Peter‟s birthday is celebrated and a surprising
news is heard that british made gains against the
germans and russia is resisting and the allies had
even recaptured some cities of africa. The
inmates try to lead a calm life and we also read
about a humorous description of the rules in the
Annexe and about the mess made by Peter with a
bag of beans. Life moves on.
The 8 members of the Annexe celebrate
Hanukkah and St.Nichloas day the best they
could. Anne enjoyed Mr. Van Daan making
sausages to preserve meat supply and there
was a humorous occurrence when Mrs. Van
Daan had a tooth examination by Mr. Dussel.
We also learn about the suffering of the Jews
and even the Dutch by the Germans. And now
war planes were zooming every night and
causalities were on the rise. Anne was in an
extremely rebellious mood with her mother.
In this chapter we read about the fear that has
become a part of their lives and are always on
alert mode watching out for police and having
narrow escapes. In the mean while the warehouse
in which the Secret Annexe is located is sold
without the knowledge of the inmates or their
friends and they are saved from discovery only by
the presence of mind shown by Mr. Koophuis.
The rats in the loft adds another problem solved
by the cat Mouschi and the threat of burglars
and Mr. Van Daan‟s coughing Mr. Dussel made
noises while going downstairs plus the dreadful
stories of Jews being taken to slaughterhouses
added to their misery.
The entries of the current month portrays the
time and the conditions at their present situation
in the Annexe. The boredom, fear, and the ways
in which they cope up to retain their sanity. Our
narrator here gives us a picture of the outside
world and the sufferings of the Jews. The inmates
of the Annexe live in constant fear of air raids,
bullets, the Germans and even the allies. The
shortage of food has reached bingo and the
clothes are all too small for them. Any victory
becomes a reason to celebrate. In between Anne
celebrates her 14th birthday ,does a course on
shorthand and stick with the daily routine.
Here we read about the a theft that happened at
the warehouse and a lot of money were stolen
and about 330 pounds of sugar was stolen and it
caused a bit of stir. And to pass time the inmates
told what they would like to do once they got out.
Margot and Mr. Van Daan wanted a hot bath, Mrs.
Van Daan a cake, Mrs. Frank a cup of coffee, Mr.
Dussel wanted to see his lady friend, Peter would
go downtown and Anne had no idea. They
rejoiced Mussolini‟s fall in Italy and constant fear
of bombs over their heads along with a vivid
account of a series of everyday events.
The edge of fear and betrayal runs loose in
the entries of the month. There are suspicion
from outside people like Mr. Van Maaran, fear
of bombs and gunfire and all mixed with
depression. The tempers are running high
with all on short fuses. Through they see a
glimmer of hope and everyone is trying to
remain normal to the best of their ability but
some of them come up in their dark side.
Ghost of Anne‟s lost friends appear and
reproach her. The fear rate is higher than the
The entries seem more serious and they also
reflect the changes of puberty in her which seem
to have grown in her confined state. Her interest
in sex as a sign of her growing up is shown and
she tries to find a friend in Peter Van Daan. The
war always looming in the backdrop and the
news of Germany planning to bomb Amsterdam.
The Jews still hounded up and many going
underground and threads of resistance knotting
up. Anne yearns for freedom from fear and wants
to be left alone most time. Confinement does
strange things to people as their tempers get
The months entries are full of humor and hope.
The invasion fever was mounting up throughout
Holland and anxiety of what the Germans might
do if they lost and it looks like Anne found a love
in midst of war, Peter as he is the only male
closer to her age group and she longs for his
companionship and feels dejected when she
doesn't receive it. And in between she is annoyed
with her mother due to her odd looks when she
goes up to Peter‟s room. We do not know
weather this is really love or proximity and the
The entries of the month are more frequent
and they give and idea about the inside of
Anne‟s head. Her feelings for Peter which are
growing and she is undergoing the
misery, hope, despair of a girl and her first
love. And she cannot get over this obsession
as she has no outlet for her feelings. Her
grown ups cannot help her. The also
describes the food shortage in the Annexe.
Still the people are on short fuses and
tempers flare occxassionaly.
Here we are reading about Anne‟s total
obsession with Peter, the arousal of love in
her and her want to share all her secrets to
Peter, but she also writes about the
happenings in the surroundings. The British
had bombed Amsterdam everyday, the
Russians defeated the Germans and entered
Odessa. Life in tatters in the world outside
with the police rounding up the Jews and
their helpers. Germany a country turned
against itself. Then very political picture.
The diary entry begins with Anne‟s keen desire to
be patient with Peter and then then the burglary
and their near miss with the police.
The near miss with the police made them very
uncomfortable and filled with mortal fear of
discovery. This chapter reveals the true suffering
of Jews during the war and the life in Annexe.
Anne feels she had an inner courage and
strength and wants to be a writer. This chapter
highlights the will to survive by the people of The
Tensions in the annex run high after the breakin, and no one can shake the feeling of
impending doom. On top of that, Peter forgets to
unbolt the front door, so Mr. Kugler has to smash
the window to get in. The air raids on the city are
incredibly heavy. On April 15, 1944, Anne gets
her first kiss. Although Peter only kisses her “half
on [ left cheek, half on ear,” Anne suddenly feels
she is very advanced for her age. She felt that
there were two different versions of Anne and it
made her feel uncomfortable. Anne also vividly
gives an account of the stark reality of present
In this months entry Anne asks Peter if he thinks
she should tell her father about their
relationship, and he believes they should. Mr.
Frank says that he thinks it is not a good idea to
carry on a romance in the annex, and he asks
Anne if Peter is in love with her. Mr. Frank tells
her not to take it too seriously and that it is her
responsibility to show restraint. Anne wonders
about the point of the war and laments that
money is being spent on fighting rather than on
medicine, the poor, and the arts. She reflects on
human nature and concludes that until all of
humanity undergoes a profound change, people‟s
tendencies toward violence will lead to endless
wars and destruction. Only courage and a will to
survive shines through.
On June 6, 1944, D-Day, the BBC announces that the
Allied invasion of France has begun. The residents of
the annex are very excited. Anne turns fifteen and
writes that the liberation is going “splendidly.” Her
mood improves, and she contemplates her love for
nature and the question of why women are thought of
as inferior to men. Near the end of July, Anne writes
about an assassination attempt on Hitler and hopes it
is proof that the Germans want to stop the war
themselves. Anne hears that anti-Semitism is
becoming more common among the Dutch, and she is
deeply disheartened. She grows depressed again and
wonders if it would not have been better to suffer a
quick death rather than go into hiding. She
counteracts this thought by writing that they all love
life too much.
. On August 1, 1944, Anne describes her new
insights into her own character and muses
that perhaps she could become the kind of
person she wants to be “if only there were no
other people in the world.”
Anne Frank‟s perpetual feeling of being lonely
and misunderstood provides the impetus for her
dedicated diary writing. Anne shares a quotation
she once read with which she strongly agrees:
“Deep down, the young are lonelier than the old.”
Because young people are less able than adults
to define or express their needs clearly, they are
more likely to feel lonely, isolated, and
misunderstood. This might seem an odd
sentiment from such a playful, amusing, and
social young girl, but Anne explains that she is
never comfortable discussing her inner emotions,
even around close friends.
Anne frequently expresses her conviction that
there are “two Annes”: the lively, jovial, public
Anne whom people find amusing or exasperating;
and the sentimental, private Anne whom only she
truly knows. As she comes to understand her
actions and motivations better over the course of
her writing, Anne continually refers to this
aggravating split between her inward and outward
character. Anne struggles with her two selves
throughout the diary, trying to be honest and
genuine, while at the same time striving to fit in
with the rest of the group and not create too
Anne‟s diary demonstrates that war brings out
both the best and the worst traits in people. Two
characteristics in particular become prominent
defining poles of character in the annex—
generosity and greed. The group‟s livelihood
depends on the serious and continual risks taken
by their Dutch keepers, who are generous with
food, money, and any other resources they can
share. Mr. Dussel and Mrs. van Daan feel that
greed is the only way to protect themselves from
the horrors of war, these same circumstances of
hardship inspire Anne to feel even more
Anne is thirteen years old when she first goes into
hiding in the annex, and she turns fifteen shortly
before the family‟s arrest. Thus, her diary is a
powerful firsthand record of the experience of a
young girl as she matures. Although Anne faces
the challenges of puberty under unusual
circumstances, the issues she struggles with are
universal. She frequently contemplates the
changes in her body and her psychology. Because
Anne does not readily confide in her mother or
her sister, she turns to her diary to understand
the changes she perceives and to question issues
about sexuality and maturity
he Franks and the van Daans are fortunate
enough to have made advance plans to go into
hiding should the need arise, but they still know
they are not completely safe from the Nazis. Their
security depends on the cooperation of many
different people outside the annex, as well as a
good amount of luck and hope. Their fear grows
each time the doorbell rings, there is a knock on
their door, or they hear that there is a break-in at
the office building. They hear reports from the
outside world about their friends who are
arrested and about non-Jews who are suffering
from a lack of food.
Hanneli is one of Anne‟s close friends who
appears in Anne‟s dreams several times as a
symbol of guilt. Hanneli appears sad and dressed
in rags, and she wishes that Anne could stop
Hanneli‟s suffering. A young Jewish girl, Hanneli
has presumably already been arrested and
deported to a concentration camp. For Anne,
Hanneli represents the fate of her friends and
companions and the millions of Jews—many of
whom were children like herself—who were
tortured and murdered by the Nazis.
Anne‟s grandmother appears to Anne in her
dreams. To Anne, she symbolizes
unconditional love and support, as well as
regret and nostalgia for the life Anne lived
before being forced into hiding. Anne wishes
she could tell her grandmother how much
they all love her, just as she wishes she had
appreciated her own life before she was
confined in the annex.