Car Antennas

Luis Brás, Nuno Carvalho,
Pedro Pinho

Instituto de Telecomunicações - Aveiro, Portugal
bras@ua.pt
© 2005, i...
Outline

•
•
•
•
•

Introduction

Car antennas
Transparent Conductors
Transparent Antennas

Conclusions

2
Services of today

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

GSM/UMTS

Elect. Toll Collec. (ETC)
Satelitte Radio
DVB-S

Tire Pressure... (TPMS)
Remot...
Frequency Spectrum
L1/L2-GPS
1227/1575 MHz
GSM
824 - 960 MHz
TV
470 – 880 MHz
RKE/TPMS
315 – 433 MHz
FM-Radio
78 – 108 MHz...
Car Antenna requirements

• System requirements (RP, BW, polarization)
• Vehicular requirements

•
•
•
•
•
•

Aesthetics
M...
Outline

•
•
•
•
•

Introduction

Car antennas
Transparent Conductors
Transparent Antennas

Conclusions

6
Car Antennas (1)
7

AM/FM (helical antenna)

1
3

2
5

4

6
8

7

GPS/cellular design
(Patch/IFA/Slot Antenna)
Car Antennas (2)
7

Satellite TV Antenna

1
3

2
5

4

6
8

8

(Phased Array)
Car Antennas (3)
7

AM/FM

1
3

2
5

4

6
8

DAB

Traffic Msg. Control (TMC)
(Mendered Microstrip)

9
Car Antennas (4)
7

ETC (BendMonopole/IFA)

1
3

2
5

4

6
8

10

Cellular (Dual Band Microstrip)

GPS (CP Patch)
Car Antennas (5)
7

AM/FM

1
3

2
5

4

6
8

DAB

TV
GPS
(Mendered Microstrip)

11
Car Antennas (6)
7

Automotive Radar Antenna

1
3

2
5

4

6
8

12

(Microstrip Antenna Array)
Car Antennas (7)
7
1
3

2
5

4

6
8

13

Tire Pressure Monitoring
Systems (TPMS)
(Microstrip mendered)
Car Antennas (8)
7

Remote Start engine (RSE)
1
3

2
5

4

6
8

14

Remote Keyless entry (RKE)
(loop, bend & mendered
Mono...
Implemented Antenna for DSRC
Omnidirectional Microstrip Array

0o

0 dB

-30o

30o

Measured
Simulated

-10

-60o

60o

-2...
We defined new requirements
•

Higher Gain

•
•

Beam Control
Reduced Impact
to the driver view

Directive transparent Ant...
Outline

•
•
•
•
•

Introduction

Car antennas
Transparent Conductors
Transparent Antennas

Conclusions

17
Transparent Conductors
Transparent
Conductor

Characteristic

Indium Tin
Oxide (ITO)

Most commonly used, durable, chemica...
Transparent Conductors (common application)

Advantages
Low production cost
High resistance to dust and water
Best used wi...
Outline

•
•
•
•
•

Introduction

Car antennas
Transparent Conductors
Transparent Antennas

Conclusions

20
Transparent Antennas
Conductive films can be used for antennas, however with poor
radio frequency performance...

ALTERNAT...
Grid Antennas (1)
Reference Antenna

Space between metal strips
(100 um, 200 um, 300 um)
22
Grid Antennas (2)
Reference Antenna

Space between metal strips
(100 um, 200 um, 300 um)
23
Conclusions

• Transparent antennas can be a solution for car antennas
• ITO based antennas can be a solution, however wit...
Thanks for your attention…
25
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2014 Future Cities Conference / Luis Brás "Car Antennas"

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2014 Future Cities Conference / Luis Brás "Car Antennas"

  1. 1. Car Antennas Luis Brás, Nuno Carvalho, Pedro Pinho Instituto de Telecomunicações - Aveiro, Portugal bras@ua.pt © 2005, it - instituto de telecomunicações. Todos os direitos reservados.
  2. 2. Outline • • • • • Introduction Car antennas Transparent Conductors Transparent Antennas Conclusions 2
  3. 3. Services of today • • • • • • • GSM/UMTS Elect. Toll Collec. (ETC) Satelitte Radio DVB-S Tire Pressure... (TPMS) Remote Key Entry (RKE) ... 3
  4. 4. Frequency Spectrum L1/L2-GPS 1227/1575 MHz GSM 824 - 960 MHz TV 470 – 880 MHz RKE/TPMS 315 – 433 MHz FM-Radio 78 – 108 MHz GSM 1710 - 1990 MHz WiFi/Bluetooth 2400 - 2500 MHz ETC 5800 MHz V2V V2I 5900 MHz Satellite TV 12200 - 12700 MHz Radar Collision Detection System 22000 – 26000 MHz 76000 – 77000 MHz AM-Radio 0.5 – 1.7 MHz Frequency (MHz) 4
  5. 5. Car Antenna requirements • System requirements (RP, BW, polarization) • Vehicular requirements • • • • • • Aesthetics Manufacturability Weather resistance Weight/Cost Vandalism Damage resistance (car wash, tree branches,...) 5
  6. 6. Outline • • • • • Introduction Car antennas Transparent Conductors Transparent Antennas Conclusions 6
  7. 7. Car Antennas (1) 7 AM/FM (helical antenna) 1 3 2 5 4 6 8 7 GPS/cellular design (Patch/IFA/Slot Antenna)
  8. 8. Car Antennas (2) 7 Satellite TV Antenna 1 3 2 5 4 6 8 8 (Phased Array)
  9. 9. Car Antennas (3) 7 AM/FM 1 3 2 5 4 6 8 DAB Traffic Msg. Control (TMC) (Mendered Microstrip) 9
  10. 10. Car Antennas (4) 7 ETC (BendMonopole/IFA) 1 3 2 5 4 6 8 10 Cellular (Dual Band Microstrip) GPS (CP Patch)
  11. 11. Car Antennas (5) 7 AM/FM 1 3 2 5 4 6 8 DAB TV GPS (Mendered Microstrip) 11
  12. 12. Car Antennas (6) 7 Automotive Radar Antenna 1 3 2 5 4 6 8 12 (Microstrip Antenna Array)
  13. 13. Car Antennas (7) 7 1 3 2 5 4 6 8 13 Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) (Microstrip mendered)
  14. 14. Car Antennas (8) 7 Remote Start engine (RSE) 1 3 2 5 4 6 8 14 Remote Keyless entry (RKE) (loop, bend & mendered Monopole)
  15. 15. Implemented Antenna for DSRC Omnidirectional Microstrip Array 0o 0 dB -30o 30o Measured Simulated -10 -60o 60o -20 -30 -90o 90o -30 -20 -120o 120o -10 -150 o 0 dB 180 15 o 150o
  16. 16. We defined new requirements • Higher Gain • • Beam Control Reduced Impact to the driver view Directive transparent Antennas Beamforming network System integration 16 Array Beamforming Networks Transparent Antenna
  17. 17. Outline • • • • • Introduction Car antennas Transparent Conductors Transparent Antennas Conclusions 17
  18. 18. Transparent Conductors Transparent Conductor Characteristic Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Most commonly used, durable, chemical resistance to moisture, can be precisely etched Indium Zinc Oxide (IZO) Is used quite often in the LCD’s, easily etchable, but not as durable as ITO Zinc Oxide with Aluminum (AZO) Lower cost and relatively good optical transmission, lower chemical resistance to moisture Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) Difficult to etch fine patterns has made its use primarily for plasma displays 18
  19. 19. Transparent Conductors (common application) Advantages Low production cost High resistance to dust and water Best used with a finger, gloved or stylus Best suited for handwriting recognition Advantages Looks brighter and sharper Highly touch sensitivity Supports multi-touch Disadvantages Disadvantages Not too sensitive Poor contrast Does not support multi-touch Not working with simple gloves More expensive Glass is more prone to breaking 19
  20. 20. Outline • • • • • Introduction Car antennas Transparent Conductors Transparent Antennas Conclusions 20
  21. 21. Transparent Antennas Conductive films can be used for antennas, however with poor radio frequency performance... ALTERNATIVE? Grid antennas... 21
  22. 22. Grid Antennas (1) Reference Antenna Space between metal strips (100 um, 200 um, 300 um) 22
  23. 23. Grid Antennas (2) Reference Antenna Space between metal strips (100 um, 200 um, 300 um) 23
  24. 24. Conclusions • Transparent antennas can be a solution for car antennas • ITO based antennas can be a solution, however with poor RF performance • Grid antennas are a valid alternative • Transparency is inversely proportional to antenna efficiency 24
  25. 25. Thanks for your attention… 25

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