Distance Learning


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Distance Learning

  1. 1. DISTANCE STUDY LEARNING CURRICULUM presented by: FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL MAED Major in Educational Management
  2. 2. Distance education, or distance learning, is a field of education that focuses on the pedagogy and andragogy, technology, and instructional systems design that aim to deliver education to students who are not physically "on site". Rather than attending courses in person, teachers and students may communicate at times of their own choosing by exchanging printed or electronic media, or through technology that allows them to communicate in real time and through other online ways. Distance education courses that require a physical on-site presence for any reason including the taking of examinations is considered to be a hybrid or blended course of study.
  3. 3. Various Forms of Distance Education 1. Open Learning 2. Electronic Learning 3. Computer-Assisted Language Learning 4. Educational Technology 5. Learning Management System 6. mLearning 7. Social Network Service 8. Virtual School 9. Web Conferencing
  4. 4. Various Forms of Distance Education • Open learning is a teaching method that is, among others, founded on the work of Célestin Freinet and Maria Montessori. Open learning is supposed to allow pupils self- determined, independent and interest- guided learning. More recent work on open learning has been conducted by the pedagogues Hans Brügelmann, Falko Peschel, Jörg Ramseger and Wulf Wallrabenstein.
  5. 5. Various Forms of Distance Education 2. Electronic learning (or e-Learning or eLearning) is a type of Technology supported education/learning (TSL) where the medium of instruction is through computer technology, particularly involving digital technologies. E-learning has been defined as "pedagogy empowered by digital technology". In some instances, no face- to- face interaction takes place. E-learning is used interchangeably in a wide variety of contexts. In companies, it refers to the strategies that use the company network to deliver training courses to employees.
  6. 6. Various Forms of Distance Education 3. Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is a form of computer-based assisted learning which carries two important features: bidirectional learning and individualized learning. It is not a method. CALL materials are tools for learning. The focus of CALL is learning, and not teaching. CALL materials are used in teaching to facilitate the language learning process. It is a student-centered accelerated learning material, which promotes self-paced accelerated learning.
  7. 7. Various Forms of Distance Education 4. Educational technology (also called learning technology) is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[1] The term educational technology is often associated with, and encompasses, instructional theory and learning theory. While instructional technology covers the processes and systems of learning and instruction, educational technology includes other systems used in the process of developing human capability. Educational Technology includes, but is not limited to, software, hardware, as well as Internet applications and activities.
  8. 8. Various Forms of Distance Education 5. A learning management system (LMS) is software for delivering, tracking and managing training. LMSs range from systems for managing training records to software for distributing courses over the Internet and offering features for online collaboration.
  9. 9. Various Forms of Distance Education 6. mLearning, or "mobile learning", has different meanings for different communities. Although related to e-learning and distance education, it is distinct in its focus on learning across contexts and learning with mobile devices. One definition of mobile learning is: Learning that happens across locations, or that takes advantage of learning opportunities offered by portable technologies. In other words, mobile learning decreases limitation of learning location with the mobility of general portable devices.
  10. 10. Most personal technologies can support mobile learning, including • Personal Digital Assistant, in the classroom and outdoors • Tablet PC, UMPC, mobile phone, camera phone and SmartPhone • Learning Mobile Author, e.g. for authoring and publishing WAP, Java ME and SmartPhone • Personal audio player, e.g. for listening to audio recordings of lectures
  11. 11. Most personal technologies can support mobile learning, including • Personal audio player, e.g. for listening to audio recordings of lectures • Handheld audio and multimedia guides , in museums and galleries • Handheld game console, modern gaming consoles such as Sony PSP or Nintendo DS
  12. 12. Technical and delivery support for mobile learning: • 3GP For compression and delivery method of audiovisual content associated with Mobile Learning • Wi-Fi gives access to instructors and resources via internet • GPRS (General packet radio service) mobile data service, provides high speed connection and data transfer rate
  13. 13. Various Forms of Distance Education 7. A social network service focuses on building online communities of people who share interests and/or activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. Most social network services are web based and provide a variety of ways for users to interact, such as e-mail and instant messaging services.
  14. 14. Various Forms of Distance Education 8. A virtual school or cyberschool describes an institution that teaches courses entirely or primarily through online methods. Though there are tens of thousands of commercial and non-accredited courses available online, the term "virtual school" is generally reserved for accredited schools that teach a full-time (or nearly full-time) course of instruction designed to lead to a degree. At the primary and secondary level, accreditation means that virtual schools tend to receive public funding; some publicly funded and private universities also provide accredited online degrees.
  15. 15. Various Forms of Distance Education 9. Web conferencing is used to conduct live meetings or presentations via the Internet. In a web conference, each participant sits at his or her own computer and is connected to other participants via the internet. This can be either a downloaded application on each of the attendees’ computers or a web-based application where the attendees will simply enter a URL (website address) to enter the conference.
  16. 16. Other typical features of a web conference include: • Slide show presentations - where PowerPoint or Keynote slides are presented to the audience and markup tools and a remote mouse pointer are used to engage the audience while the presenter discusses slide content. • Live or Streaming video - where full motion webcam, digital video camera or multi-media files are pushed to the audience.
  17. 17. Other typical features of a web conference include: • VoIP (Real time audio communication through the computer via use of headphones and speakers) • Web tours - where URLs, data from forms, cookies, scripts and session data can be pushed to other participants enabling them to be pushed though web based logons, clicks, etc. This type of feature works well when demonstrating websites where users themselves can also participate.
  18. 18. Other typical features of a web conference include: • Meeting Recording - where presentation activity is recorded on a PC, MAC or server side for later viewing and/or distribution. • Whiteboard with annotation (allowing the presenter and/or attendees to highlight or mark items on the slide presentation. Or, simply make notes on a blank whiteboard.)
  19. 19. Other typical features of a web conference include: • Text chat - For live question and answer sessions, limited to the people connected to the meeting. Text chat may be public (echo'ed to all participants) or private (between 2 participants). • Polls and surveys (allows the presenter to conduct questions with multiple choice answers directed to the audience)
  20. 20. Other typical features of a web conference include: • Screen sharing/desktop sharing/application sharing (where participants can view anything the presenter currently has shown on their screen. Some screen sharing applications allow for remote desktop control, allowing participants to manipulate the presenters screen, although this is not widely used.)
  21. 21. Technologies Used in Delivery 1. Synchronous technology is a mode of online delivery where all participants are "present" at the same time. Requires a timetable to be organized. Synchronous technologies such as telephone, videoconferencing and web conferencing.
  22. 22. Technologies Used in Delivery 2. Asynchronous technology is a mode of online delivery where participants access course materials on their own schedule. Students are not required to be together at the same time. Asynchronous technologies such as audiocassette, e-mail, message board forums, print materials, voice mail/fax and videocassette.
  23. 23. Types of Distance Education Courses 1. Correspondence conducted through regular mail 2. Internet conducted either synchronously or asynchronously 3. Telecourse/ Broadcast, in which content is delivered via radio or television 4. CD-ROM, in which the student interacts with computer content stored on a CD-ROM
  24. 24. Types of Distance Education Courses 5. PocketPC/ Mobile Learning where the student accesses course content stored on a mobile device or through a wireless server 6. Integrated distance learning, the integration of live, in-group instruction or interaction with a distance learning curriculum
  25. 25. Testing and Evaluation Distance education has long had trouble with testing. The delivery of testing materials is fairly straightforward, which makes sure it is available to the student and he or she can read it at their leisure. The problem arises when the student is required to complete assignments and testing. Online courses have had difficulty controlling cheating in quizzes, tests, or examinations because of the lack of teacher control. In a classroom situation a teacher can monitor students and visually uphold a level of integrity consistent with an institution's reputation. However, with distance education the student can be removed from supervision completely. Some schools address integrity issues concerning testing by requiring students to take examinations in a controlled setting.
  26. 26. Testing and Evaluation • CLEP. In recent years, the College Board has been promoting its College Level Examination Program (CLEP) tests. These tests are fully accredited and can be used for many of the general education and even core requirements of many degree templates. The tests are administered in approved testing centers and are closely proctored to prevent cheating. CLEP tests are computer-based, online tests that consist of roughly 80-120 multiple choice questions. Because the test is computer-based, the candidate's score can be tallied as soon as the test is completed. CLEP's passing grade is a 50 (roughly equivalent to a C-grade) and is scaled all the way to 80 (roughly the equivalent of an A- grade) for a perfect score. CLEP operates on a pass or fail basis, in that the actual grade does not determine credit awarded, but is strictly based on whether the candidate passes or not.
  27. 27. Testing and Evaluation 2. DSST. In addition to CLEP tests, the DANTES Standardized Subject Tests (DSST)[22] is also frequently used to cover areas that CLEP does not offer tests in. These are very similar in format and administration to CLEP, being computer-based, online, and proctored, with immediate test results available. DSST also offers a number of its exams in paper based format, though they must be sent in to DSST's offices for grading, resulting in a delay for application of credit. Traditionally, DSST has used a grading system nearly identical to that of CLEP, but has recently been overhauling its tests and applying a new grading system, with a 300-500 point grade, with 400 as the passing grade. Credit is awarded based on pass or fail.
  28. 28. SALAMAT PO!