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WBCSD Mobility for Development


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The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) studied the state of mobility in four rapidly growing cities in the developing world – Bangalore, Dar es Salaam, São Paulo and Shanghai. Its final report concludes that although mobility opportunities are increasing and are an important driver of economic development in all cities, overall mobility systems are not sustainable and for poorer residents the mobility situation is deteriorating.

The Mobility for Development project set out on a process of research, dialogue and learning in the four abovementioned cities to better understand how public agencies, business and civil society in these rapidly growing cities are working to develop solutions to the mobility opportunity divide and the negative impacts associated with mobility.

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WBCSD Mobility for Development

  1. 2. <ul><li>Introduction of the WBCSD </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Mobility context </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility for Development (M4D) project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogues and case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons learned and barriers to progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy and outreach </li></ul></ul>Contents
  2. 3. <ul><li>Introduction of the WBCSD </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Mobility context </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility for Development (M4D) project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogues and case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons learned and barriers to progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy and outreach </li></ul></ul>Contents
  3. 4. What is the WBCSD? <ul><li>A CEO-led coalition of some 200 companies with a shared commitment to Sustainable Development via the three pillars of economic growth, ecological balance and social progress. </li></ul>
  4. 5. WBCSD Regional Network
  5. 6. WBCSD areas of work Eco Patent Commons Urban Infrastructure Eco Patent Commons Urban Infrastructure Water Energy Efficiency in Buildings Cement Chemicals Electricity Utilities Forest Products Maritime Mining Mobility Tires
  6. 7. Mobility journey at the WBCSD M4D Final Report Sustainable Mobility 2030 Report M4D Facts & Trends 2000-2004 2007 2007-2009 2009 Dialogues & Case Studies Bangalore Dar-es Salaam Shanghai S ão Paulo Mobility for Development Project
  7. 8. <ul><li>Introduction of the WBCSD </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Mobility context </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility for Development (M4D) project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogues and case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons learned and barriers to progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy and outreach </li></ul></ul>Contents
  8. 9. Historic shifts: Population & urbanization In 2050, 85% of the world’s 9 billion people will live in today’s developing countries In 2050, it is expected that 70% of the world population will live in urban areas
  9. 10. State of mobility: Transport activity Per capita transport activity <ul><li>North Americans </li></ul><ul><li>travel: average of 40 miles/day (car and plane) </li></ul><ul><li>emit: 6 tonnes of transport-related CO2 a year </li></ul><ul><li>Brazilians </li></ul><ul><li>travel: average of 7 miles/day (car and bus) </li></ul><ul><li>emit: 0.7 tonnes of transport-related CO2 a year </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzanians </li></ul><ul><li>travel: average of 3 miles/day (foot, bus and bicycle) </li></ul><ul><li>emit: 0. 1 tonnes of transport-related CO2 a year </li></ul>
  10. 11. State of mobility: Vehicle ownership Vehicle ownership is rising at a rate of 15-20% annually in much of the developing world
  11. 12. State of mobility: Transport costs It costs $1000 to ship a 20 foot container to the UK from Accra, Ghana, but $2300 to transport the same container next door to Liberia.
  12. 13. State of mobility: Road safety Around 1.2 million people are killed and 50 million injured in road accidents, most of them in developing countries
  13. 14. State of mobility: Congestion In Bangkok, Manila, S ão Paulo and Shanghai, downtown weekday traffic speeds average 15 km per hour
  14. 15. State of mobility: Energy consumption Transportation uses ½ of the world’s petroleum production and produces 20% of GHG emissions
  15. 16. State of mobility: Pollution Urban air pollution causes 800,000 premature deaths each year. In the most heavily polluted cities, economic losses from air pollution are estimated to reach 10% of GDP
  16. 17. <ul><li>Sustainability Mobility 2030 concluded: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Today’s system of mobility is not sustainable. Nor is it likely to become so if present trends continue.” </li></ul>Outlook
  17. 18. The sustainable mobility dilemma Sustainable mobility: “ The ability to meet society’s desires and needs to move freely, gain access, communicate, trade and establish relationships without sacrificing other essential human or ecological values, today or in the future” (WBCSD 2004)
  18. 19. <ul><li>Introduction of the WBCSD </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Mobility context </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility for Development (M4D) project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogues and case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons learned and barriers to progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy and outreach </li></ul></ul>Contents
  19. 20. <ul><li>Mobility is an enabler for economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of access to transportation and information are symptoms of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>The Mobility Divide is widening in and between countries </li></ul><ul><li>There are business opportunities in helping narrow the divide: new products and services to enable access to sustainable transport systems and means of communication </li></ul>The “Mobility Divide”
  20. 21. M4D project - objectives <ul><li>Raise awareness of the importance of mobility as a driver for economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate ways to narrow the sustainable mobility divide , including business opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss sustainable mobility solutions for rapidly growing cities in the developing world , including a strong business voice </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Global context </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility challenges in four cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangalore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dar es Salaam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>São Paulo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shanghai </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lessons and barriers to progress </li></ul><ul><li>Key messages to stakeholders </li></ul>Mobility for Development final report
  22. 23. <ul><li>Introduction of the WBCSD </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Mobility context </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility for Development (M4D) project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogues and case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons learned and barriers to progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy and outreach </li></ul></ul>Contents
  23. 24. Dialogues and case studies <ul><li>Dar-es-Salaam,Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue: BP </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: University of Dar es Salaam </li></ul><ul><li>Bangalore, India </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue: TERI-BCSD India, Renault & Toyota </li></ul><ul><li>Case study: TERI </li></ul><ul><li>Shanghai, China </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue: China BCSD & Michelin </li></ul><ul><li>Case study: Tongji University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>São Paulo , Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dialogue: Brazil BCSD, Brisa, GM, Michelin & Petrobras </li></ul><ul><li>Case study: TTC </li></ul>Engagement of 3 Regional Network partners: Brazil BCSD, China BCSD, TERI-BCSD India
  24. 25. Snapshot of the four cities <ul><li>Bangalore </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly dispersed city; strong IT industry </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of travel by bus (41%) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Aging infrastructure – cannot meet demands </li></ul><ul><li>Long travel and wait times </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing bus rapid transport and intelligent transport systems to reduce congestion and accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Dar es Salaam </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of unplanned settlements; high unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Most of public transport provided by privately operated minibuses (dala dalas) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of paved and all weather roads </li></ul><ul><li>Road accidents; vulnerable travelers </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for high capacity modern bus system </li></ul><ul><li>Driver education and regulatory enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>São Paulo </li></ul><ul><li>Dense city; most growth on periphery </li></ul><ul><li>High income inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion due to increase in vehicle ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Personal safety and security </li></ul><ul><li>Affordability of public transport for poor residents </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Ban 20% of fleet from circulating each day of the week </li></ul><ul><li>Emission limits and fast lane bus system </li></ul><ul><li>Shanghai </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid economic growth; urban migration </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of travel by bus (41%) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Major increase in car ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of high speed rail options for short distances </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch on energy resources </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Metro system; emission limits and parking charges </li></ul>
  25. 26. Bangalore – mobility snapshot Public and paratransit transport: Bus travel makes up 41% of all travel Vehicle ownership: Automobiles: 40 per 1,000 people Motorcycles: 204 per 1,000 people Expenditure on transport: The poor spend15-25% of income on travel per month Public transport basic fares: Bus: US$ 0.004 - 0.4 non-motorized = 18%
  26. 27. <ul><li>Increasingly dispersed city with few options for suburban rail travel </li></ul><ul><li>Aging infrastructure and lack of urban planning </li></ul><ul><li>Exploding population and increasing number of people on the road </li></ul><ul><li>Severe traffic congestion and environmental pollution </li></ul><ul><li>The city’s poorer residents suffer disproportionately from the negative effects of transport activities </li></ul>Bangalore – mobility challenges “ I look forward to the formulation of a practical policy for this wonderful city which should include views of all stakeholders including government, industry and the people, and a practical implementation action plan.” (Participant, Bangalore dialogue, 12 September 2007)
  27. 28. Bangalore – towards solutions <ul><li>Infrastructure development: </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent transportation system </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution control </li></ul>
  28. 29. Dar es Salaam – mobility snapshot Public and paratransit transport: 9 000 Privately operated minibuses (dala-dalas) Vehicle ownership : 16 per 1,000 people Trip frequency: 4 trips/person/day Expenditure on transport: 9.7% of household spending Public transport basic fare: 1 dala-dala ride: US$ 0.19 non-motorized = 50%
  29. 30. Dar es Salaam – mobility challenges <ul><li>The city has grown much faster than its infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Chaotic and poorly planned conditions for pedestrians, drivers and public transport users </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion, accidents and pollution are growing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable travelers are disadvantaged by the lack of mobility opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Rural residents face even more severe mobility problems, with lack of all-weather roads and transportation </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of roads have no functioning storm water drainage </li></ul>“ Mobility is a crucial aspect of sustainable development. It is more so for developing countries like Tanzania which need to move faster to achieve economic prosperity.” (Participant, Dar es Salaam dialogue, 3 April 2007)
  30. 31. <ul><li>National infrastructure improvements </li></ul><ul><li>City planning </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Education & regulatory enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Greater coordination among institutions towards an integrated approach </li></ul>Dar es Salaam – towards solutions
  31. 32. São Paulo – mobility snapshot Public and paratransit transport: 32% of travel is by motorized private transport means and 37% of travel is by foot Vehicle ownership: Automobile: 314 per 1 000 people Trip frequency: 2.1 trips/days/person Public transport basic fare: Metro or Bus: US$ 1.3 non-motorized = 38%
  32. 33. <ul><li>Rapid expansion in automobile ownership and use </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport use is falling </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in new roads has not been able to reduce congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Reported cases of attacks on personal security while waiting or riding public transport </li></ul>São Paulo - mobility challenges “ We have to reinvent the city to create areas where people are closer to what they need.” (Participant, São Paulo dialogue, 15 May 2008)
  33. 34. São Paulo – towards solutions <ul><li>Cleaner fuels and vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Private investment in infrastructure through private-public partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Improving public-transport </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Acceleration Plan </li></ul>
  34. 35. Shanghai – mobility snapshot Public and paratransit transport: 5 metro lines with plans for 6 more lines by 2010. 25% of travel is by bike Vehicle ownership: Automobile: 39 per 1 000 people Expenditure on transport : 15.8% of total expenditure compared with 3% in 1990 Public transport basic fares: Bus: US$ 0.3; Metro: US$ 0.4 non-motorized = 56%
  35. 36. <ul><li>Poorest sectors pay the greatest price and receive the least benefit from Shanghai’s urban development </li></ul><ul><li>The city is in danger of having the world’s biggest traffic jams, worst air pollution and most dangerous roads </li></ul><ul><li>Limited rail capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch on transport governance capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch on fuel resources </li></ul>Shanghai – mobility challenges “ Many of the issues related to land use and transport integration in Shanghai are similar to the rest of China. There is a feeling that if this can be solved in Shanghai, the outlook for sustainable mobility in other urban cities in China may also improve.” (Participant, Shanghai dialogue, 14 November 2007)
  36. 37. Shanghai – towards solutions <ul><li>Infrastructure development and planning </li></ul><ul><li>Governing for mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Transport demand management </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental controls </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Introduction of the WBCSD </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Mobility context </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility for Development (M4D) project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogues and case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons learned and barriers to progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy and outreach </li></ul></ul>Contents
  38. 39. <ul><li>Improvement in the range of mobility opportunities available to the general public </li></ul><ul><li>Widening mobility divide between rich and poor </li></ul><ul><li>Major problems with traffic congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Growing transport-related health and safety risks </li></ul><ul><li>Cities promote public transport yet they struggle to adapt and meet the needs and lifestyles of residents </li></ul>Lessons learned from the four cities
  39. 40. <ul><li>Inadequate stakeholder consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of coordination and integrated planning </li></ul><ul><li>Weak capacity to implement </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of capacity to finance and maintain investments </li></ul>Barriers to bridging the mobility divide
  40. 41. <ul><li>Introduction of the WBCSD </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Mobility context </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility for Development (M4D) project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogues and case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons learned and barriers to progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy and outreach </li></ul></ul>Contents
  41. 42. <ul><li>Provide innovative products and services that create value for an expanding number of customers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the mobility related impacts of own operations </li></ul><ul><li>Engage with other stakeholders from the earliest stage of mass-motorization </li></ul><ul><li>Educate, empower and incentivize </li></ul>Key messages for business
  42. 43. Key messages for government <ul><li>Take an integrated and inclusive approach to urban land use and transport planning </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure mechanisms for stakeholder education and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Align incentives with goals for sustainability and encourage individuals to make safer, more efficient and less environmentally damaging transport and travel choices </li></ul><ul><li>Build effective capacity to implement national and regional policies, regulations and urban plans </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from other cities </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Introduction of the WBCSD </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Mobility context </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility for Development (M4D) project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogues and case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons learned and barriers to progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy and outreach </li></ul></ul>Contents
  44. 45. <ul><li>Reports and case studies available on the website </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Montly Sustainable Mobility e-newsletter </li></ul><ul><li>Executive summary translated into Japanese, Chinese and Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>Launch events 2009-2010: Brazil, Portugal, Washington D.C., India, China and Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>WBCSD initiative on Urban Infrastructure </li></ul>Advocacy and outreach