G4LI Advancing Research on Games for Learning


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G4LI Games for Learning Day at G4C 2011

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G4LI Advancing Research on Games for Learning

  1. 1. G4LI Advancing Research on Games for Learning<br />Ken Perlin & Jan L. Plass<br />Games for Learning Institute<br />NYU<br />Games for Change Festival• June 22, 2011<br />99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games.<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />The National Challenge<br />Games for Learning Institute<br />Development<br />Research <br />
  3. 3. Overview<br />The National Challenge<br />
  4. 4. The Challenge<br />The National Challenge<br />U.S. students are falling behind their peers in other countries, especially in STEM (PISA, TIMMS)<br />21st Century requires new skill sets to succeed in knowledge society<br />Science and Engineering positions in many companies remain unfilled due to lack of qualified applicants<br />Problems even more pronounced for women, ethnic minorities, learners with low English proficiency<br />
  5. 5. The Challenge<br />Collaborators<br />Board of Advisors<br />Faculty from NYU, New York City, National, International<br />Network of Middle and High Schools in New York City<br />Organizations offering After-School programming<br />Media Developers & Broadcasters<br />Museums<br />
  6. 6. Games for Learning<br />The Games for Learning Institute (G4LI)<br />
  7. 7. Games for Learning Institute<br />G4LI–A Multi-Institutional Institute<br /> Comprised of 13 faculty (at 9 institutions), specializing in STEM Education, Science of Learning, Educational Technology, Psychology, Game Design, Computer Science, and Software Engineering. Funded by Microsoft Research. <br />NYU (Ken Perlin, Jan Plass, Co-Directors, Cath Milne)<br />NYU Poly (Katherine Isbister, Carl Skelton, Joel Wein)<br />CUNY Graduate Center (Bruce Homer)<br />Columbia (Steve Feiner)<br />Teachers College (Chuck Kinzer)<br />Parsons School of Design (Colleen Macklin)<br />Dartmouth (Mary Flanagan)<br />Rochester Institute of Technology (Andy Phelps)<br />Catholic University of Chile, Santiago (Miguel Nussbaum)<br />
  8. 8. Games for Learning Institute<br />Mission<br />Identification of design patterns describing the effects of key design elements of games on students’ learning experiences and outcomes <br />Investigating how effects found in education and psychology research can be applied to the design of games for learning<br />Develop theory-based, empirically validated design patterns for games for learning<br />Facilitate the development of critical STEM knowledge and skills as well as critical digital literacy skills to be informed citizens <br />
  9. 9. Research: Games for Learning<br />Adventure Game for Science Learning<br />Strong Narrative<br />Science Problems Embedded <br />
  10. 10. Research: Games for Learning<br />AR Simulation Game for Science Learning<br />Geo-Located Hot Zones<br />Authentic Scientific Data feed <br />
  11. 11. Research: Games for Learning<br />Games and Learning<br />Math Skills: Factor Reactor<br />
  12. 12. Research: Games for Learning<br />Games and Learning<br />Math Skills: Supertransformation!<br />
  13. 13. Games for Learning<br />Development Research (Ken)<br />
  14. 14. Other Projects<br />App Inventor (Ken Perlin)<br />App Inventor as entry level programming language<br />Level up to Super App Inventor (add variable scoping, data typing, object classes and instancing, and aggregate types; editable code)<br />Use to teach computer programming<br />Game-like features, applying our research<br />
  15. 15. Other Projects<br />Ken to add slides<br />
  16. 16. Research Results<br />Empirical Research<br />NYU<br />CUNY GC<br />NYU Poly<br />Teachers College Columbia University<br />
  17. 17. Learning with Games<br />Why Games for Learning? Games have potential to be:<br />Highly Contextualized, Situated Problem Solving Spaces<br />Highly Engaging, Individualized Learning<br />Teach 21st Century skills + Concepts and Skills<br />Bridge in-school and out-of-school learning<br />Emotional Impact by Design <br />Embedded Assessment (learning, learner state and trait variables)<br />However: <br />We do not yet understand well enough how to designGames that are effective for learning and fun/engaging.<br />
  18. 18. Learning with Games<br />Functions of Games for Learning<br />Games to prepare future learning (Schwartz, 1999)<br />Games for specific learning goals: new content, skills<br />Games to practice existing skills: automatization<br />Development of 21st Century Skills<br />However:<br />Most generalizable research focusses on Games to practice existing STEM skills <br />Qualitative Research focusses on Games to develop of 21st Century Skills<br />
  19. 19. Research Agenda<br />
  20. 20. Games for Learning<br />Research Methods<br />Experimental Research<br />Video Observations<br />Playtesting<br />Using a variety of measures:<br />Physiological (biometrics, eye tracking, fMRI)<br />Behavioral (in-game assessment, video observations)<br />Self-reports (in-game/post-game think-aloud, interviews, surveys)<br />
  21. 21. Research Methods<br />Research Methods: Posture Sensor<br />
  22. 22. Research Methods<br />Research Methods: Eye Tracking & Games<br />
  23. 23. Computational Thinking<br />
  24. 24. Research Findings<br />Rapunsel (NSF)<br />Goal: Teach Girls How to Program<br />Participants: 56 middle school students (29 female)<br />Design: Pre/Post test design<br />Duration: 4 weeks, 50min per week<br />
  25. 25. Research Findings<br />Rapunsel<br />Results<br />No increases in programming-related knowledge<br />Significant pre/post increases in girls' generalself-efficacy(d = .65); nsd for boys<br />Significant pre/post increases in programmingself-efficacyfor girls (d = 1.06); marginally significant for boys (d = .48)<br />Significant pre/post increases in self-esteem for girls (d = .66) and for boys (d = .48)Plass, J.L., Goldman, R., Flanagan, M., et al., (2007)<br />
  26. 26. Research: Play Mode<br />Mode of Play Study<br />Play Mode<br />Goal: Compare Single Player v. Collaborative v. Competitive Mode <br />Participants: 63 NYC middle school students, 6-8th grade<br />Design: factorial design (solo v. collaborative v. competitive)<br />
  27. 27. Research: Play Mode<br />Mode of Play Study<br />Results<br />Collaborative and competitive play resulted in <br />greater situational interest than solo play<br />the strongest mastery goal orientation<br />Solo game play was reported to be less enjoyable than collaborative and competitive game play<br />Participants in the competitive group completed more math problems in the game, BUT:<br />Solo group demonstrated significantly greatermathfluency in the posttest<br />
  28. 28. Research Findings<br />Movement-Based Play (NYU Poly)<br />A Controlled Comparison of Movement Based Games<br />In-school study with low/medium/high movement Wii games.<br />Players rated emotions after each round.<br />Video coded for manipulation check.<br />Results<br />Higher arousal/energy whenmore movement.<br />Same amount of positive feelings in all conditions. <br />
  29. 29. Research Findings<br />Movement-Based Play (NYU Poly)<br />Can movement-based play increase math confidence? An investigation using the number-line game Scoop! <br />We created a Kinect-based number line math game, using research about ‘power poses’. <br />In-school study with ‘high’ and ‘low’ power pose versions of the game was conducted this spring.<br />Players rated emotions and math confidence pre and post play. <br />We also received student math scores.<br />Currently doing analysis of results. <br />
  30. 30. Research: Learning Mechanics<br />Learning Mechanics Research<br />Two learning mechanics:<br />Solve missing angles by selecting correct number<br />Better: Solve missing angles by identifying correct rule<br />
  31. 31. Research: Play Mode<br />Game Mechanic Study<br />Goal: Compare Rule-based v. Arithmetic Responses to Geometry Problems<br />Participants: 89 NYC middle school students, 6 & 8th grade<br />Design: factorial design (rule v. arithmetic)<br />
  32. 32. Research: Play Mode<br />Game Mechanic Study<br />Results (Preliminary)<br />Arithmetic game more interesting than rule-based game<br />More problems solved in rule-based game<br />Diminishing returns for arithmetic but not rules group (>30 levels solved)<br />
  33. 33. Research: Feedback Design<br />Feedback Study (Teachers College Columbia U)<br />Goal: Compare different types of feedback (informative v. Elaborative) and choice of avatar (choice v. no choice)<br />110 sixth and seventh grade NYC students<br />
  34. 34. Research: Feedback Design<br />Feedback Study<br />
  35. 35. Learning Mechanics<br />G4LI Library of Learning Mechanics<br />
  36. 36. Assessment Mechanics<br />G4LI Library of Assessment Mechanics<br />
  37. 37. Collaborators<br />Ken Perlin<br />Bruce Homer<br />Catherine Milne<br />Katherine Isbister<br />Trace Jordan<br />Joel Wein<br />Carl Skelton<br />Mary Flanagan<br />Chuck Kinzer<br />Andy Phelps<br />Miguel Nussbaum<br />Paul O’Keefe<br />Yan Wang<br />Ruth Schwartz<br />Jon Frye<br />Yoo Kyung Chang<br />Lizzie Hayward<br />Tsu-Ting Huang<br />Helen Zeng<br />Charles Hendee<br />Murphy Stein<br />Juan Barrientos<br />
  38. 38. Conclusion<br />Thank you – Questions?<br />Ken Perlin: ken.perlin@gmail.com<br />Jan L Plass: jan.plass@nyu.edu<br />