NCV 3 Business Practice Hands-On Support Slide Show - Module 6


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This slide show complements the learner guide NCV 3 Business Practice Hands-On Training by Nickey Cilliers, published by Future Managers Pty Ltd. For more information visit our website

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NCV 3 Business Practice Hands-On Support Slide Show - Module 6

  1. 1. Business Practice 3
  2. 2. Module 6: Plan and present a basic research report
  3. 3. Module 6: Plan and present a basic research report <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plan a research project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collect and analyse data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prepare and present a brief report on findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate own performance as a researcher </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1. PLAN A SIMPLE RESEARCH PROJECT <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explain the reasons for doing research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify the essential elements (scope) of a research project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>list the different qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>select the most appropriate research methodology for the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discuss ways of planning a research report, and then plan a research project. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 1.1 Reasons for doing research <ul><li>Entrepreneurs require different kinds of information in order to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the various business environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anticipate any changes within the environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forecast the impact and direction that any change might have. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make changes to their business plans as a result of these changes in the business environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specifically, marketing research can be used to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>investigate whether customers will buy a new product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>investigate why existing products are not selling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>investigate better methods of marketing existing products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>investigate the changes in customer needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimise the risks of a new competitor. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Activity 1 <ul><li>What kind of information do you think would be valuable for the success of your college/business? Ask the following questions in the group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What made each one of you decide to study at this college? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you find out about the college? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Definition of marketing research <ul><li>Marketing research helps an entrepreneur to identify opportunities and identify and solve marketing-related problems. </li></ul><ul><li>This definition of marketing suggests that marketing research involves the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the marketing problem/opportunity - what you would like to find out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify where you will find the information and how are you going to get the information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect the information and see what it is telling you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a decision, what are you going to do with this information? Do you need to introduce new products, open your business in a different place or find a new business idea? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Activity 2 <ul><li>Let us now focus on a specific research project at your college or workplace. The owner of the cafeteria or tuck shop has approached you to do research on the type of food that the students/employees would prefer. We will use this project to illustrate the marketing research process. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1.2 Elements of the research project <ul><li>The research process helps managers by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specifying the information needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designing methods for obtaining the information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying the type of research to be done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the time span for finishing the research process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collecting and processing the information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analysing the results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distributing the results to those concerned. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 1.3.1 Ways of collecting data <ul><li>Primary data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government publications and statistics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries and resource centres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technikon and university research papers and various theses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media statistics e.g. AMPS (All Media and Products Survey). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional and business associations such as the Chamber of Commerce. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 1.3.2 Qualitative methodologies <ul><li>Projection techniques </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Personal observation </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer panels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of certain products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer buying patterns </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Activity 3 <ul><li>Interview your fellow students. Choose any interesting topic. Make sure that you ask questions that will probe the feelings of the respondent and ask further questions based on the answers of the students. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1.3.3 Quantitative methodologies <ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio or people metre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic counter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye camera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Test marketing </li></ul>
  14. 14. Activity 4 <ul><li>What kind of data (primary or secondary) and what type of research technique would you use for the cafeteria research project? </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1.4.1 Types of questions to ask <ul><li>Opening questions </li></ul><ul><li>Closed questions </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1.4.2 Format of a questionnaire <ul><li>Section A requires personal information of the person you are interviewing. You need this information to determine the profile of the person (target market) who will buy your product or use your service. </li></ul><ul><li>Section B deals with all the questions related to the product or service. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the type of information needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the method to obtain the information (telephone, post, personal interview). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the content and phrasing of the individual questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide on the types of questions to use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide on the sequence of the questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide on the outlay and reproduction of the questionnaire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-test the questionnaire. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Activity 5 <ul><li>Study the MTN questionnaire below and then answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of this survey (questionnaire)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the Section A questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are they asking your cellphone number? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which questions are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opening questions, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>open-ended questions, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closed questions? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are they offering 12 cellphones as prizes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify any other questions that you think MTN should have asked in this questionnaire. Explain why you think this question(s) is important. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Activity 6 <ul><li>Design a short questionnaire for the cafeteria research project. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check that your questionnaire will help you get all the information you need. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have a Section A and B? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you include closed and open-ended questions? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now go and interview a representative group (sample) of students/employees. </li></ul>
  19. 20. 1.5 Planning the research project <ul><li>A researcher must follow specific steps when planning a research project. These steps are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the question or problem you want to investigate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate an opinion, assumption or hypothesis (initial explanation or answer). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide on the kind of information you will need in order to investigate the issue properly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and choose your sources of information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect your data and information from these sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse, interpret and evaluate your information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report your findings. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. 1.6 Describe and map workflow <ul><li>Let us use the example of a college that would like to introduce a new practical course in hospitality studies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the problem you want to investigate – the viability of a new practical hospitality course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate the opinion – The new course will be more relevant and will attract more students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of information you would need – information from the students/staff/employers in the hospitality industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify your sources of information – students/staff/employers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect your data from these sources – use questionnaire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse, interpret and evaluate your information – Is there a clear indication that students/staff/employers prefer the new course or not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report your findings – What are your conclusions? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Activity 7 <ul><li>Develop the workflow for the cafeteria project according to the above-mentioned format. </li></ul>
  22. 23. 2. EVALUATE AND ANALYSE DATA <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpret and analyse data. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. 2.1 Data preparation <ul><li>Before data is analysed it has to go through a data preparation process. This process involves editing, coding and tabulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Editing of data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking the questionnaire for completeness (Are all the questions answered?). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legibility of written answers (Can you read the answers?). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy of the answers (Did you write down what you heard?). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningfulness (Do the answers make sense?). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency of the answers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformity (Using the same units of measurement). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. 2.1 Data preparation <ul><li>Coding of data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a process whereby data is categorised and identified by assigning a code to it. For example: If you ask the marital status of the respondent, the answers can be coded as follows: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Married 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divorced 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widowed 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never married 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The verbal responses are therefore translated into codes for computer processing. These codes may be letters or numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tabulation of data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the raw data has been analysed, it is ready for tabulation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tabulation is counting the number of answers in each category. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be done by means of a computer or manually, depending on the volume of data. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Activity 8 <ul><li>Students must edit, code and tabulate the data that they have collected with the questionnaire. </li></ul>
  26. 27. 2.7 Data analysis <ul><li>After you have prepared the data, it can now be analysed and interpreted. In this process, you determine what the data actually means. </li></ul><ul><li>The results of each question is interpreted and discussed so that you can get a clear understanding of its impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once you have interpreted all the data, start thinking about its impact. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Activity 9 <ul><li>Analyse and interpret the data from the cafeteria project and write down your findings. </li></ul>
  28. 29. 3. PREPARE AND PRESENT A BRIEF REPORT ON FINDINGS <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a brief research report. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present a research report. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. 3.1 Preparation of research report <ul><li>Three major functions are served by the research report: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It organises data and findings systematically and serves as a record of the research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The same research findings can, in future, still have an influence on management decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The quality of the report impacts on the quality of the research. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually a hardcopy of the report is presented along with an oral presentation. </li></ul>
  30. 31. 3.1.1 Elements of a research report <ul><li>It must be easy to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>It must be clear, understandable and direct. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences must be short, but flowing. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual presentation (graphs, tables) are important. </li></ul><ul><li>It must be short and concise. </li></ul><ul><li>It must stress practical action. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid technical language/jargon. </li></ul><ul><li>The layout must be neat and interesting to keep the reader’s attention. </li></ul>
  31. 32. 3.1.2 Information in the research report <ul><li>The name of the researchers. </li></ul><ul><li>The objectives of the research (what you tried to find out). </li></ul><ul><li>The resarci technique (eg. questionnaire). </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘size’ of the questionnaire (the number of questions used). </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the sample and population (50 out of 500 students were interviewed). </li></ul><ul><li>The period of interviews (date, time, duration). 145 Plan and present a basic research report </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that may affect the research results (eg. some questionnaires were stolen). </li></ul><ul><li>Copy of the questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation of the reliability of the findings (eg. the answers were re-checked with the respondents before finalising the questionnaire). </li></ul><ul><li>Ways in which data was analysed (editing and coding process). </li></ul>
  32. 33. 3.1.3 Structure of the report <ul><li>Title page (title and main theme of report). </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents (list of main sections of report with page numbers). </li></ul><ul><li>List of tables and figures. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal (research objectives and research plan). </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction (subject, purpose and plan of research). </li></ul><ul><li>Method followed (interview technique, description of questions). </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation and findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations (based on research findings – what action must be taken). </li></ul>
  33. 34. Activity 10 <ul><li>Write a brief report on the cafeteria research. Use the structure as indicated above. </li></ul>
  34. 35. 3.2 Present the research report <ul><li>Once the research report has been written, you usually have to do an oral presentation of the research project and findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual aids where necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>The presenters must also ensure that the venue is suitable for the presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also important to pay attention to your presentation skills. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make your introduction interesting. You must attract the attention of the audience and make them ready to receive your message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the word “we” to include your audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions that will get the audience thinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat important words or phrases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use humour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use visual aids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your conclusion should be a summary of the main points of your presentation and should reinforce what you have already said. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Activity 11 <ul><li>Students must do an oral presentation of their research report. </li></ul>
  36. 37. 4. EVALUATE OWN PERFORMANCE <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify characteristics of a good researcher. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate own performance as a researcher. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. 4.1 Characteristics of a good researcher <ul><li>You will need to be comfortable in approaching people to obtain your data. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning skills </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughness </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>People skills </li></ul><ul><li>Listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Report writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Good presentation skills </li></ul>
  38. 39. 4.2 Evaluate your own performance <ul><li>Was my planning done well enough? </li></ul><ul><li>Did I remain objective? </li></ul><ul><li>How well did I interact with the people I interviewed? </li></ul><ul><li>Did I compile a good report? </li></ul><ul><li>Did my presentation capture the important aspects of the research project? </li></ul>
  39. 40. Activity 12 <ul><li>Students are divided into groups of two. Each group must identify a specific research project, plan the project, collect and analyse the data, prepare and present a brief report on their findings and evaluate their own performance. </li></ul>