NCV 3 Project Management Hands-On Support Slide Show - Module 8

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This slide show complements the learner guide NCV 3 Project Management Hands-On Training by Bert Eksteen published by Future Managers Pty Ltd. For more information visit our website www.futuremanagers.net

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NCV 3 Project Management Hands-On Support Slide Show - Module 8

  1. 1. Project Management 3 Project Management 3 Future Managers
  2. 2. Module 8: Projects are team initiatives Project Management 3 Future Managers
  3. 3. Module 8: Projects are team initiatives <ul><li>After completing this module, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate an understanding of working as a member of a team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborate with other team members to improve performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in building relations between team members and other stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect personal, ethical, religious and cultural differences to enhance interaction between team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a variety of strategies to deal with potential conflict in a project team </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  4. 4. 1. Working as a member of a team <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify criteria and behaviours conducive to working as a member of a team on a small project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain and describe team interfaces and roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate application of behaviours conducive to working as a member of a team, within the identified team interfaces and roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify disruptive behaviours, related to the team interfaces and roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss and explain the consequences of disruptive behaviour in a team </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  5. 5. 1. Working as a member of a team <ul><li>What is a project team member? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A project team may be defined as a number of people who work closely together to achieve shared common goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective teamwork is generally at the heart of effective project management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is team development? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both enhancing the ability of stakeholders to contribute as individuals as well as enhancing the ability of the team to function as a team </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  6. 6. 1. Working as a member of a team <ul><li>Team member selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the employees desire to be part of a team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the employees schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider other factors such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work ethic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  7. 7. Activity 1: Selecting a project team <ul><li>In your groups, make a list of the team members that you will select for your project team – remember that you are looking for key persons who will fulfill an important role in the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Select your own key team members. </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  8. 8. 1. Working as a member of a team <ul><li>Why use teams? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve on-time delivery of results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve customer relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate innovation in product and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential for management and employee development and career growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce informal networks in organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve employee’s understanding of the business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce costs and improve efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase employee ownership, commitment, and motivation </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  9. 9. 1. Working as a member of a team <ul><li>What is the purpose of a project team? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To achieve the schedule the volume of work must be distributed (shared) amongst a number of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scope of the project may require a range of skills, which any one person is unlikely to have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming and discussions are a good example of interactive team- work to generate creative ideas and solve problems </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  10. 10. 1. Working as a member of a team <ul><li>Advantages of a project team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once a project team has made a collective decision, the team will be committed to support their course of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project teams generally take riskier decisions than an individual would. There is a feeling of mutual support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project teams enhance motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project teams support other team members when they need help both technically and emotionally  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management tests show that teams repeatedly make better decisions than the team members would make individually with the same information </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  11. 11. 1. Working as a member of a team <ul><li>The individual’s purpose as a team member </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a means of satisfying an individual’s social or affiliation needs, to belong to something or be part of a team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a means of sharing risk with other team members – spread the load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a means of establishing self-esteem – people like to introduce themselves. In this way they are defining themselves in terms of their relationship to others, as members of a team or company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a means of gaining support for carrying out a particular goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The team provides a psychological home for the individual </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  12. 12. 1. Working as a member of a team <ul><li>Team size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many people are required to perform the work for the project and to spread the work load? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What variety of technical expertise is required by the project? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the appropriate level of conflict in a team? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large teams tend to be unwieldy and are unable to reach agreement or collect everyone’s contribution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the team is too large it may find communication and agreement difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The team needs a balance of personalities. </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  13. 13. 1.2 Team interfaces and roles <ul><li>Each team member performs a role </li></ul><ul><li>Each role carries an expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfilling different roles can result in conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal roles conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra-role conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-role conflict </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  14. 14. 1.3 Disruptive behaviour and how it influences the team <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different personalities in the team </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting individuals who are not goal orientated </li></ul><ul><li>Team members who stay away from work </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  15. 15. Activity 2 – Disruptive behaviours in teams <ul><li>Except for what has been mentioned, discuss in your groups whether there are any other factors or behaviours which could have a disruptive influence on the project team </li></ul><ul><li>What will happen in a team where there are regular disruptive influences? </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  16. 16. 2. Collaborate with other team members <ul><li>After completing this outcome you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define team dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of improving team dynamics through the use of consultation and joint decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the influences constructive, non-disruptive behaviours have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify methods and techniques for building team coherence and spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe and explain features to improve performance of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify kinds of conflict that could arise in a project team; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate strategies to deal with issues in a team; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate strategies for creating a positive working environment for a project team </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  17. 17. 2.1 Project team dynamics <ul><li>The four stages that project teams go through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea-generation and selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  18. 18. 2.2 Importance of consultation and joint decision-making contribution to project success <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive listening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use positive guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use as much details as appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer feedback </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  19. 19. 2.2 Importance of consultation and joint decision-making contribution to project success <ul><li>Decision-making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  20. 20. 2.3 Variables that can influence or disrupt team behaviour <ul><li>Goals and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Authority structures </li></ul><ul><li>Policies, procedures, rules and guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Team selection process </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational culture </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  21. 21. 2.4 Methods and techniques for building team coherence and spirit <ul><li>How can we increase team spirit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower your team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team motivation </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  22. 22. 2.4 Methods and techniques for building team coherence and spirit <ul><li>Team motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow’s hierarchy of needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McGregor’s theory x and theory y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other methods of motivation </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  23. 23. Maslow’s hierarchy Project Management 3 Future Managers
  24. 24. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Project Management 3 Future Managers
  25. 25. Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation <ul><li>Three levels of sentiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two main factors influencing the level of sentiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivators </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  26. 26. 2.4 Methods and techniques for building team coherence and spirit <ul><li>How can we increase team spirit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower your team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative culture </li></ul></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  27. 27. Activity 3 – Team building and motivation of team <ul><li>Divide in your groups and make practical suggestions on how you build team spirit – you can also think of exercises that you would want the team to participate in. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of ways to motivate your team </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  28. 28. 2.5 Project team focus Project Management 3 Future Managers
  29. 29. 2.6 Conflict resolution Project Management 3 Future Managers
  30. 30. Activity 4 – Conflict within teams <ul><li>Make a list of possible reasons or factors which may create, or lead to conflict within the team </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  31. 31. 2.7 Strategies to deal with issues in a team <ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Empathise </li></ul><ul><li>Reiterate common goals </li></ul><ul><li>Use positive language </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage involvement </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  32. 32. 2.8 Characteristics of successful teams <ul><li>The team has a clear vision and goal (project) </li></ul><ul><li>The team consists of a diverse number of individuals who, due to their unique characteristics, make unique contributions to the team’s success </li></ul><ul><li>Members will disagree, but are willing to consider all ideas with an open mind </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relationships are relaxed, with ample open communication and mutual support </li></ul><ul><li>Team members identify strongly with the team, and feel proud of the way the team functions as well as its achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Team members evaluate their own development and performance and seek opportunities for continuous learning. </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  33. 33. 3. Participate in building relations between team members and other stakeholders <ul><li>After completing this outcome you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Identify project stakeholders and their needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss and explain how team work can address the needs of the stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss and explain the importance of building relations between team members and stakeholders and the importance of honouring commitments to stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the building of relations between team members and stakeholders and implement documentation of such instances according to procedures used </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  34. 34. 3.1 Project stakeholders and their needs <ul><li>The project leader </li></ul><ul><li>The project team members </li></ul><ul><li>The parent organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  35. 35. 3.2 The importance of building relations between team members and stakeholders <ul><li>Team building </li></ul><ul><li>Team development phases </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  36. 36. Team development phases Project Management 3 Future Managers
  37. 37. 3.2 The importance of building relations between team members and stakeholders <ul><li>Tools and techniques for team development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team building activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General management skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards and recognition systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special occasions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  38. 38. 3.2 The importance of building relations between team members and stakeholders <ul><li>Barriers to project team development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A project barrier develops if a team member’s priorities are different from the project goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict about what the project team member’s roles are can obstruct team efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear project goals can result in conflict and ambiguity and can lead to uncertainty about team member’s roles and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lack of clearly defined reporting structures can cause problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members might be reluctant to commit to the project goal when a project leader lacks credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor communication is a barrier that can lead to unclear objectives, poor project control, lack of coordination, and missed project objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because a project is considered temporary, training and other related activities are often not valued </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  39. 39. 4. Respect personal, ethical, religious and cultural differences to enhance interaction between team members <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss and explain the above issues relating to the team </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  40. 40. 4. Respect personal, ethical, religious and cultural differences to enhance interaction between team members <ul><li>Issues relating to teams include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respecting personal, ethical religious and cultural differences to enhance interaction between team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miscommunication between team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different cultures within teams </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  41. 41. 5. Strategies to deal with potential or actual conflict in a project <ul><li>After completing this outcome you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify situations that hamper efficiency in a project team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify support systems available to the project team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the application of the support system for a project </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  42. 42. 5.1 Pitfalls in project teams <ul><li>Lack of faith and trust </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement over standards </li></ul><ul><li>Stubbornness over scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to feedback </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  43. 43. 5.3 Addressing team members’ needs <ul><li>Belonging and personal identification </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of contributions and efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate working environment </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relationships </li></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  44. 44. 5.3 Addressing team members’ needs <ul><li>Benefits of addressing team member needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps avoid hidden agendas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides development opportunities for new capabilities in future projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds trust </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers
  45. 45. 5.3 Support systems available to the project team <ul><li>How can management support the project team? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open door policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the project team with information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share project expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate operating guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve problems </li></ul></ul>Project Management 3 Future Managers

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