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What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments,
and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable)
investment i...
Three inter-related priorities for CAADP
1. Increase investments which adhere to the AU guiding
principles on large scale ...
Global & regional governance frameworks
• African Union Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy
in Africa (2009)
• FAO Vol...
Global & regional governance frameworks
• African Union Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy
in Africa (2009)
• FAO Vol...
Two major LPI conferences
Multi-Stakeholder Conference on Agricultural Investment, Gender and Land, 5-7 March 2014
Questions
• What do gender-equitable agricultural business models and
partnerships look like? Which measures need to be pu...
Problem statement
• Of the top 20 countries most affected by large-scale land acquisitions,
11 are in Africa, in particula...
Perspectives from policy makers
• Gender means men and women – their existence and the way the
world is organised. Most me...
Primary agricultural investments
& impacts on women and men
1. There is no blueprint that can be promoted.
2. Whether or n...
Wage labour on plantations and estates
• Different forms of labour and different types of crop have
different implications...
Outgrower schemes & contract farming
• Outgrower schemes and contract farming do not necessarily benefit
small producers a...
The business model matters
• Different models of agricultural commercialisation – plantation,
contract farming and commerc...
Land tenure
• The reason for dispossession in context of LSLBI is the failure to
recognise customary rights; strengthening...
Innovative approaches to smallholder
commercialisation
• Private companies and NGOs can provide effective intermediation
b...
Public-private partnerships
• Experiences with PPPs are more positive than agricultural commercialisation
through private ...
Gender assessment of CAADP
• CAADP is a useful framework as it pushes coordination among
ministries and also among donors....
Implications & questions for CAADP
• The private sector only invests where there are prospects for profits,
so states have...
What should governments do?
(according to government representatives)
• African governments have leverage to negotiate des...
Young people and LSLBI
• Extremely little is known about the impacts of LSLBI on
young people and on generational relation...
See blogs at www.plaas.org.za/blog and www.future-
agricultures.org/blog
www.africalandconference.org
www.plaas.org.za/event/AIGLIA2014
contains all papers, presentations, blogs, photos, videos
Full report is available at
ht...
What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment i...
What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment i...
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What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 1 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 2 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 3 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 4 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 5 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 6 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 7 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 8 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 9 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 10 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 11 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 12 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 13 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 14 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 15 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 16 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 17 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 18 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 19 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 20 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 21 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 22 What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Slide 23
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What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture?

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Ruth Hall
Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies

Presentation to the 11th CAADP Partnership Platform Meeting
Side event on Improving Land Governance for Inclusive and Sustainable Agricultural Transformation
Convened by the AU/AfDB/UNECA Land Policy Initiative
Johannesburg
24 March 2015

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What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture?

  1. 1. What have we learnt about large-scale land-based investments, and gender-equitable (and generation-equitable) investment in African agriculture? Ruth Hall Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies Presentation to the 11th CAADP Partnership Platform Meeting Side event on Improving Land Governance for Inclusive and Sustainable Agricultural Transformation Convened by the AU/AfDB/UNECA Land Policy Initiative Birchwood Conference Centre, Johannesburg 24 March 2015
  2. 2. Three inter-related priorities for CAADP 1. Increase investments which adhere to the AU guiding principles on large scale land based investments (LSLBI), ensuring financial and economic viability and taking into account the welfare of local communities, smallholder producers, and the environment 2. Enhance women’s secure access to and control over land to promote access to credit and investments in agriculture, in order to increase agricultural productivity and food security 3. Enhance access to land, credit, agricultural inputs and technology by youth to increase youth involvement and employment in agriculture
  3. 3. Global & regional governance frameworks • African Union Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy in Africa (2009) • FAO Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (2012) • African Union Guiding Principles on Large-Scale Land- Based Investment in Africa (2014) • FAO Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and the Food System (2014)
  4. 4. Global & regional governance frameworks • African Union Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy in Africa (2009) • FAO Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (2012) • African Union Guiding Principles on Large-Scale Land- Based Investment in Africa (2014) • FAO Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and the Food System (2014)
  5. 5. Two major LPI conferences Multi-Stakeholder Conference on Agricultural Investment, Gender and Land, 5-7 March 2014
  6. 6. Questions • What do gender-equitable agricultural business models and partnerships look like? Which measures need to be put in place so that rural women and men alike can benefit? • What kind of enabling environment is needed to promote inclusive, gender-equitable and responsible agricultural investments? • What kind of inclusive business models and contractual arrangements take into account and value gender-differentiated roles in the supply chain, and ensure that women participate and benefit? • What good practices and promising approaches exist that can be replicated, scaled up and adapted to different contexts? • What challenges and obstacles need to be overcome to promote inclusive and gender-equitable agricultural investments? • How can we coordinate the many initiatives around agricultural investments, gender and land so that we pull in the same direction?
  7. 7. Problem statement • Of the top 20 countries most affected by large-scale land acquisitions, 11 are in Africa, in particular East Africa. • Food production for global and domestic markets is the main driver of land acquisition along with other factors – demand for biofuels and speculative interest in rising land values. • Local communities can face dispossession and displacement, reduced access to natural resources and inadequate compensation. • With high transaction costs and local opposition, land-based investments do not seem to offer the best business model, even from the perspective of investors. • Very little production is taking place currently; on recent land-based investments only 1.7% of the land acquired is being used. • Where production has got underway, there is a high failure rate of LSLBI; in Mozambique, for example, the failure rate stands at 63% of projects. - sources: FAO 2013, Land Matrix 2013
  8. 8. Perspectives from policy makers • Gender means men and women – their existence and the way the world is organised. Most men in Africa who are here went to school because their mothers were farmers. Those women have maintained this continent.” – Honourable Gertrude Mongella, PAP • The AU recognises the potential of land-related investments, but also their propensity to exacerbate existing gender inequalities if women are not central to the process and design. – Dr Abebe Haile Gabriel, AUC • The FAO promotes investment in agriculture, which is not necessarily the same as investment in land. Investments in land involve risks and disadvantages that often outweigh the benefits. We prefer inclusive business models that do not involve land acquisition. – Pascal Liu, FAO • The biggest private investors in African agriculture are women smallholders, so both public and private investment should target them.
  9. 9. Primary agricultural investments & impacts on women and men 1. There is no blueprint that can be promoted. 2. Whether or not benefits in fact accrue to women depends on how the investments are designed – and gender-neutral approaches tend to reinforce pre-existing gender inequalities. 3. Women tend to benefit little from contract farming, with women having less access than men to out-growing, value-adding and marketing opportunities. 4. Owning or having control of the land is a main requirement for participating. Women’s limited and insecure land rights hinder their economic opportunities. 5. Commercial agriculture projects have proven to contribute to job creation for women, especially in primary production and processing – but these are concentrated in gender-sterotyped, low-paying and insecure roles, often as casual labour. 6. States and investors both need to adopt explicit gender policies and take proactive measures to ensure that women participate in and benefit from the opportunities created. 7. Preconditions for better outcomes are (a) women’s equal tenure rights, (b) equal access to and control over productive resources and services.
  10. 10. Wage labour on plantations and estates • Different forms of labour and different types of crop have different implications for women and men. • Often jobs created through commercial agricultural projects are low paying and gender stereotyped, confining women to poor quality, insecure and casual labour. • Real benefits from wage employment accrue to women mainly when they can retain their land, rather than when they lose it as a result of acquisition by a private company. • Nevertheless, wage work provides women with a clear opportunity to improve their living standards, including improved participation in intra-household decision-making. • Best practices that have been observed are where companies provide flexible working conditions that enable women and men to combine their own farming with wage employment on commercial estates (not least in view of the attrition rate of commercial investment projects).
  11. 11. Outgrower schemes & contract farming • Outgrower schemes and contract farming do not necessarily benefit small producers and, when they do, women and men usually do not equally participate in and benefit from them. • Women tend to be under-represented in outgrower schemes as they have weaker property rights and less access to land compared to men. • Male capture of crops traditionally grown by women can occur as a result of commercial investments. • When women are not outgrowers in their own right, they can experience an increase in their workloads and not share the benefits from the investment. • Multiple deductions – for overheads, management and association fees – mean that farmers, especially the poor ones, barely make any profit. • When women with independent access to land participate in outgrower schemes on their own account they can experience economic empowerment and improved decision-making at the household level. • Contract farming schemes can benefit women if they are able to participate in and influence contract negotiation, sign the contract in their own name, and if the terms are designed to their advantage.
  12. 12. The business model matters • Different models of agricultural commercialisation – plantation, contract farming and commercial farming – as well as the type of crop and the existing gender division of labour in agriculture lead to differentiated impacts on women and men. • Business models need to be adapted to local contexts within a policy, legal, and institutional environment that guides investment priorities conducive to creates decent job and market opportunities for women and men. • Different institutions - household, community and private investors – shape the investment process, thereby leading to differentiated gender outcomes. • Investors must adopt explicit gender policies and take proactive measures (i.e. extend healthcare and maternity leave benefits to women employees, provide child-care services, promote women to management positions, etc.) to ensure that company practices help to overcome rather than reinforce pre-existing gender inequalities.
  13. 13. Land tenure • The reason for dispossession in context of LSLBI is the failure to recognise customary rights; strengthening them starts with statutory recognition. • Increased land scarcity as a result of land acquisition by private companies affects women disproportionally, as men tend to appropriate the land traditionally controlled by them. • Custom versus rights for women is a false dichotomy – AU and UN governance frameworks require that tensions with custom be resolved in support of women’s rights. • Private land titling does not promote gender equity. • Conversely, there is some evidence that supporting land rental markets, alongside production and value-chain participation, does indeed encourage women’s investments. • There have been some positive reports of community titling, as an alternative to individual titling – this should be further explored.
  14. 14. Innovative approaches to smallholder commercialisation • Private companies and NGOs can provide effective intermediation between women farmers and buyers by: – Connecting women farmers with markets by providing information and incentives to both farmers (sellers of produce) and wholesalers (buyers of produce) – Providing storage facilities to buy inputs in bulk and negotiating bulk discounts – Providing technical support to improve quality of produce – Providing only the types of micro-finance that do not involve high interest rates and short cycles – but are aligned with agricultural production cycles. – Working with governments to overcome transport and logistics costs and risks – Providing capital on preferential terms to incentivise the private sector to experiment with new suppliers, work with women producers and establish trust between parties – Strengthening women’s associations to enable collective action to bargain collectively with buyers on prices and services, as well as advocating to government for improved infrastructure and support.
  15. 15. Public-private partnerships • Experiences with PPPs are more positive than agricultural commercialisation through private investment, where governments do not have a direct stake. • PPPs can offer long-range initiatives and ‘patient’ capital that does not demand immediate returns on investments. • Positive outcomes have been observed in some cases in terms of access to markets, technology, capital, credit, information, increased incomes for farmers, investment in agriculture, local employment and tax revenue. • The best results occur when: – PPPs focus on both food and “cash” crops, and so avoid the displacement of household food production that often occurs during commercialisation – There is a range of service providers – government, the private sector and NGOs or development partners – Participants have personal bank accounts, enabling women to control income streams from their participation in the scheme. – There are quotas for women’s participation in the scheme as well as in training. – Governments negotiate favourable terms of exchange and working capital arrangements. – Participatory methods are implemented beforehand to map existing land rights and establish dispute resolution mechanisms. – They avoid financial instruments that can lead to dispossession, and opt instead for crop collateral or some form of in-kind repayment for loans.
  16. 16. Gender assessment of CAADP • CAADP is a useful framework as it pushes coordination among ministries and also among donors. • But the past ten years of the CAADP process has been largely gender blind. • In the next ten years, CAADP must reorient agricultural investment towards women and sustainable agriculture. • NAIPs have led to increased investment, but CAADP has not yet delivered to women smallholders. • NAIPs and CAADP compacts are consistent with the CAADP framework, but none of these prioritise women smallholders. • The biggest private investors in African agriculture are women smallholders, so public and private investment should target them. • The CAADP gender fund seems a positive development and more information and engagement on this is needed.
  17. 17. Implications & questions for CAADP • The private sector only invests where there are prospects for profits, so states have found they have to invest to create the conditions to attract investors through policy and public investments, eg. in agricultural growth corridors. – Can the CAADP process reflect on the roles of public and private sectors and the risk that scarce public resources are diverted away from African smallholders (who are mostly women)? • The authoritative report of the International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) found that small-scale farmers and agro-ecological methods are the way forward to solve the food crisis. – What can be done to ensure that the CAADP framework, compacts and NAIPs reflect this priority? • Governments hope to fill the major funding gaps in NAIPs from private investors and donors. – How will CAADP’s future focus on “wealth creation” and the pursuit of a 6% growth target be balanced with a need to improve equality and opportunities for women farmers in Africa?
  18. 18. What should governments do? (according to government representatives) • African governments have leverage to negotiate desirable investments, and should use this leverage to good effect. • Parliaments need to play a stronger oversight role on land rights and forms of agricultural investment, to give effect to the AU Guiding Principles. • Governments need to: – Frankly discuss the desirability of agricultural investments and especially LSLBIs based on their impacts to date; – Align national laws and policies with regional and global frameworks and protocols on women’s rights in relation to land, agriculture and investment; – Develop gender-responsive budgets; – Push inter-ministerial coordination and gender mainstreaming in all areas related to agricultural investment; – Collaborate with civil society and private intermediaries to provide services to farmers – Create practical interventions to empower women economically and secure their land rights; and – Empower citizens with knowledge about land rights, including in schools, to generate greater downward accountability of state institutions to citizens. • Government representatives conceded that there is a need to develop mutual trust and that governments need to create spaces for engagement with civil society organisations.
  19. 19. Young people and LSLBI • Extremely little is known about the impacts of LSLBI on young people and on generational relations. • Preliminary research findings focus on implications of ‘failure of intergenerational transfer’, employment opportunities, control of incomes from contract farming, for young people in context of LSLBI. • Core debates about the future of young people as farmers, in the value chain, or elsewhere in the rural economy. • Future Agricultures’ Young African Researchers in Agriculture Network launched at LPI conference in Nov 2015. • Agenda is to promote long-term research, producing robust panel data on agrarian change in Africa, and making available reliable and accurate information on trends of agricultural transformation trajectories in Africa over time.
  20. 20. See blogs at www.plaas.org.za/blog and www.future- agricultures.org/blog www.africalandconference.org
  21. 21. www.plaas.org.za/event/AIGLIA2014 contains all papers, presentations, blogs, photos, videos Full report is available at http://www.plaas.org.za/sites/default/files/publications- pdf/AIGLIA%20Report_Web.pdf and http://www.future-agricultures.org/aiglia2014-downloads/1935- conference-report-agricultural-investment-gender-and-land-in-africa- towards-inclusive-equitable-and-socially-responsible-investment
  • AdenikeOyalowo

    May. 17, 2017

Ruth Hall Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies Presentation to the 11th CAADP Partnership Platform Meeting Side event on Improving Land Governance for Inclusive and Sustainable Agricultural Transformation Convened by the AU/AfDB/UNECA Land Policy Initiative Johannesburg 24 March 2015

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