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Sexual ethics in islam ISRA presenation

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Presentation on Islamic Ethics with a particular focus on sexual ethics for HSC students studying Islam.

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Sexual ethics in islam ISRA presenation

  1. 1. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 1 Sexual Ethics in Islam
  2. 2. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 2 Islamic Law and Ethics
  3. 3. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 3 Content of Islamic Ethics •Shariah contains both legal rules and ethical principles. •Shariah is summed up under four broad categories. –Aqidah – creed; belief related matters –Ibadah – religious worship and practices –Ahklaq – morality and ethics –Muamalah – social relations •Islam is an all encompassing religion with a comprehensive law that provides guidance for Muslims in all key aspects of life.
  4. 4. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 4 Legal & Ethical Boundaries •Human actions, hence freedoms, are not absolute and are curtailed by law, public and individual conscience. •Islam seeks a balance between law, public morality and individual conscience. •Every crime is a sin in Islam. But not every sin is a crime. Certain acts are left to the conscience of the human being. Individual Conscience Public Morality Law
  5. 5. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 5 Four Sources of Shariah 1.The Qur’an As the primary source of God’s revelation, the Qur’an is the sourcebook of Islamic principles and values. There are about 350 legal verses out of 6235 verses. 2.Sunnah of the Prophet Words, actions and approvals (and disapprovals) of the Prophet Muhammad as the messenger of God. An individual narrated report is called a hadith. Thousands of hadith have been collected and put into volumes by previous scholars.
  6. 6. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 6 Four Sources of Shariah 3.Analogical Reasoning (Qiyas) Extending established legal precedence to new matters by identifying an operative cause applicable to both situations. 4.Consensus (Ijma) Consensus of the community of scholars over a solution to a legal and practical issue. When a certain ruling lasts the test of time, more and more jurists as well as people accept the ruling achieving a consensus over that matter.
  7. 7. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 7 Some related teachings about human life
  8. 8. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 8 Uniqueness of Humanity •Humanity is considered a unique creation for they have the ability to know God like no other creature does. –Their disposition (fitra) allows this. –Best integrated being (ahsan al taqwim). •The ultimate purpose of creation of a human being is to engage in a personal relationship with God through belief, worship and good deeds. •Life is a test – who will do best within the constraints of everyone’s unique circumstances in life not always in their control.
  9. 9. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 9 Ultimate Purpose •God has inculcated senses and emotional impulses in human nature so that humans could survive on earth. •These senses and impulses are not limited to facilitate the intellectual and spiritual growth of each human towards human perfection.
  10. 10. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 10 Purification of the Nafs •Realising this purpose and perfecting oneself require self-discipline. •Through self-discipline and living a God conscious life, a Muslim strives to purify their carnal soul (nafs); •The human carnal soul is considered a hindrance to one’s spiritual development. –“By the soul (nafs), and the proportion and order given to it; And its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right; Truly he succeeds that purifies it; And he fails that corrupts it.” (Qur’an 91:7-10).
  11. 11. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 11 Human Faculties According to Ghazzali Faculty Excessive Moderation Insufficiency Rational Faculty (Intellect) Deceit and fraud Wisdom Naivety Ignorance Appetitive Faculty (Desires) Strong desire, greed Temperance Impotence of desires, indifference Irascible Faculty (Anger) Recklessness Courage Cowardice •So, satisfying desires and physical impulses all the time or at all costs is seen as destructive to individuals and hence society.
  12. 12. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 12 Approach to Relationships
  13. 13. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 13 Everything is in Pairs The Qur’an talks about everything being created in pairs: “Glory be to Him Who created pairs of all things, of what the earth grows, and of their kind and what they do not know.” (Qur'an, 36:36)
  14. 14. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 14 Male and Female Complement Each Other The Qur'an talks about how man and woman are designed physically and emotionally to complement one another; "They are your garments and you are their garments." (Qur’an, 2:187)
  15. 15. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 15 Ideal relationship between a couple "And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates (ajwacan) from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquillity with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts): verily in that are Signs for those who reflect.” (Qur’an, 30:21)
  16. 16. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 16 Privacy must be respected •Privacy of individuals and families are sacrosanct and must be respected at all times. •Couples are discouraged from revealing their private and sexual life to themselves. •Personal sins, faults and what is considered shameful morally, religiously and culturally should not be revealed. God is The Concealer (Sattar); if you conceal your sins God will conceal them on the day of judgement. Prophet Muhammad
  17. 17. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 17 Sexual Ethics
  18. 18. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 18 Sex Within Marriage •Regular sex within marriage is seen as the right of couple from one another. •Sexual relations within marriage is seen as spiritually rewarding. •For a married couple, it is Sunnah to start intercourse saying: –Bismi Allah ir-Rahman ir-Rahim (In the name of God Mosqt Gracious Most Compassionate)
  19. 19. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 19 Contraception •There is consensus with scholars that all forms of contraception are permissible as long as it does not damage health and the reproductive capacity of the person, male or female, •This is based on a hadith where Prophet Muhammad said to a questioner that it was OK to use a form of contraception. •Once conception occurs, then the principle of the “right to life” steps in for the child.
  20. 20. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 20 Sex Outside Marriage •Islam does not approve of sexual relationships outside of marriage. •Adultery is strongly prohibited. "And do not approach adultery and fornication; indeed it is an abomination and an evil way.” (Qur’an 17:32)
  21. 21. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 21 Sex Outside Marriage •Reasons for the prohibition of sex outside marriage are: –Ensuring rights of children are protected •Right to know who their parents are. •If a child is conceived within a marriage, there will be record of who his mother and father is. –To protect the rights of women to ensure they receive support and maintenance during marriage and after divorce (if it happens).
  22. 22. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 22 Age of Marriage •A definitive age is not given for marriage but the main principle is that they must be over puberty and mature enough to manage their own affairs. •This age will vary based on culture and social norms. –“And test the orphans [in their abilities] until they reach marriageable age. Then if you perceive in them sound judgement, release their property to them. And do not consume it excessively and quickly, [anticipating] that they will grow up . . .” (Qur’an, 4:6) •There is a lot of incorrect information about Aisha’s age when she married Prophet Muhammad. –New research shows that she would have been 17 or 18 years old.
  23. 23. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 23 No Sexual Harassment •Islam prohibits people from staring lustfully at people of the opposite sex, for the eye is the door to feelings, and a lustful gaze magnifies desires. •The Qur'an declares; "Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: And God is well acquainted with all that they do. And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty...” (Qur’an, 24:30-31)
  24. 24. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 24 Impact on modern life •Islamic values often clash with the liberalism of modern societies. •This can cause issues between family members who may have differences in approach. •Religious Muslims tend to get married young because of the prohibition of sex before marriage. •In modern life marriage when not ready causes high divorce rates.
  25. 25. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 25 Homosexuality
  26. 26. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 26 Same Sex Relations •Homosexuality is very similar to the case of sex outside of marriage in that Islam prohibits homosexual relationships. •Sodomy is considered an illicit act. •However, people of homosexual orientation should not be ostracised or discriminated against because of their sexual inclinations.
  27. 27. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 27 Sodomy in the Qur’an •“And Lot said to his people: “Do you commit an indecency such as no people in all the world have ever done before you?” •”You come to men with lust in place of women. You are a people committing excesses and wasteful (of your God-given faculties).” •“But his people’s response was only that they said (to one another): “Banish them from your settlement, for they are a few persons who make themselves out to be pure!” (Qur’an, 7:80- 82)
  28. 28. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 28 Three Categories Islamic view on homosexuality can be summarised in three broad categories.
  29. 29. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 29 1st Category •Homosexual relationships practised by bisexual individuals and omnisexual people who do not care with whom they have a sexual intercourse as long as they satisfy their sexual desires. •This category is clearly prohibited in Islam, as it is clear that there has been a choice to engage in homosexual relations when a heterosexual relationship could equally be chosen.
  30. 30. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 30 2nd Category Individuals who have physical traits of both sexes (hermaphrodites). Islam gives them the choice of selecting the sexual identity they prefer.
  31. 31. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 31 3rd Category •Individuals who are sexually attracted to the same sex and have no attraction to the opposite sex. •Islamic law still considers it a “sin” if a person in this state commits homosexual acts particularly intercourse. •But since this is a tough test, Islam recommends a person in this case to be patient and promises the reward in afterlife.
  32. 32. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 32 But He Loves God and His Prophet •Islam treats “sinners” with compassion and views them as people in need of support rather than alienation. Say: "O my Servants who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah. for Allah forgives all sins: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Qur’an, 39:53) •When a person spoke critically of a person for committing adultery, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) stopped him by saying, “but he loves God and His Prophet”.
  33. 33. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 33 In Conclusion •Any physical desire unchecked eventually becomes self-destructive for the person and the society. •Life is a test for everyone to see who will do good for themselves, for others and for God. •Satisfaction of sexual desires in the form of a legitimate marriage is enough for happiness and even spiritually rewarding. •Sexual relations within marriage is seen as the balanced path between the two extremes of no sexual desires (impotence) and having indiscriminate sexual activity.
  34. 34. Sexual Ethics in Islam Slide 34 HSC Question Exercise

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