Safety Practices<br />Asses safety practices and procedures used in aircraft, ground ops, to reduce accidents and injuries by..<br />Following the 8 elements a safety program<br />1. Management provides strong perceivable leadership for a safety program to be successful. Management Attitude is important because it will be reflected to the supervisors which in turn reflects the employees.<br />2. Employee Involvement helps improve safety and health by involving the employees with heir input and contributions.<br />3. Responsibility is a sign to all levels by management making everyone in the organization accountable . Having a designated safety officer that reports to the highest levels.<br />4. Risk Assessment is important in identifying hazards by severity to control or eliminate in the workplace. Obtaining information, safety data and safety violations helps with identifying hazards and using a recording and reporting parameters with various agencies.<br />5. Accident Investigation system is an important part of a safety program, it helps organizations in preventing future accidents. <br />6. Hazard Prevention safety programs has to meet the requirements of three agencies, FAA, OSHA, and EPA.<br />7. Communications for the risk assessment process is important and necessary information for the reduction of risk to the safety user.<br />8. Training is important for employees to understand safety issues and hazards in their work area.<br />
ALPA and FSF<br />Airline . Pilot . Association enables pilots and crew members to report safety problems. The association deals with safety problems from three perspectives (Pyramid). The Flight . Safety . Foundation<br />Was developed to promote safety and solve safety problems. The FSF has over 800 member organizations for more than over 70 countries which is a collection of data and feedback to alleviate safety issues, world wide.<br />
Safety Laws and Regulations<br />1925<br />Congress enacted the airmail act. Early requirements improved airmail carrier safety.<br />1930’s<br />Industry expansion required continuous improvements, budget constraints, prevented quality inspections which led to a more than doubled fatality rate passing the civil aeronautics act of 1938. The beginning of the economic regulation.<br />1926-1927<br />Pilots were now required to have solo flight experience. The ac manufacturers required to comply with minimum engineering standards.<br />1958 <br />The federal aviation act was passed because of the jet aircraft collision over the grand canyon.<br />1966<br />The NTSB was established to determine and report cause of transportation accidents and conduct studies for safety and accident prevention.<br />
Human Error<br />Types of human errors that effect fatality rates and what is being done to reduce human error.<br /><ul><li>Physical factors could be age, motor skills, visibility, hearing, and strength.
Physiologicalis low blood sugar, disability, disease, human conditions like medication, drugs, alcohol, stress, and fatigue.
Psychological is mental emotion personality types, and personality traits like complacency, memory, perception, and attitude.
Psychosocial is mental or emotional problems due to a death in the family, financial problems, death in the family, mood swings, stress due to family relations, peer pressure, and ego.
Hardware factors is wear humans interact with the machine.
Task factors is a level of training, workload, vigilance, and work intensity.
Environmental factors include noise, temperature, humidity, and pressure of oxygen.</li></ul>Reducing human error by minimizing the mismatch between human and what the human is capable of doing and optimizing the interaction between people, machines, and procedures.<br />
OSHA and EPA<br /><ul><li>NEPA act of 1969 was the first laws into protecting the environment.
Clean Air act of 1970 regulates air omissions example: exhaust emissions of smoke from aircraft engines
Resource conservation and recovery act was a major importance to the aviation industry, it gave EPA authority to control hazardous waste (cradle to grave).
The Noise Control Act of 72 required EPA to submit noise control regulations to the FAA.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration Act (OSHA) was ensure safe and healthy working conditions.
Comprehensive standards were provided as a baseline for safety and health protection.
1983 Hazard Communication Standard was passed to require training and labeling f toxic materials when employees and employers them, and required MSDS.</li></li></ul><li>Responsibilities of safety managers within airlines and defend expense of this position.<br />Safety managers primary focus in an organizations is safety, it is important that they report to the highest authorities in a corporation.<br />Two reasons for that is to set safety as a high priority and gives them direct access to senior management in each department. This allows them to solve many safety issues across the company which assures correct action is done.<br />Adequate resources and availability keeps the company well equipped with a safety manager responsible for saving the company money by reducing safety accidents.<br />Safety Managers<br />