Final marketing plan


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Final marketing plan

  1. 1. MARKETING PLAN Fred Yancey Jr September, 10 2012 Marketing 522 Professor Gary Levanti 0
  2. 2. MLS AD INC.® 1 Soccer Dr. Soccer Capital, IL 60030 1-888-USOCCER. MARKETING PPROPOSAL MLS AD INC.® Marketing plan Table of Contents Executive Summary Company Description Strategic Focus and Objectives Plan Situational Analysis Market-Product Focus Marketing Program Financial Data and Projections Implementation Plan Evaluation and Control 1
  3. 3. MLS Ad, Inc. 1 Soccer Dr. Soccer Capital, IL 60030 1-888-USOCCERSeptember 10, 2012Keller Graduate School of Management1075 Tri-State Pkwy #800Gurnee, IL 60031ATTN: Gary LevantiRe: MLS Ad, Inc. ® Business ProposalDear Mr. Levanti:MLS Ad, Inc. is the arm of Major League Soccer (MLS) and is responsible for the broadcastingrights for the World Cup. The sole purpose of my group is to help the MLS gain media exposureand credibility like other major U.S. professional sport leagues.The purpose of my marketing plan is to introduce innovative ways to enter new markets and tocontinue growth in our existing market areas. My current marketing strategy is mostly focusedon the customer segment that includes Hispanic males between the ages of 20 to 35. I plan toexpand our marketing efforts to include all Hispanics between the ages of 20 and 45 and alsoinclude a new customer base of African-American and Caucasian men and women between theages of 20 and 45 as well as children between the ages of 15 to 20. With this expansion, I planon taking advantage of opportunities indicated by higher demand for soccer viewership. Mygoal is to generate additional ticket sales to MLS live soccer events and sales of Pay-Per-Viewevents.The primary marketing objectives of this plan are covered within a three-year period. Based onthe size of our market and my defined market area, my sales projections for the first year areticket sales of $??? in 2008, $??? in 2009, and $??? in 2010. The primary financial objectivesare to increase total sales revenues by $?? Million. Ticket sales for 2004 were $???, 2005$???, and 2006 $???. As you can see I am hoping to gradually increase tickets sales by ??%over the three-year period.The marketing budget for this plan is outlined in our Advertising and Promotional Budgetsection. Also, inclusive of this plan are a Market Overview, a SWOT Analysis, our MarketingStrategy & Objectives, and an Advertising and Promotional Budget.Overall, this plan will take advantage of the ever-increasing popularity of the sport of Soccer andthe teams that play in the MLS league.Your point of contact after reading this marketing plan is Fred Yancey, 847-888-USOCCER (876-2237)Thank you for taking the time to review this proposal, and we look forward to doing businesswith you. Sincerely, Fred Yancey Jr 2
  4. 4. Executive SummaryMLS AD INC ®, the marketing arm of started in 2012 by Fred Yancey, to campaign,promote and expose the American public to the world of Major League Soccer (MLS),and to provide strong alternative competition and vie for larger shares, on par or toexceed in the market where football, baseball, and basketball now dominate. MLS ADINC® has anticipated growth to expand and compete within all fifty states within the USand to be a top tier ranked league among the industries leaders much like the Spanish,European, and Italian leagues. Our product involves the company as a whole, and notjust a product within the company. MLS AD INC® will focus primarily on the sport ofsoccer and how MLS AD INC ® will partner with industry and network giants to broadenpublic awareness, partner with educational institutions to offer soccer scholarships andbuild playing-fields on school campuses, and partner with investors to build soccerstadiums and stimulate the local, state, and national economies thereby increasingconsumer accessibility, desire, willingness to pay and right pricing in order to generaterevenue from local consumer’s participation in, and attendance to Major League Soccer(MLS) sporting events nationwide.The overall Strategy Focus and Objectives of MLS AD INC® include three aspects ofcorporate strategy that will influence the market: (1) The mission/vision, (2) goals, and(3) Core competence/sustainable competitive advantageMission /VisionThe mission/vision of MLS AD INC® is to bring the world of Major League Soccer to theforefront in America’s top watched sporting activity and acceptance in all fifty states fora price that the consumer is willing to pay and with the comparable ease like that of a‘mouse’ click.GoalsFor the next five years MLS AD INC® seeks to achieve the following goals:1. To gain an image as the national spokespersons for the sport of MLS soccer.2. To introduce the sport of MLS soccer to every level of consumer.3. To keep up with current technology, and offer new services.4. To expand by partnering with nationally renowned industry leaders.5. To obtain a real (inflation-adjusted) growth of ___ percent in market share.6. To have public stock offering by the year 2015.Core Competency and Sustainable Competitive AdvantageMLS AD INC® seeks to achieve a unique ability1. To provide high-quality soccer sports excitement to the public.2. To deliver this service to the customer with the ease of everyday entertainment,complementing their individual lifestyles and their need for exciting sports action via themedia, internet, print, and live performances.To translate these objectives into a sustainable a competitive advantage, MLS AD INC®will work closely with the networks, sports teams, schools, manufacturers, suppliers, 3
  5. 5. distributors, and consumers to build the relationships and alliances necessary to satisfythe full spectrum of total Consumer Relationship Management (CRM).2.0 Situation AnalysisThis situation analysis provides an overview and analysis of the top four competitors inthe industry in relation to the current consumer environment.2.1Market SummarySoccer is played on large grass (or dirt field) where players try to kick the ball into theopposing team’s goal. Scoring goals by getting the ball into the opposing team’s goal isthe official point or score in any soccer match. Official soccer fields are about the size ofa football field. Each team can only play up to eleven players at any given time and anyplayer is allowed to score a goal. The four main positions in soccer, each with its ownresponsibilities are; goal keeper or (goalie), defender, midfielder (halfback) and forward(striker).There are a two popular soccer leagues within the United States Major League Socceror MLS with a fixed number of teams (currently 19), and United Soccer Leagues (USL).USL has a first and second division with no relegation as well as an established butunused system of promotion between them. Promotion does not occur regularly,between the USL and the MLS as the teams are franchises awarded by the leaguesgiving certain rights to the owner which makes it difficult to move from one team to theother. MSL operates independently from the USL.In the United States, MLS Ad Inc. is the arm of Major League Soccer (MSL) and is alsoresponsible for the broadcasting rights for the World Cup (soccer). The sole purpose ofthis group is to help MLS gain media exposure and credibility like other major U.Sprofessional sport leagues. MLS owners all own a portion of MLS Ad Inc. Since thiscompany is privately owned, the company’s financial details are not disclosed to thepublic. MLS Ad Inc. just negotiated TV rights with ESPN/ ABC, Fox Soccer Channel,Fox sports in Spanish, Univision and HD Net, a deal rumored to be around 20 milliondollars per year to the company. Ticket prices for a MLS game are $10 to $22 dollarsdepending on seating location, and season tickets run from $320-$820 dollars perseason with the average attendance per game ranging from 9,000 to 24,000 per game.Compared to the three other major sports teams Major League Baseball (MLB),National Basketball Association (NBA), and National Football League (NFL) MajorLeague Soccer (MLS) has the least expensive tickets of all these professional sports.Tickets prices for an MLB game ranges somewhere between $100-$5,000 dollars, for aNBA game the range is between $25.00 to $500.00 dollars, and for a NFL game therange is between $100-$3500 dollars 4
  6. 6. 2.2 S.W.O.T Analysis(Figure 1) below. Represents the internal and external factors affecting the marketopportunities for MLS AD INC. Stated briefly, this SWOT highlights strides taken by theMLS AD INC Figure 1. (SWOT Analysis for MLS AD INC) Strengths Weaknesses- David Beckham – Highly paid and recognized - Low national acceptanceathlete (recruited from the European league) nowplays in the MLS. - Not many soccer stadiums nationally- America: Women’s World Cup 2000 winners - Low ticket sales- Hispanic heritage month (OCT) will features - Low public interestsoccer as national highlight – (fastest growing ethnicgroup in America and already exposed to the game) - Low attendance at MLS games-- Opportunities Threats- Other professional sports athletes involved in - Competition from Football, Baseball, Basketball,embarrassing litigations Hockey, and Golf- Controversy over shattered baseball records with -respect to drugs and other illegal activitiesFootnotes: 5
  7. 7. 2.3 MLS vs. Competitors in North American Sports Market Table 1 Qualitative Analysis Major League Soccer vs. top three American professional sports Characters MLS NFL NBA Renowned Athletes Alan Gordon Patton Manning Kobe Bryant Danny Koevermans Adrian Peterson LeBron James Robbie Keane Aaron Rogers Kevin Durrant Steve Lenhart Tom Brady Blake Griffin2.4 Products and Services being offered Autographed Soccer balls Jerseys, Footballs Jerseys, and basketballs Sports Jerseys, Soccer shoes Gym Shoes Memorabilia Apparel Jerseys, Soccer shoes Gym Shoes Price $22-$28 $100-$2500 $25-$560 $17.50-$49.00 Location North America North America North America North America Number of 19 32 30 Team 6
  8. 8. 2.5 Keys to SuccessPromotion and relegation is the traditional manner in which soccer leagues exist in Europe.The legal monopoly, or anti-trust exemption (de facto or de jure), is how it works in US leagues,with Major League Baseball setting the precedent in the early 20th Century.Professional sports leagues in the United States (and, largely, Canada) are essentially static withthe exception of expansion.If we had a hierarchy like Euro soccer (not the current hierarchical model which exists in MLB,the NHL, and now—to an extent—in the NBA, replete with farm teams), the shenanigans suchas the ones that just went down at Portlands City Hall over ballpark financing would not likelyexist—at least in the manner they did.Consider this: The MLS and the handful of USL divisions have, for example, 18-team leaguesand play every season so that a few teams would be promoted—i.e. go up a league—and a fewwould be relegated—go down a league.Granted, the financial structuring of such an association would—no doubt—change, but it makessense. This would cultivate soccer domestically, with the end result a hungrier and better-qualitybrand of soccer.Assuming the ultimate goal is to field a top-notch U.S. national team, such cultivation wouldhelp dramatically.Top American players would have a vested interest in playing at home, while top foreigners—inthe prime of their careers this time—might also choose to play here.The other uplifting and dramatic effect would be that a specific clubs supporters would have adirect investment in the success of that club.More groundswell and grassroots involvement with soccer at the club level would lead to moretickets being sold, more money for the club, and thus more money to invest in infrastructure, i.e.a new privately-financed stadiumThe cycle continues upward, especially if that club is traditionally at the top of the tables("standings" in the American Language).Right now, the MLS has potential, but it wants to swim against the current, modeling itself afterthe Big Four.Is there room for them in the American sporting landscape with such a paradigm? Doubtful.Would there be room for soccer if they took the traditional model and ran with it? Likely so. 7
  9. 9. 2.6 Critical IssuesOur countrys recent tradition of hasty and poor decision-making does not make this prospect anyeasier, Im afraid.Whining about the lack of regional or traditional rivalries to gain favor with the league brass andimmediately secure a franchise does not do any good in the long run.If we want Yankees-Red Sox, Cardinals-Cubs, Habs-Bruins, Lakers-Celtics, or Cowboys-Redskins scenarios, the only way is to cultivate such matchups in a proper manner.Timbers-Sounders already has momentum in the Pacific Northwest. In fact, it might even be thefiercest rivalry in American soccer.It will gain credence with the country at large only if the MLS and its sister leagues arelegitimized, nationally and internationally, and that is with a relegation-promotion system.The old athletic rivalries, in the U.S. and abroad, became what they are from years of play—andorganically—through their respective fan bases. Fiat and an unruly commissioner does not makefans invest in such a process.Remember, soccer is still relatively new on the scene.The NASL had traction for a time, but flickered out like a distant star largely because of poormanagement, the chief error being rapid expansion.Will the MLS fall to the same fate? It is not looking good, but aside from picking throughNostradamus quatrains to find out, the next best guess might be in the hands of a magic eightball. 8
  10. 10. 3.0 Marketing StrategyThis section will describe the marketing and product objectives for MLS AD INC®, andtheir target markets, positioning, product, price, and promotion strategy of its services.First, our current customer segment is the Hispanic market. Population in the U.S. forthis segment continues to grow at steady rate. Loyalty and purchasing power from thisfan-base also continues to grow as a result of the increase in population. There arenow numerous players in the MLS league that are well known in the soccer culture,which more and more Hispanics can identify with.Our second segment includes the African-American population. This group is thesecond-largest subculture after Hispanics and shops more than any other minoritygroup. Over the past five years, there has been a continual increase of African-American players.The third segment is the Caucasian segment. When the MLS league was founded in1994, the players consisted of approximately 50% Hispanic, 30% European andAfrican-America, and the remaining 20% were Caucasians. Today, the league is madeup of 45% Caucasian. Our goal for this segment is to market the fanfare of thisincreased market segment.3.1 MissionThe mission of the MLS Soccer is to enhance, assist and grow the sport of soccer in theUnited States with a special emphasis on underserved communities.We view soccer as a powerful vehicle for social change. By supporting thedevelopment of places to play, places to grow and places to learn, our goal is to ensurethat children in underserved communities have easy and affordable access to qualitysoccer programs that support their physical and personal development.Areas of interest include: Places to Play: Engaging community-based organization, government agencies and local non-profits, the Foundation works to develop quality soccer fields that provide children with safe places to play and develop skills. Places to Grow/Places to Learn: The Foundation supports the development and expansion of soccer programs with strong youth development components. Areas of emphasis include programs that: o Provide children with guidance on nutrition and ways to stay active and healthy to help combat rising childhood obesity rates; o Engage children in academic activities with the goal of increasing educational attainment; o Work to guide children away from negative influences such as gangs and violence. 9
  11. 11. 3.2 Marketing ObjectivesThe MLS AD INC marketing intent is promote sales and attendance of MLS Soccer,and to take full advantage of its service potential while building a base from which otherrevenues sources can be utilized. These are detailed in four areas below:3.3 Financial Objectives Few sports leagues guard their finances more closely than MLS, butefforts to bring a franchise to Portland brought many long hidden numbers to light. In areport prepared by HVS, many MLS financial numbers became public for the first time.The report is here.The report projects MLS finances from 2011 (when Portland enters the League), until2015 and aggregates data from past seasons. Total MLS stadium revenues for 2011-2015 are projected at $14-15 Million per year. This includes ticket sales, advertising,naming rights, concessions and more.The report also addresses season ticket sales for 2007 and 2008 with Toronto the high(16,641 in 2008) and Chivas the low (837 in 2008). The report does not includeSeattle’s 22k for 2009. Most teams fall in the 3-5k range, but the League did show a26% increase from 2007 to 2008 (including the addition of San Jose in 2008).Because the report focused on the viability of a stadium in Portland, many of thenumbers focus on seating, concessions, merchandise and other game day items.Around the League, Club prices range from $5,000 (both L.A. teams) to approximately$1,000. Suites range from $154,000 per year (Galaxy) to $21,000 per year (KC). Someteams sell suites by the game, while most offer only annual purchases.Stadium naming rights are also discussed; The Home Depot Center is a $70 milliondeal for 10 years, while Pizza Hut Park is $25 million over 20 years. Dick’s SportingGoods Park is a $40 million two year deal and Rio Tinto is a $1.5-$2 million dollarannual deal (for 15 years)The report also projects annual ticket sales in Portland (wellbelow the mean), ticket prices, revenue from non-soccer events and more.This is a fascinating picture of the League’s current, past and future finances. Based onthese numbers, the City of Portland and presumably investors in Vancouver, Portland,Philly and St. Louis were eager to buy into MLS. The report makes for fantastic reading(in its entirety) and will definitely make for interesting conversation. 10
  12. 12. 3.4 Target MarketsThe primary revenue market for MLS AD INC is all adult consumers and childrenranging in ages from 8 years of age and up.3.5 PositioningIn the past baseball, football, and basketball have been a way of life for America. MLSAD INC will institute and sustain a vigorous ad campaign to make MLS soccer anational pastime and a household word beginning with the phrase below:3.6 Marketing MixThe four marketing mix elements of MLS AD INC® marketing program are detailedbelow.3.7 StrategiesProduct StrategyIntroducing MLS soccer nationwide is a complex task and requires that creativepromotional activities gain consumer awareness and confidence among the targetmarket households identified earlier. The anticipated approach to enter the market willbe to saturate the market with vigorous advertising three months prior to the start of thecompetition’s seasons and continue throughout, ending three months after the end oftheir seasons for the first three years.Price StrategyVarious price strategies to attract fans within all income brackets- Seating upgrade for nominal add on fee- Season/group/corporate discounts - Reduced prices at the box officePromotion StrategyThese are all augmented product offerings to be more competitive- Player access- Fan-tunnel access- Guaranteed seat locations- Scholarships- Prizes with purchase- Bring-a-friend coupons- Memorabilia- Partner with sponsors and offer giveaways, prizes and raffles with purchase of tickets 11
  13. 13. Place (Distribution) StrategyThe distribution is intended to provide nationwide attention and to reach out to all typesin the consumer market. From the start of the soccer season which runs from earlyApril to late November, MLS AD INC® will launch an aggressive campaign featuring thead (figure 2) below, on billboards nationwide. Simultaneously, MLS AD INC® will alsolaunch thirty-second television spots on all major network three months before, after,and throughout the soccer season during prime time as well as a nationwide photo andautograph opportunity at all MLS sporting events and in all major sporting goods stores.Over the next three years, billboards nationwide will also be updated every threemonths to depict other soccer themes consisting of men, women, and children engagedeither in the sport itself or as part of the action from previous games.- Media -Billboards- Internet- Newspaper ads- Magazines 12
  14. 14. 3.8 Marketing ResearchList of NFL television contracts Since 1982 Period AFC Package NFC Package Sunday Night Monday Night Thu/Sat Night Total Amount1982- NBC CBS None ABC $420 million/yr19861987- NBC CBS ESPN (2nd half) ABC $473 million/yr19891990- TNT (1st half) NBC CBS ABC $900 million/yr1993 ESPN (2nd half)1994- TNT (1st half) NBC FOX ($395 million/yr) ABC $1.1 billion/yr1997 ESPN (2nd half)1998- ESPN ($600 ABC ($550 CBS ($500 million/yr) FOX ($550 million/yr) ESPN $2.2 billion/yr2005 million/yr) million/yr)2006- CBS ($622.5 FOX ($712.5 ESPN ($1.1 NFL Network $3.735 NBC ($650 million/yr)2011 million/yr) million/yr) billion/yr) (N/A) billion/yr 13
  15. 15. All-Star exhibition gamesThis section lists major All-star games sorted by total attendance. Please help Wikipedia by adding more matches. Event Sport Year Venue City, Country Attendance SourcePro Bowl (NFL) American football 2006 Aloha Stadium Honolulu, Hawaii, United States 51,190 NFL Thomas & Mack Las Vegas, Nevada, UnitedNBA All-Star Game Basketball 2007 15,694 NBA Center States San Francisco, California, UnitedMLB All-Star Game Baseball 2007 AT&T Park 43,965 ESPN StatesWNBA All-Star Game Basketball 2007 Verizon Center Washington D.C., United States 19,487 WNBA American Airlines MercuryNHL All-Star Game Ice hockey 2007 Dallas, Texas, United States 18,532 Center NewsMLS All-Star Game Football (soccer) 2006 Toyota Park Bridgeview, Illinois, United States 21,210 MLSE. J. Whitten Legends Australian rules 2006 Telstra Dome Melbourne, Australia 13,000 AU StadiumsGame football 14
  16. 16. List of TV markets and major sports teamThis list is ranked by Nielsen media markets in the United States. Only teams from the four major North American professional sports leagues (MLB, NBA, NFL,NHL) are listed.Rank Media Market MLB NBA NFL NHL New York Mets, New York New Jersey Nets, New New York Giants, New New Jersey Devils, New York1 New York City Yankees York Knicks York Jets Islanders, New York Rangers Los Angeles Angels of Los Angeles Clippers, Los Anaheim Ducks, Los Angeles2 Los Angeles Anaheim, Los Angeles Dodgers Angeles Lakers Kings Chicago Cubs, Chicago White3 Chicago Chicago Bulls Chicago Bears Chicago Blackhawks Sox4 Philadelphia Philadelphia Phillies Philadelphia 76ers Philadelphia Eagles Philadelphia Flyers5 Dallas/Fort Worth Texas Rangers Dallas Mavericks Dallas Cowboys Dallas Stars Oakland Athletics, San Oakland Raiders, San6 San Francisco Bay area Golden State Warriors San Jose Sharks Francisco Giants Francisco 49ers7 Boston Boston Red Sox Boston Celtics New England Patriots Boston Bruins8 Atlanta Atlanta Braves Atlanta Hawks Atlanta Falcons Atlanta Thrashers9 Washington, D.C. Washington Nationals Washington Wizards Washington Redskins Washington Capitals10 Houston Houston Astros Houston Rockets Houston Texans11 Detroit Detroit Tigers Detroit Pistons Detroit Lions Detroit Red Wings12 Phoenix Arizona Diamondbacks Phoenix Suns Arizona Cardinals Phoenix Coyotes Tampa Bay13 Tampa/St. Petersburg/Sarasota Tampa Bay Devil Rays Tampa Bay Lightning Buccaneers14 Seattle Seattle Mariners Seattle SuperSonics Seattle Seahawks15 Minneapolis/St. Paul Minnesota Twins Minnesota Timberwolves Minnesota Vikings Minnesota Wild16 Miami/Ft. Lauderdale Florida Marlins Miami Heat Miami Dolphins Florida Panthers17 Cleveland/Akron/Canton Cleveland Indians Cleveland Cavaliers Cleveland Browns18 Denver Colorado Rockies Denver Nuggets Denver Broncos Colorado Avalanche19 Orlando/Daytona Beach/Melbourne Orlando Magic20 Sacramento/Stockton/Modesto Sacramento Kings21 St. Louis St. Louis Cardinals St. Louis Rams St. Louis Blues 15
  17. 17. 22 Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Pirates Pittsburgh Steelers Pittsburgh Penguins23 Portland, OR Portland Trailblazers24 Baltimore Baltimore Orioles Baltimore Ravens25 Charlotte Charlotte Bobcats Carolina Panthers26 Indianapolis Indiana Pacers Indianapolis Colts27 San Diego San Diego Padres San Diego Chargers28 Raleigh/Durham/Fayetteville Carolina Hurricanes29 Hartford/New Haven30 Nashville Tennessee Titans Nashville Predators31 Kansas City, MO Kansas City Royals Kansas City Chiefs32 Columbus, OH Columbus Blue Jackets33 Cincinnati Cincinnati Reds Cincinnati Bengals34 Milwaukee Milwaukee Brewers Milwaukee Bucks35 Salt Lake City Utah Jazz36 Greenville/Spartanburg/Asheville37 San Antonio San Antonio Spurs38 West Palm Beach Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo/Battle39 Creek40 Birmingham/Anniston/Tuscaloosa41 Harrisburg/Lancaster/Lebanon/York42 Hampton Roads, VA43 Las Vegas44 Albuquerque/Santa Fe45 Oklahoma City Greensboro/High Point/Winston-46 Salem47 Memphis Memphis Grizzlies48 Louisville49 Jacksonville Jacksonville Jaguars50 Buffalo, NY Buffalo Bills Buffalo Sabres51 Austin, TX 16
  18. 18. 52 Providence/New Bedford53 New Orleans New Orleans Hornets New Orleans Saints54 Scranton/Wilkes-Barre55 Fresno/Visalia56 Albany/Schenectady/Troy57 Little Rock58 Knoxville59 Richmond60 Tulsa61 Mobile/Pensacola/FortWalton62 Dayton63 Fort Myers/Naples, FL64 Lexington, KY65 Charleston/Huntington66 Flint/Saginaw/Bay City67 Roanoke/Lynchburg68 Tucson69 Wichita/Hutchinson70 Green Bay/Appleton Green Bay Packers 17
  19. 19. 4.0 Controls Controls help management measure results and identify any problems or performance variations that need corrective action.Controls are being established to cover implementation and the organization of ourmarketing activities. 4.1 IMPLEMENTATION We are planning tight control measures to closely monitor quality and customer service satisfaction. This will enable us to react very quickly in correcting any problems that may occur. Other early warning signals that will be monitored for signs of deviation from the plan include monthly soccer ticket sales (by segment and channel) and monthly expenses. 4.2 MARKETING ORGANIZATION MLS Soccer overhead chief marketing officer, Fred Yancey, holds overall responsibility for all of the company’s marketing activities. MLS Soccer has hired Worldwide Marketing to handle national sales campaigns, trade and consumer sales promotions, and public relations efforts. 5.0 Conclusion MLS AD INC® will conduct quarterly market assessment to determine market share, and make tailored adjustment to satisfy their objectives. 18
  20. 20. Mission Statement | US Soccer Foundation. (n.d.). Mission Statement | US Soccer Foundation.Retrieved October 20, 2012, from, B. (2009, March/April). Footiebusiness. Footiebusiness. Retrieved October 20, 2012,from, B. D. (2009, March/April). MLS [Web log post]. Retrieved October 20, 2012, from, N. (2011, August/September). Advantages & Disadvantages From Playing Soccer onTurf. LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved October 20, 2012, from (2012, October 16). Wikipedia. Retrieved October 20, 2012, from - They play, You save! (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2012, from, P., & Keller, K. L. (2009). Marketing management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PearsonPrentice Hall. 19