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Early Childhood Development Module 2


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This slide show accompanies the learner guide NCV 2 Early Childhood Development Hands-On Training by Melanie Vermaak, published by Future Managers Pty Ltd. For more information visit our website

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Early Childhood Development Module 2

  1. 1. Early Childhood Development
  2. 2. Module 2: Learning in the early years
  3. 3. Module 2: Learning in the early years <ul><li>After completing this outcome you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss how children develop learning in the early years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss how play stimulates learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss how technology stimulates early learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss how perceptual abilities influences early learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss how learning styles stimulate early learning </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. SECTION 1: DISCUSS HOW CHILDREN DEVELOP AND LEARN IN THE EARLY YEARS <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect on personal experiences in the early years and explain how learning is developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss how the development of the brain impacts on learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how the senses and feedback from movement develops early learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of communication without words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the role of walking, talking and pretending in developing early learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the importance of people in early stimulation, including peers, older children and adults </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>A child who is stimulated will develop and learn </li></ul><ul><li>Babies need caring and supportive adults, a secure environment and lots of love </li></ul><ul><li>Early influences on a baby will have a lasting effect through life </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>How can experiences that a child have influence his learning - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babies allowed to play on the floor, encouraged to reach for toys and are rolled over by their caretaker will have an advantage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectually? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babies that are exposed to language and developmental games will benefit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction <ul><li>How can experiences that a child have influence his learning - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotionally? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babies that have positive interactions will develop a strong sense of self </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babies that form good relationships early on will be able to form good relationships later on in life </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Activity 1 <ul><li>Think about your pre-school days. What things do you remember most about being between 4 and 6 years of age? Who are the people who influenced you? Think about your primary school days. What experiences or who are the people who influenced your learning in your primary school days? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever remembered something from long ago when you saw a certain book, heard a certain sound or smelt a certain smell? Why do you think that these sensory experiences “take you back”? </li></ul><ul><li>Write a journal entry about some of these questions. Think of some reasons why certain experiences stick in your mind for many years after the experience. Why do you think this happens? You will not have to hand in this journal entry. A suggestion is that you find a partner in your class to discuss some of these thoughts. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Brain wiring <ul><li>The input a child has in early life plays a vital role in brain development </li></ul><ul><li>This impacts in both positive and negative ways </li></ul>Neurons in the brain
  10. 10. Critical and sensitive periods of development 25 days 30 days 40 days
  11. 11. Critical and sensitive periods of development 50 days 100 days
  12. 12. Critical and sensitive periods of development Five months Six months
  13. 13. Critical and sensitive periods of development Seven months Eight months
  14. 14. Critical and sensitive periods of development Nine months
  15. 15. Antenatal development of the brain <ul><li>The majority of the growth of the brain occurs between 6 months of pregnancy and 21 months after birth </li></ul>
  16. 16. A baby can use its sensory organs from a very early stage during pregnancy <ul><li>At 21 days after conception the ears start to develop </li></ul><ul><li>The first touch receptors appear on the skin by 10 weeks but the final neural connections for touch only fully develop by the 3 rd trimester </li></ul><ul><li>At 7 months into the pregnancy the eyes have developed and the nerve connections to the brain are complete </li></ul><ul><li>By the middle of the 2 nd trimester, the neural receptors of smell are developed </li></ul><ul><li>At 3 months into the pregnancy (end of 1 st trimester) the baby is swallowing amniotic fluid and taste buds start to develop </li></ul>
  17. 17. How the senses and feedback from movement develop early learning <ul><li>Sight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colourful books, naming objects and pointing to them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A baby will understand a great deal before he speaks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taste and smell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A child may have to taste up to 15 times before it will accept a new flavour. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to teach the concepts of hot and cold to protect the child from injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music is important in the development of intellectual skills </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Non-verbal communication
  19. 19. Activity 2: Class debate <ul><li>Refer to the article on page 44 on Baby Sign Language </li></ul><ul><li>Read the article and then have a class discussion. Your facilitator will divide the class into two groups. One group will have a positive opinion of the article and the other group will have a negative opinion of the article </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that there is value in teaching hearing babies to sign? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss your point of view as a debate with your class </li></ul><ul><li>Your facilitator will guide you on how the debate will be marked </li></ul>
  20. 20. The role of walking, talking and pretending in developing early learning <ul><li>What is the role and importance of each of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretending? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. How to get a toddler talking <ul><li>Chat away. To get a child to talk to you, you have to talk </li></ul><ul><li>READ, READ, READ </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal sensation: Children are drawn to music and songs. Sing songs, clap hands and play musical instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple: Speak clearly and slowly using simple words and short sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Label things: Put labels on everyday objects </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the toddler: How you respond to the child and how you answer the questions that the toddler will ask will play a role in the development of language </li></ul>
  22. 22. The importance of early stimulation including peers, older children and adults <ul><li>What is the importance of each of the following? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 2. DISCUSS HOW PLAY STIMULATES LEARNING <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define play in the context of the early years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name, describe and give examples of categories of children’s play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the social stages of play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide examples of types of play in relation to the domains of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the principles involved in making and selection play products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the use of play products and play props </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe a child at play and complete a checklist on the types of play behaviour and discuss how play stimulates early learning </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Different forms of play Block play Sand and water play Fantasy play
  25. 25. Categories of children’s play Mediated play Cooperative Play Guided play Free play
  26. 26. Categories of children’s play Parallel play Solitary play
  27. 27. Social stages of play
  28. 28. Social stages of play
  29. 29. Examples of play in relation to the domains of development <ul><li>Babies (0-1 years old) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The baby is exploring his or her world and must be given the opportunity to interact with different objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toys for babies must be safe and have no small parts that can be swallowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babies love toys that make a noise and that respond to their touch with sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rattles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity centres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toys that make noises and have different textures </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Examples of play in relation to the domains of development <ul><li>Toddlers (1-2 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The toddler is exploring their world and will start to respond more to toys and want to interact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The toddler is starting to express himself verbally and language development is very important at this stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age appropriate books and reading to your toddler is an important part of language development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the child is walking now, physical activity will also be important to develop the large muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, chunky blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large floor mats with various activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball games and physical activity </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Examples of play in relation to the domains of development <ul><li>Toddlers (2-3 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The toddler is gaining new skills daily and should have acquired language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the age where the most development takes place and children need to be exposed to toys that will stimulate their brains and allow them to explore and acquire new skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The toddler would have mastered walking and running at this stage and will need activities to develop physically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching and sorting games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art activities like playdough, finger painting or drawing on chalk boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fantasy play and pretend games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climbing, jumping and swinging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empty boxes </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Examples of play in relation to the domains of development <ul><li>Preschoolers (3-5 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the preschooler gets ready for big school there are a number of games and play activities that he can engage in to develop the skills needed for his schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The games and play activities that they will enjoy most now will involve group activities as their social skills are developing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They will enjoy playing with a group of children and the child will learn about taking turns and sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple board games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puzzles, matching, sorting and classification games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art activities using scissors, glue and paint. Ideas for art activities could include collage, box construction, making simple jewelry and of course painting and drawing </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Activity 3: Identify appropriate toys or play activities that will develop children <ul><li>Look at the template below. You are required to fill in the template choosing a toy or play activity for each area of development. You must briefly describe the toy or activity and also indicate why you choose this toy or activity. It is important that you indicate which age group you intend the toy to be for. Make sure that the toy is age appropriate. This activity will be marked according to a rubric. Your facilitator will provide you with a copy of this template </li></ul>
  34. 35. Name and briefly explain the toy / play activity that will assist in physical development Why did you choose this toy / play activities Age group aimed at Name and briefly explain the toy / play that will assist in intellectual or cognitive development Why did you choose this toy / play activity? Age group aimed at Name and briefly explain the toy / play activity will assist in emotional development Why did you chose this toy /play activity? Age group aimed at Name and briefly explain the toy /play activity that will assist in social development Why did you chose this toy /play activity? Age group aimed at
  35. 36. Principles involved in making and selecting play products <ul><li>Toy must be appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Toy should be safe and durable </li></ul><ul><li>Toy should have multiple uses </li></ul><ul><li>Toy must be appealing </li></ul><ul><li>Toy must develop necessary skills </li></ul>
  36. 38. Activity 4 <ul><li>Read the advertisement on page 55. Make a detailed list of the skills that this particular toy will develop. Sort the skills that you list into the various areas of development. A template has been provided to assist you in this activity. Your facilitator will provide you with a copy of this template. </li></ul>
  37. 39. Activity 4 Area of development Answers: Skills that this toy will encourage
  38. 40. Play groups <ul><li>Cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Finger painting </li></ul><ul><li>Paper dolls and puppets </li></ul><ul><li>Dress up </li></ul><ul><li>Bug hunt </li></ul><ul><li>Create a kiddy’s garden </li></ul><ul><li>Take a walk </li></ul>
  39. 41. Activity 5: Observe a child at play <ul><li>Look at the template below. You are required to observe a child at play. Your observation can take place at home or in an ECD setting. You must answer all of the questions below and provide as much detail as possible. When you are asked to motivate an answer, this means that you must explain why you have given that particular answer. This activity will be marked according to a rubric. Your facilitator will provide you with a copy of this template. </li></ul>
  40. 43. 3. DISCUSS HOW TECHNOLOGY STIMULATES EARLY LEARNING <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss how technology stimulates early learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide examples of how children in the different categories of early childhood use technology to learn </li></ul></ul>
  41. 44. Examples of technology that can stimulate learning <ul><li>Computer </li></ul><ul><li>DVD player with TV </li></ul><ul><li>Tape recorders/CD player </li></ul><ul><li>Data projector </li></ul>
  42. 45. Factors that need to be taken into account <ul><li>Is it developmentally appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the activity benefit the child? </li></ul>
  43. 46. Technology stimulates learning by introducing the child to important skills <ul><li>Hand eye coordination and fine motor skills when using a computer keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory discrimination skills when using an electronic keyboard or another toy that uses sound matching </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual and cognitive development when using various digital toys or computer games </li></ul><ul><li>Development of language skills when listening to songs on a tape recorder, CD player, DVD or television programme </li></ul><ul><li>Fantasy play as the child will have their imaginations stimulated by DVD’s, CD’s, television programmes or computer games </li></ul>
  44. 47. How children in different categories of early childhood use technology to learn <ul><li>0-2 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children shouldn’t be exposed to technology. Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2-3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be exposed to music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age appropriate videos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3-4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4-6 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology shouldn’t replace other learning devices </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Potential problems associated with children and technology <ul><li>Flashing images and moving graphics on computer or television screens make it harder for children to pay attention to a task </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic games should not be a substitute for physical activities and hobbies </li></ul><ul><li>Children need furniture and equipment that is correctly sized and suited to them. Sitting at a computer on an adult size chair is not recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Adults should always be involved in the use of the Internet and children should be educated on Internet safety </li></ul><ul><li>Children under 2 years of age should not be exposed to TV but rather spend time interacting and playing with adults, other children and age appropriate toys </li></ul><ul><li>Limit children’s exposure to TV and rather buy or rent educational DVD’s </li></ul>
  46. 49. Activity 6: Technology and early learning <ul><li>You will be divided into groups to complete this activity. In your group you need to select one technological item. Your group needs to prepare an oral presentation to explain the advantages and disadvantages of the use of this technological item in an early learning setting. You must support your oral with the use of pictures or a poster. </li></ul><ul><li>This activity will be marked collectively using a rubric. Your facilitator will guide you with regards to the criteria that your presentation must adhere to. </li></ul>
  47. 50. Activity 7: Case study <ul><li>Read the case study below and answer the questions that follow: </li></ul><ul><li>Ethan is a four year old boy. He is slightly overweight and does not enjoy participating in group activities. Ethan spends at least 2 hours a day watching TV. He also plays computer games for at least another 2 hours a day. His parents are concerned about the amount of exposure Ethan has to technology and his lack of physical activity  </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that Ethan’s weight problems are linked to his use of technology? Motivate your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>What advice would you offer to the parents regarding the amount of time screen time that Ethan is exposed to? Ensure that you answer as fully as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>What other activities can you suggest for Ethan to develop his physical skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What effect does Ethan’s use of technology have on his social skills? </li></ul>
  48. 51. 4. DISCUSS HOW PERCEPTUAL ABILITIES INFLUENCE EARLY LEARNING <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and explain categories of perception relevant to children in the early years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide examples of how children in the different categories of early childhood use perceptual abilities to learn </li></ul></ul>
  49. 52. Definition of perception <ul><li>Perception can be defined at the integrating (combining) of the information received from our senses. It is how we understand something when we have experienced it </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual development is the ability of the brain to register and interpret information received through the senses. We will refer to different kinds of perception under each of the main areas of perception </li></ul>
  50. 53. Main areas of perception <ul><li>Tactile perception – information that we get by touching something </li></ul><ul><li>Visual perception – information that we get by seeing something </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory perception – information that we get by hearing something </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory perception – information that we get by smelling something </li></ul><ul><li>Gustatory perception – information that we get by tasting something </li></ul>
  51. 54. Tactile perceptual skills <ul><li>What is stregnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the ability of a child to recognize an object using the sense of touch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tactile perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the child’s ability to interpret information sent via touch to the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some children don’t like to get their hands dirty and are reluctant to touch certain textures. Tactile activities must be promoted </li></ul></ul>
  52. 55. Visual perceptual skills <ul><li>Colour concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Shape concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Visual closure </li></ul><ul><li>Visual conceptualising </li></ul><ul><li>Visual memory </li></ul><ul><li>Visual sequence </li></ul>
  53. 56. Auditory perceptual skills <ul><li>Auditory closure </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory localisation </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory conceptualising </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory memory </li></ul>
  54. 57. Examples of how children in the different categories of early childhood use perceptual abilities to learn
  55. 58. Stregnosis <ul><li>2 - 3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place any two items into a pillow case, for example a spoon and a tennis ball. Ask the child to take out the spoon by only feeling in the pillow case. Once the child progresses, add more items to the pillow case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 – 4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The example above can be adapted for older children by increasing the number of items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 – 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blindfold a child and walk the child around the garden. Let him touch items in the garden and try to identify the items. Ensure that you include a number of different textures in your adventure walk </li></ul></ul>
  56. 60. Tactile perception <ul><li>2 – 3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place some different textured items on a table. Blindfold the child, or if he feels uncomfortable with a blindfold, let him close his eyes. Let him touch the shapes and tell you if they are smooth, rough, fluffy, cold etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  3 – 4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let children gather a number of different items from the kitchen. Ensure that each child gets a number of different items with different textures. Ask the children to identify the texture of the items that they have found </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  4 – 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use this same activity above for 3 – 4 year olds. Allow yourself to be blindfolded and then you need to try and identify the objects by referring to the texture of the item </li></ul></ul>
  57. 61. Colour concepts <ul><li>0 – 2 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have special colour days. Select a colour for the day and place a piece of paper of the same colour in an accessible place. Ask children to dress in that colour for the day, ask them to bring something to you that is that colour and try to find foods that are that colour. A great tip is to add food colouring to oats porridge and have red, green or blue porridge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  3 – 4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let the children cover a piece of paper with circles that overlap. Allow them to colour the overlaps in different colours. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 – 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start introducing the child to how to mix different colours using the primary colours. Question the child as to what colours mixed together will give the desired effect </li></ul></ul>
  58. 62. Shape concepts <ul><li>2 – 3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place three red rectangles of paper and one red triangle of paper on the table. Ask the children to identify the one that “does not fit”. Ask them to pick up that shape and identify the shape. Repeat the exercise using different shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  3 – 4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place a sequence of shapes on a table. Provide the same shapes and a threading lace. Ask the child to copy the sequence and to thread the right shapes and colours in the same order on the threading lace. This will help to develop a sense of shapes and of colours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 – 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The child is now able to build three dimensional objects and could for example make a small boat using a box, straw, string and paper. Give the child the opportunity to plan and construct the item themselves. Use the completed item as a means to question them about shapes </li></ul></ul>
  59. 64. Visual closure <ul><li>2 – 3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a few shapes and put them in a line on a table. Cover the bottom half of the shape with a piece of paper and ask the child to identify the shapes. Repeat the activity by covering the top half of the shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 – 4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow the child to build shapes using blocks by copying a shape that is represented on a flash card. Try to ensure that the blocks illustrated on the flash card are of the same shape and colour of the blocks provided to complete the shape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 – 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let the child take part in a “Game Show”. Let the child place a stencil under a piece of paper and scribble on the top of the paper. The child must try to identify the shapes or pictures that appear as fast as they can. Give the child a time limit to identify a certain number of pictures </li></ul></ul>
  60. 66. Visual conceptualising <ul><li>2 – 3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a small box and some buttons. Ask the child to put the buttons in the box, next to the box, on top of the box, under the box etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  3 – 4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a sequence of pictures that when arranged in order will depict a story. Ask the child to arrange the pictures into a sequence and tell you what happens in the story </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 – 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place a number of items on a tray and cover the tray with a cloth. Put your hand under the cloth and describe the item to the child and let them guess what the item is </li></ul></ul>
  61. 68. Visual memory <ul><li>2 – 3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place two shapes on the table. Discuss these two shapes. Ask the child to close their eyes and then remove one shape. Ask the child to open their eyes and tell you which shape is missing. Repeat the exercise using different shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 – 4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a shape and ask the child to look at the shape. Don’t use the name of the shape. This will ensure that the child will remember what he has seen and not what he has heard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 – 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place different shapes on a table. Allow the child to look at the shapes. Ask them to look away and replace one of the shapes with another shape. The child needs to identify which shape has changed. As the child progresses, replace more than one shape at a time </li></ul></ul>
  62. 70. Auditory closure <ul><li>2 – 3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the child questions that he will know the answer to. For example, “What is your name?” Repeat the question using a softer voice each time. After a while he will answer even if he can’t hear all of the words. Repeat the exercise by starting in a soft voice and becoming gradually louder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3– 4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point to pictures in a book or photo dictionary. Whisper the instructions to the child so that they need to concentrate on the instructions that they hear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  4 – 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play whispering games by whispering a question in the child’s ear and let him answer you. Ask more questions speaking softer each time so that he has to fill in the missing words </li></ul></ul>
  63. 72. Auditory discrimination <ul><li>2 – 3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate three different sounds to the child. For example a bell, tapping on a cup with a pencil and a whistle. Once the child is familiar with these sounds set up a screen. Ask the child to identify the sounds from behind the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 – 4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play a tune on a simple musical instrument or sing a simple song to a child. Change the volume of the sound by playing/singing loudly and sometimes softly. The child must tell you when you are playing/singing loudly and when you are playing/singing softly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 – 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Say two words after each other and let the child identify if the same word was repeated or if there were two different words. For example: snake and ache; blue and true </li></ul></ul>
  64. 74. Auditory conceptualising <ul><li>2 – 3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sing a song to the child, first in a high tone and then in a low tone. Indicate to the child “I am now going to sing high” or “Now I am going to sing low”. Ask the child to sing high and to then sing low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 – 4 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make some homemade musical instruments. This can be a group exercise. Let the group of children learn that different materials have different sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 – 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the child some rhyming riddles like: “Think of something that rhymes with cold or Grandpa walks slowly because he is …..” </li></ul></ul>
  65. 76. Some examples of household musical instruments <ul><li>Some examples of musical instruments that can be made with household items: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A matchbox with matches for shaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any container filled with dried beans, buttons, dry rice or pasta as a shaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic buckets with spoons to use as drums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool drink tins to bang together </li></ul></ul>
  66. 77. Auditory memory <ul><li>2 – 3 years: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place a pile of five items about five steps away from the child. Ask them to fetch a specific item. Gradually add more items to the pile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  3 – 4 years: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit a local library and take out a book of children’s rhymes that contain rhymes consisting of four syllable sentences. Recite one or two of the rhymes and ask the child to recite the rhyme with you. Eventually start to leave out the rhyming words and allow the child to fill in the words. As the child progresses, they will learn to recite the entire rhyme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  4 – 5 years: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Say four words or numbers after on another. Ask the child to repeat the words or numbers. You can also use a short sentence that the child could repeat </li></ul></ul>
  67. 78. Activity 9 <ul><li>Using the information given in this module about perceptual ability, develop a game in your group to develop a particular perceptual ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will need to plan the game in your group, complete a written plan and demonstrate the game to the rest of the class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember to include the following in your planning discussion: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What perceptual ability will the game develop? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which age group is this game aimed at? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A brief description of the game </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Your facilitator will provide you with a template to complete your written planning. This activity will be marked according to a presentation rubric that will be provided by your facilitator </li></ul>
  68. 79. 5. DISCUSS HOW LEARNING STYLES STIMULATE EARLY LEARNING <ul><li>After completing this outcome, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define learning styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and explain the different learning styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the types of learning stimulated by different learning styles in the various stages of early childhood </li></ul></ul>
  69. 80. 5.1 Definition of learning styles <ul><li>What is a learning style? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A learning style is the way in which a person prefers to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a person learns according to their learning style, the person will learn faster and have a better learning experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often learning styles do overlap and people may learn best using a variety of learning styles </li></ul></ul>
  70. 81. 5.2 Different learning styles <ul><li>Visual learners </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory learners </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic learners </li></ul>
  71. 82. 5.2.1 Visual learners <ul><li>Take many detailed notes </li></ul><ul><li>Usually very neat workers </li></ul><ul><li>Often close their eyes to visualize or remember information </li></ul><ul><li>Find something to watch if they are bored </li></ul><ul><li>Like to see what they are learning about </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit from pictures and the use of colour </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted to language with lots of imagery </li></ul>
  72. 83. Auditory learners <ul><li>Sit where they can hear but may not pay attention to what is happening in front of the class </li></ul><ul><li>May not coordinate colours or clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Hum or talk to themselves when bored </li></ul><ul><li>Learn facts by reading aloud </li></ul>
  73. 84. Kinesthetic learners <ul><li>Need to be active and take lots of breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Use their hands (gestures) when talking </li></ul><ul><li>Find reasons to move around when bored </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on what they can see, do or experience </li></ul><ul><li>Activities like cooking, construction and art help them to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy outings and practical activities </li></ul><ul><li>Often sit near the door where they can easily get up and move around </li></ul><ul><li>Need hands-on experience </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate by touching </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate physical encouragement, for example a pat on the back </li></ul>
  74. 85. Activity 10: Mind map <ul><li>You will be divided into groups. In your groups you need to choose one learning style and make a mind map to explain the learning style as well as referring to the characteristics of the type of learner that learns best using that particular learning style. Your group will have to present and explain your mind map to the rest of the class. You will be marked on your group participation, oral presentation and the mind map. Your facilitator will guide you regarding the criteria that your activity must comply to </li></ul>
  75. 86. 5.3 The different types of learning stimulated by learning styles in the various stages of early childhood <ul><li>Visual learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very young children absorb all of the sights around them during the first years of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The very young child will imitate the adult and copy their facial expressions and body movements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditory learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children will learn songs and rhymes by listening to them being repeated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young children will imitate the sounds that they hear each day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As children become more mobile and are able to walk and move around, their learning will take on a whole new dimension </li></ul></ul>
  76. 87. Activity 11 <ul><li>Read the case study below and follow the instructions that follow: </li></ul><ul><li>Bongi is a five year old boy. He enjoys story time and has a good vocabulary and engages in active conversations with his friends and his teacher. When confronted with sounds or words only with no visual support (eg. no pictures), he finds it difficult to recall what a story was about </li></ul><ul><li>Write a brief report to his parents with suggestions to help Bongi. Refer to the kind of learning style that suits Bongi best as well as suggestions as to where he lacks development perceptually. Provide practical examples of how Bongi’s perceptual abilities can be developed </li></ul>
  77. 88. Summative assessment <ul><li>Write a report: </li></ul><ul><li>Choose any of the learning styles explained in this module and write a report using the following headings as a guide when writing your report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A description of the learning style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A description of the kinds of characteristics of the learners who learn best using this learning style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical suggestions for the learner to develop their learning ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinds of perceptual problems that this learner may experience with practical solutions on how to overcome these perceptual problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your report will be marked using a rubric that will be supplied by your facilitator </li></ul>