Future Cities Conference´13 / Alessandra Parisio - "Smart Cities: Some Activities at the KTH ACCESS Center"
Smart Cities: Some Activities at the KTH ACCESS Center Alessandra Parisio ACCESS Linnaeus Center Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden2013 Conference, 23rd January, Porto, Portugal
Outline• Motivation for smartness in cities• Stockholm Royal Seaport Project• Virtual Micro-Grid Laboratory• Energy efficient building climate control• Conclusion
Motivation• Urban living and working must be sustainable• Energy consumption and carbon emissions need to be reduced to improve environmental sustainability and quality of life in cities• Cities need to be smart (e.g. smart buildings)• Need of smart low-cost ICT solutions
Smart Buildings in Europe • 40% energy used in buildings • 76% of this energy goes towards comfort control in buildings – heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)• Large and attractive opportunities exist to reduce buildings’ energy use at lower costs and higher returns than in other sectors• Using more grid electricity from non-fossil sources (such as solar and wind) will help to address climate changeInternational Energy Agency, Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes – Energy EfficiencyPolicies for New Buildings, 2008.
•F From a brown field area to a sustainable city district 5 Stockholm Royal Seaport - Now
From a brown field area to a sustainable city district 6 Stockholm Royal Seaport - Future
Stockholm Royal Seaport Project• Cities responsible for 2/3 of CO2 emissions Regional GNP• Demand for local energy generation, Population energy efficiency, robust power supply, market models, regulations,… CO2 equivalent• Goal: CO2 emissions below 1.5 tons per person by 2020 (today 4.5); fossil fuel-free by 2030
Virtual Micro-Grid Laboratory Smart HouseMicro-Grid Home Automation System ZigBee ZigBee Smart Appliances ZigBee Residential Gateway LTE 4G
The Active House in the Royal Seaport• Smart home appliances and Mobile servicescontrollable loads Billing meter• ICT system connects Good night button Visualizationthe active house to powerdistribution company andenergy market Controllable outlet Smart dryer EC• Energy management system Switch to reach the high set climate Smart washing machine goals! Home/away button Smart dish washer Control unit Energy meters
Energy Efficient Building ControlStandards:Keep room temperature incomfort range with a givenprobabilityGoal:Minimize energy usekeeping the same level ofserviceMethod:Stochastic Model Predictive Control(SMPC) using weather and occupancy forecasts• F. Oldewurtel, A. Parisio, C.N. Jones , D. Gyalistras, M- Gweder, V. Stauch, B. Lehmann and M. Morari, "Use of Model Predictive Control and Weather Predictions for Energy Efficient Building Climate Control", Energy and Building (Elsevier)• F. Oldewurtel, A. Ulbig, A. Parisio, G. Andersson and M. Morari, Reducing peak electricity demand in building climate control using real-time pricing and Model Predictive Control, CDC 2010, 49th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control.
Stochastic Optimization Problem energy costs temperatures weatheruncertainties energy sourcesforecasts building dynamics input constraints output constraints : comfort probability level: prediction horizon
Simulation EvaluationInvestigated control strategies:• PB: ideal controller• CE: industry standard predictive controller• SMPC: uncertainty incorporated in the controller Energy use [KWh/m2] Amount of violations in thermal comfort [Kh] The proposed SMPC strategy outperforms the industry controllers
Conclusion• Smart cities projects in Stockholm, e.g. Stockholm Royal Seaport• Need of integrating ICT with advanced control to achieve climate goals in smart citie• Accounting for uncertainty necessary to increase control performance in smart buildings THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Email: email@example.com Web: http://www.access.kth.se/